welding

Summary

Summary: Joining metal pieces or parts together by melting the adjoining surfaces with heat, using a heat source such as a blowtorch or electric arc. The melted surfaces are then pressed together by hammering.

Top Publications

  1. Kim J, Chen J, Boyce P, Christiani D. Exposure to welding fumes is associated with acute systemic inflammatory responses. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:157-63 pubmed
    To investigate the acute systemic inflammatory response to welding fume exposure. Twenty four welders (42% smokers) and 13 non-exposed controls (23% smokers) were monitored at a welding school. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
  2. Antonini J, Roberts J, Schwegler Berry D, Mercer R. Comparative microscopic study of human and rat lungs after overexposure to welding fume. Ann Occup Hyg. 2013;57:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment...
  3. Lillienberg L, Zock J, Kromhout H, Plana E, Jarvis D, Toren K, et al. A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In a 9-year follow-up study (ECRHS II), the aim was to study if welding at work increases the risk of asthma symptoms, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms...
  4. Jafari A, Assari M. Respiratory effects from work-related exposure to welding fumes in Hamadan, Iran. Arch Environ Health. 2004;59:116-20 pubmed
    The authors studied respiratory symptoms and lung function among welders at welding workshops, and among nonwelders, in Hamadan, Iran. They used a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms...
  5. Simons J, Eibling D. Tympanic membrane perforation and retained metal slag after a welding injury. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:635-6 pubmed
  6. Sudha S, Kripa S, Shibily P, Joseph S, Balachandar V. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects among shielded manual metal arc welders. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:1041-4 pubmed
    Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) used in shielded metal arc welding is widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. The carcinogenic potential of metals is a major issue in defining human health risk from exposure...
  7. Matczak W, Przybylska Stanisławska M. [Determination of fumes and their elements from flux cored arc welding]. Med Pr. 2004;55:481-9 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to assay the concentration levels and composition of welding fumes, released during flux cored arc welding, to assess exposure of welders...
  8. Meeker J, Susi P, Flynn M. Manganese and welding fume exposure and control in construction. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:943-51 pubmed
    Overexposure to welding fume constituents, particularly manganese, is of concern in the construction industry due to the prevalence of welding and the scarcity of engineering controls...
  9. Rim K, Park K, Kim Y, Lee Y, Han J, Chung Y, et al. Gene-expression profiling of human mononuclear cells from welders using cDNA microarray. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:1264-77 pubmed
    A toxicogenomic chip developed to detect welding-related diseases was tested and validated for field trials...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Liu H, Wu Y, Chen H. Production of ozone and reactive oxygen species after welding. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;53:513-8 pubmed
    ..including heavy metals, ozone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are generated during welding. Ozone (O(3)) is a strong oxidant that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue, and ambient ROS ..
  2. Choi S, Chun K, Lee S, Rah S. A case of photic retinal injury associated with exposure to plasma arc welding. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2006;20:250-3 pubmed
    To report of photic retinopathy induced by plasma arc welding, and the OCT (optical coherence tomography) results of damaged retinal lesions.
  3. Ding X, Zhang Q, Wei H, Zhang Z. Cadmium-induced renal tubular dysfunction in a group of welders. Occup Med (Lond). 2011;61:277-9 pubmed publisher
    Occupational exposure to welding fumes has been associated with several diseases including metal fume fever, lung cancer, welder's pneumoconiosis and manganism...
  4. Zeidler Erdely P, Meighan T, Erdely A, Battelli L, Kashon M, Keane M, et al. Lung tumor promotion by chromium-containing welding particulate matter in a mouse model. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10:45 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiology suggests that occupational exposure to welding particulate matter (PM) may increase lung cancer risk. However, animal studies are lacking to conclusively link welding with an increased risk...
