product labeling


Summary: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.

Top Publications

  1. Hamilton W, Norton G, Ouellette T, Rhodes W, Kling R, Connolly G. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6 Suppl 3:S353-62 pubmed
    ..Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. ..
  2. Hammond D, Fong G, McDonald P, Cameron R, Brown K. Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour. Tob Control. 2003;12:391-5 pubmed
    ..The findings add to the growing literature on health warnings and provide strong support for the effectiveness of Canada's tobacco labelling policy. ..
  3. Hammond D, Fong G, McDonald P, Brown K, Cameron R. Graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels and adverse outcomes: evidence from Canadian smokers. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1442-5 pubmed
    ..Policymakers should not be reluctant to introduce vivid or graphic warnings for fear of adverse outcomes. ..
  4. Borland R, Fong G, Yong H, Cummings K, Hammond D, King B, et al. What happened to smokers' beliefs about light cigarettes when "light/mild" brand descriptors were banned in the UK? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control. 2008;17:256-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to correct decades of consumer misperceptions about light cigarettes must extend beyond simply removing "light" and "mild" brand descriptors. ..
  5. Ashford P, Distler P, Gee A, Lankester A, Larsson S, Feller I, et al. Standards for the terminology and labeling of cellular therapy products. J Clin Apher. 2007;22:249-57 pubmed
  6. Hammond D, Wakefield M, Durkin S, Brennan E. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15:817-31 pubmed publisher
  7. Freeman B, Chapman S, Rimmer M. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products. Addiction. 2008;103:580-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs. ..
  8. Fathelrahman A, Omar M, Awang R, Borland R, Fong G, Hammond D, et al. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries. ..
  9. Borland R, Wilson N, Fong G, Hammond D, Cummings K, Yong H, et al. Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tob Control. 2009;18:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support arguments for governments to exceed minimum FCTC requirements on warnings. ..

More Information


  1. Germain D, Wakefield M, Durkin S. Adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brand image: does plain packaging make a difference?. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..By additionally increasing the size of pictorial health warnings, positive pack perceptions of those who are at greater risk of becoming regular addicted adult smokers are most likely to be reduced. ..
  2. Matza L, Patrick D, Riley A, Alexander J, Rajmil L, Pleil A, et al. Pediatric patient-reported outcome instruments for research to support medical product labeling: report of the ISPOR PRO good research practices for the assessment of children and adolescents task force. Value Health. 2013;16:461-79 pubmed publisher
    ..PRO research that is conducted to inform regulatory decision making and support claims made in medical product labeling. The recommendations are based on the consensus of an interdisciplinary group of researchers who were ..
  3. Boon H, Kachan N. Natural health product labels: is more information always better?. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;68:193-9 pubmed
    ..The additional risk information may generate more NHP-related questions for health care practitioners especially with respect to possible interactions between NHPs and conventional medicines. ..
  4. Ashford P, Distler P, Gee A, Lankester A, Larsson S, Feller I, et al. ISBT 128 implementation plan for cellular therapy products. J Clin Apher. 2007;22:258-64 pubmed
    ..This paper provides guidance on the practical aspects of adopting these new standards for organizations with differing current levels of computerization. It discusses project management, equipment, licensing, and validation topics. ..
  5. Miller C, Hill D, Quester P, Hiller J. Impact on the Australian Quitline of new graphic cigarette pack warnings including the Quitline number. Tob Control. 2009;18:235-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No change was observed in the proportion of first time callers. Introducing graphic cigarette packet warnings and the Quitline number on cigarette packets boosts demand for Quitline services, with likely flow on effects to cessation. ..
  6. Wade B, Merrill R, Lindsay G. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?. Eur J Public Health. 2011;21:366-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible. ..
  7. Fathelrahman A, Omar M, Awang R, Cummings K, Borland R, Bin Mohd Samin A. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:4089-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting. ..
  8. Moodie C, MacKintosh A, Hastings G, Ford A. Young adult smokers' perceptions of plain packaging: a pilot naturalistic study. Tob Control. 2011;20:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Employing an innovative research methodology, the findings of this study are consistent with, and indeed support, past plain packaging research. ..
  9. Gallopel Morvan K, Moodie C, Hammond D, Eker F, Beguinot E, Martinet Y. Consumer perceptions of cigarette pack design in France: a comparison of regular, limited edition and plain packaging. Tob Control. 2012;21:502-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PPs were perceived to be the packs most likely to promote cessation among those adults with quitting intentions. Plain packaging, therefore, may be a means of helping existing adult smokers motivated to quit to do so. ..
  10. Hammond D, Thrasher J, Reid J, Driezen P, Boudreau C, Santillán E. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention with potential to reduce tobacco-related inequities. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23 Suppl 1:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. ..
  11. Thrasher J, Carpenter M, Andrews J, Gray K, Alberg A, Navarro A, et al. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. ..
  12. Hoek J, Wong C, Gendall P, Louviere J, Cong K. Effects of dissuasive packaging on young adult smokers. Tob Control. 2011;20:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the introduction of plain packaging and suggest use of unbranded package space to feature larger health warnings would further promote cessation. ..
  13. Doxey J, Hammond D. Deadly in pink: the impact of cigarette packaging among young women. Tob Control. 2011;20:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Plain' packaging--removing colours and design elements--and removing descriptors such as 'slims' from packs may reduce brand appeal and thereby susceptibility to smoking among young women. ..
  14. Schneider S, Gadinger M, Fischer A. Does the effect go up in smoke? A randomized controlled trial of pictorial warnings on cigarette packaging. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;86:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the fact that perceived vulnerability, response and self-efficacy are not more strongly affected by pictorial warnings this effect may turn out to be short-term. ..
  15. Bansal Travers M, Hammond D, Smith P, Cummings K. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. ..
  16. Munoz M, Viedma Del Jesús M, Rosselló F, Sánchez Nácher N, Montoya P, Vila J. The emotional impact of European tobacco-warning images. Tob Control. 2013;22:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that the capability of the European tobacco-warning images to prompt negative attitudes to reduce tobacco consumption might not extend to the general population but would be limited to specific target groups. ..
  17. Patrick D, Burke L, Powers J, Scott J, Rock E, Dawisha S, et al. Patient-reported outcomes to support medical product labeling claims: FDA perspective. Value Health. 2007;10 Suppl 2:S125-37 pubmed
    ..developed and evaluated instruments may provide misleading conclusions or data that cannot be used to support product labeling claims...
  18. Ashford P, Distler P, Gee A, Lankester A, Larsson S, Feller I, et al. Terminology and labeling of cellular products: 1. Standards. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:1075-83 pubmed
    ..A companion paper provides guidance on the implementation of the ISBT 128 system. ..
  19. Ashford P, Distler P, Gee A, Lankester A, Larsson S, Feller I, et al. Terminology and labeling of cellular products-2: Implementation plan. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:1085-90 pubmed
    ..This paper provides guidance on the practical aspects of adopting these new standards for organizations with differing current levels of computerization. It discusses project management, equipment, licensing, and validation topics. ..
  20. Fong G, Hammond D, Jiang Y, Li Q, Quah A, Driezen P, et al. Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study. Tob Control. 2010;19 Suppl 2:i69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, coupled with population-based evaluation studies, suggest that pictorial warnings would significantly increase the impact of health warnings in China. ..
  21. Thrasher J, Arillo Santillán E, Villalobos V, Pérez Hernández R, Hammond D, Carter J, et al. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23 Suppl 1:69-80 pubmed publisher
  22. Hermans V, Monzote L, Van den Sande B, Mukadi P, Sopheak T, Gillet P, et al. Assessment of the knowledge of graphical symbols labelled on malaria rapid diagnostic tests in four international settings. Malar J. 2011;10:331 pubmed publisher
    ..9%). Comprehension of IVD symbols on RDTs among laboratory staff in four international settings was unsatisfactory. Administrative and outreach procedures should be undertaken to assure their acquaintance by end-users. ..
  23. Thrasher J, Villalobos V, Szklo A, Fong G, Perez C, Sebrie E, et al. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 2010;52 Suppl 2:S206-15 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. ..