  5. Tiossi R, Falcão Filho H, Aguiar Júnior F, Rodrigues R, Mattos M, Ribeiro R. Modified section method for laser-welding of ill-fitting cp Ti and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast implant-supported frameworks. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:359-63 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to verify the effect of modified section method and laser-welding on the accuracy of fit of ill-fitting commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast frameworks...
  6. Han J, Chung Y, Park J, Kim C, Yang S, Khang H, et al. Recovery from welding-fume-exposure-induced MRI T1 signal intensities after cessation of welding-fume exposure in brains of cynomolgus monkeys. Inhal Toxicol. 2008;20:1075-83 pubmed
    ..of a high signal intensity in a T1-weighted MRI, is known as a useful biomarker for Mn exposure after short-term welding-fume exposure...
  7. Erdely A, Salmen Muniz R, Liston A, Hulderman T, Zeidler Erdely P, Antonini J, et al. Relationship between pulmonary and systemic markers of exposure to multiple types of welding particulate matter. Toxicology. 2011;287:153-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Welding results in a unique and complex occupational exposure. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of cardiovascular disease following welding fume exposure...
  8. Alfaro S, Franco F. Exploring infrared sensoring for real time welding defects monitoring in GTAW. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:5962-74 pubmed publisher
    This paper presents an evaluation of an infrared sensor for monitoring the welding pool temperature in a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. The purpose of the study is to develop a real time system control...
  9. Hassaballa H, Lateef O, Bell J, Kim E, Casey L. Metal fume fever presenting as aseptic meningitis with pericarditis, pleuritis and pneumonitis. Occup Med (Lond). 2005;55:638-41 pubmed
    ..Metal fume fever (MFF) is a well-known complication of zinc oxide fume inhalation. Prompt recognition of this condition is essential for the proper medical management of this self-limited disease...
  10. Maier R, Heilig P, Winker R, Neudorfer B, Hoeranter R, Ruediger H. Welder's maculopathy?. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005;78:681-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to verify or to disprove whether the term 'Welder's maculopathy' or 'Welding arc maculopathy' has to be considered being a justifiable occupational hazard and is to be annexed to the list of occupational ..
  11. McMillan G. Is electric arc welding linked to manganism or Parkinson's disease?. Toxicol Rev. 2005;24:237-57 pubmed
    ..b>Welding is the most common source of occupational exposure as manganese is an essential component of steel and so its ..
  12. Yuan H, He S, He M, Niu Q, Wang L, Wang S. A comprehensive study on neurobehavior, neurotransmitters and lymphocyte subsets alteration of Chinese manganese welding workers. Life Sci. 2006;78:1324-8 pubmed
    ..But few reports have been found on its immunotoxicity in manganese-exposed workers. Here we selected welding workers (aged 34 years) as Mn-exposed subjects. They have been exposed to manganese for 16 years...
  13. Park J, Kim K, Kim D, Choi S, Choi B, Chung Y, et al. Tissue distribution of manganese in iron-sufficient or iron-deficient rats after stainless steel welding-fume exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2007;19:563-72 pubmed
    Welders can be exposed to high levels of manganese through welding fumes...
  14. Sriram K, Lin G, Jefferson A, Roberts J, Chapman R, Chen B, et al. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to manganese-containing welding fumes. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:521-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological dysfunction following occupational exposure to aerosolized welding fumes (WF) is an area of emerging concern...
  15. Hovde C, Raynor P. Effects of voltage and wire feed speed on weld fume characteristics. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:903-12 pubmed
    b>Welding generates high concentrations of ultrafine particles, which research suggests may be more toxic than larger particles...
  16. Antonini J, Zeidler Erdely P, Young S, Roberts J, Erdely A. Systemic immune cell response in rats after pulmonary exposure to manganese-containing particles collected from welding aerosols. J Immunotoxicol. 2012;9:184-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Welding fume inhalation affects the immune system of exposed workers. Manganese (Mn) in welding fume may induce immunosuppressive effects...