  24. Thrasher J, Rousu M, Hammond D, Navarro A, Corrigan J. Estimating the impact of pictorial health warnings and "plain" cigarette packaging: evidence from experimental auctions among adult smokers in the United States. Health Policy. 2011;102:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that prominent health warnings with graphic pictures will reduce demand for cigarettes. Regulators should not only consider this type of warning label, but also plain packaging policies for tobacco products. ..
  25. Vansickel A, Shihadeh A, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery. Tob Control. 2012;21:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers. ..
  26. White V, Webster B, Wakefield M. Do graphic health warning labels have an impact on adolescents' smoking-related beliefs and behaviours?. Addiction. 2008;103:1562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the introduction of graphic warning labels may help to reduce smoking among adolescents. ..
  27. Nascimento B, Oliveira L, Vieira A, Joffily M, Gleiser S, Pereira M, et al. Avoidance of smoking: the impact of warning labels in Brazil. Tob Control. 2008;17:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Smoking cues, however, should be avoided. ..
  28. Hammond D. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review. Tob Control. 2011;20:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages. ..
  29. Borland R, Yong H, Wilson N, Fong G, Hammond D, Cummings K, et al. How reactions to cigarette packet health warnings influence quitting: findings from the ITC Four-Country survey. Addiction. 2009;104:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This work strengthens the evidence base for governments to go beyond the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to mandate health warnings on tobacco products that stimulate the highest possible levels of these reactions. ..
  30. Vardavas C, Connolly G, Karamanolis K, Kafatos A. Adolescents perceived effectiveness of the proposed European graphic tobacco warning labels. Eur J Public Health. 2009;19:212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The proposed EU graphic warning labels may play an important role in preventing of smoking initiation during the crucial years of early adolescence when smoking experimentation and early addiction usually take place. ..
  31. Qin Y, Wu M, Pan X, Xiang Q, Huang J, Gu Z, et al. Reactions of Chinese adults to warning labels on cigarette packages: a survey in Jiangsu Province. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:133 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the old and the new Chinese warning label are not effective in this target population. ..
  32. Miller C, Hill D, Quester P, Hiller J. Response of mass media, tobacco industry and smokers to the introduction of graphic cigarette pack warnings in Australia. Eur J Public Health. 2009;19:644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While media coverage of the new warnings reported the industry arguments against them, the balance of coverage was overwhelmingly positive. Smokers' initial reactions were in line with tobacco control objectives. ..
  33. Hara K, Mori M, Ishitake T, Kitajima H, Sakai K, Nakaaki K, et al. Results of recognition tests on Japanese subjects of the labels presently used in Japan and the UN-GHS labels. J Occup Health. 2007;49:260-7 pubmed
    ..Further, many subjects were unable to clearly distinguish 'skull and crossbones' from 'health hazard.' These results indicate that it is very important to impart correct education regarding these labels. ..
  34. Borland R, Yong H, King B, Cummings K, Fong G, Elton Marshall T, et al. Use of and beliefs about light cigarettes in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6 Suppl 3:S311-21 pubmed
  35. Arita M, Ohashi Y. Secret signatures inside genomic DNA. Biotechnol Prog. 2004;20:1605-7 pubmed
    ..The first such strain of Bacillus subtilis is engineered and is ready to be distributed. ..
  36. Miller C, Russell T. Knowledge of dietary supplement label information among female supplement users. Patient Educ Couns. 2004;52:291-6 pubmed
    ..Supplement users need additional education about supplement claims and testing for product safety and efficacy to make informed health care choices. ..
  37. Crawford M, Balch G, Mermelstein R. Responses to tobacco control policies among youth. Tob Control. 2002;11:14-9 pubmed
    ..Disclosing and publicising the chemical contents of cigarettes, and increasing prices quickly and sharply, are potentially effective areas for policy change to impact adolescent tobacco use. ..
  38. Koval J, Aubut J, Pederson L, O Hegarty M, Chan S. The potential effectiveness of warning labels on cigarette packages: the perceptions of young adult Canadians. Can J Public Health. 2005;96:353-6 pubmed
    ..Warning labels can offer an additional component to a comprehensive tobacco control program, in that they provide health information. ..
  39. O Hegarty M, Pederson L, Nelson D, Mowery P, Gable J, Wortley P. Reactions of young adult smokers to warning labels on cigarette packages. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30:467-73 pubmed
    ..Few differences were noted by gender. The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus-graphic warning labels are more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels. ..
  40. Hammond D, Fong G, McNeill A, Borland R, Cummings K. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels in informing smokers about the risks of smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control. 2006;15 Suppl 3:iii19-25 pubmed
    ..Smokers are not fully informed about the risks of smoking. Warnings that are graphic, larger, and more comprehensive in content are more effective in communicating the health risks of smoking. ..
  41. Thrasher J, Hammond D, Fong G, Arillo Santillán E. Smokers' reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada. Salud Publica Mex. 2007;49 Suppl 2:S233-40 pubmed
  42. Revicki D, Osoba D, Fairclough D, Barofsky I, Berzon R, Leidy N, et al. Recommendations on health-related quality of life research to support labeling and promotional claims in the United States. Qual Life Res. 2000;9:887-900 pubmed
  43. O Hegarty M, Pederson L, Yenokyan G, Nelson D, Wortley P. Young adults' perceptions of cigarette warning labels in the United States and Canada. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4:A27 pubmed
    ..Warning labels are one component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger U.S. public health educational effort. ..
  44. Wilson N, Peace J, Thomson G, Edwards R. The prevalence of misleading tobacco descriptors in the New Zealand tobacco market. N Z Med J. 2007;120:U2497 pubmed
  45. Thrasher J, Rousu M, Anaya Ocampo R, Reynales Shigematsu L, Arillo Santillán E, Hernandez Avila M. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method. Addict Behav. 2007;32:2916-25 pubmed
    ..The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. ..
  46. Strahan E, White K, Fong G, Fabrigar L, Zanna M, Cameron R. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective. Tob Control. 2002;11:183-90 pubmed
    ..The potential value of incorporating warning labels into a broader public health education campaign is discussed, and directions for future research are suggested. ..
  47. Portillo F, Antonanzas F. Information disclosure and smoking risk perceptions. Potential short-term impact on Spanish students of the new European Union directive on tobacco products. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:295-301 pubmed
  48. Reyna V, Adam M. Fuzzy-trace theory, risk communication, and product labeling in sexually transmitted diseases. Risk Anal. 2003;23:325-42 pubmed
    ..They should also provide support for information representation, effective retrieval, and accurate processing. ..
  49. Peters E, Romer D, Slovic P, Jamieson K, Wharfield L, Mertz C, et al. The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:473-81 pubmed
    ..A majority of both smokers and nonsmokers endorsed the use of Canadian labels in the United States. Canadian-style warnings should be adopted in the United States as part of the country's overall tobacco control strategy. ..
  50. Hammond D, Fong G, Borland R, Cummings K, McNeill A, Driezen P. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:202-9 pubmed
    ..Changes in health warnings are also associated with increased effectiveness. Health warnings on U.S. packages, which were last updated in 1984, were associated with the least effectiveness. ..
  51. O Connor R, Kozlowski L, Borland R, Hammond D, McNeill A. Relationship between constituent labelling and reporting of tar yields among smokers in four countries. J Public Health (Oxf). 2006;28:324-9 pubmed
    ..Pack labelling appears to be useful for conveying information about cigarettes to smokers; however, there is an urgent need to develop more meaningful information on toxic constituents of cigarette smoke. ..
  52. Banda S, Sichilongo K. Analysis of the level of comprehension of chemical hazard labels: a case for Zambia. Sci Total Environ. 2006;363:22-7 pubmed
    ..The survey revealed that effective chemical hazard symbols must not be too abstract to the client but should contain features that are known or easily comprehended. ..
  53. Willemsen M. The new EU cigarette health warnings benefit smokers who want to quit the habit: results from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15:389-92 pubmed
    ..3% said they smoked less. A strong dose-response relationship was observed between these effects and intention to quit. The new warnings made cigarette packs less attractive, especially to smokers who already intended to stop smoking. ..