  17. Flynn M, Susi P. Neurological risks associated with manganese exposure from welding operations--a literature review. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews studies on the association between exposure to such welding fumes and neurological disease...
  18. Lu L, Zhang L, Li G, Guo W, Liang W, Zheng W. Alteration of serum concentrations of manganese, iron, ferritin, and transferrin receptor following exposure to welding fumes among career welders. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:257-65 pubmed
    This study was performed to determine airborne manganese levels during welding practice and to establish the relationship between long-term, low-level exposure to manganese and altered serum concentrations of manganese, iron, and ..
  19. Liu Y, Woodin M, Smith T, Herrick R, Williams P, Hauser R, et al. Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2:435-43 pubmed
    ..boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals, and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures...
  20. Leonard S, Chen B, Stone S, Schwegler Berry D, Kenyon A, Frazer D, et al. Comparison of stainless and mild steel welding fumes in generation of reactive oxygen species. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:32 pubmed publisher
    b>Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can be deposited in all regions of the respiratory tract. The welding aerosol is not homogeneous and is generated mostly from the electrode/wire...
  21. t Mannetje A, Brennan P, Zaridze D, Szeszenia Dabrowska N, Rudnai P, Lissowska J, et al. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium...
  22. Heo J, Oh J, Lee K, Kim C, Song C, Yoon S, et al. Gene expression profiling in the lung tissue of cynomolgus monkeys in response to repeated exposure to welding fumes. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:191-203 pubmed publisher
    Many in the welding industry suffer from bronchitis, lung function changes, metal fume fever, and diseases related to respiratory damage...
  23. Hannu T, Piipari R, Kasurinen H, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Tuomi T. Occupational asthma due to manual metal-arc welding of special stainless steels. Eur Respir J. 2005;26:736-9 pubmed
    Occupational asthma (OA) can be induced by fumes of manual metal-arc welding on stainless steel. In recent years, the use of special stainless steels (SSS) with high chromium content has increased...
  24. Park R, Bowler R, Roels H. Exposure-response relationship and risk assessment for cognitive deficits in early welding-induced manganism. J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:1125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..More than one-third of workers would be impaired after working 2 years at 0.2 mg/m3 Mn (the current threshold limit value). ..
  25. Davies K, Asanga U, Nku C, Osim E. Effect of chronic exposure to welding light on Calabar welders. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2007;22:55-8 pubmed
    It was generally observed that welders in Calabar, Nigeria did not always wear their protective goggles during welding. Since chronic exposure to welding light can impair vision this study was done to assess the effect of exposure to ..
  26. Wang K, Kuo C, Tian T, Tsai M, Chiung Y, Hsiech C, et al. Metabolomic characterization of laborers exposed to welding fumes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:676-86 pubmed publisher
    The complex composition of welding fumes, multiplicity of molecular targets, diverse cellular effects, and lifestyles associated with laborers vastly complicate the assessment of welding fume exposure...
  27. Sardas S, Omurtag G, Tozan A, Gül H, Beyoglu D. Evaluation of DNA damage in construction-site workers occupationally exposed to welding fumes and solvent-based paints in Turkey. Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26:601-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the comet assay was used to evaluate whether welding fume and solvent base paint exposure led to DNA damage in construction-site workers in Turkey...
  28. Racette B, Criswell S, Lundin J, Hobson A, Seixas N, Kotzbauer P, et al. Increased risk of parkinsonism associated with welding exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1356-61 pubmed publisher
    Manganese (Mn), an established neurotoxicant, is a common component of welding fume. The neurological phenotype associated with welding exposures has not been well described...
  29. Keane M, Stone S, Chen B. Welding fumes from stainless steel gas metal arc processes contain multiple manganese chemical species. J Environ Monit. 2010;12:1133-40 pubmed
    Fumes from a group of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes used on stainless steel were generated using three different metal transfer modes and four different shield gases...
  30. Karki K, Epstein E, Cho J, Jia Z, Li T, Picraux S, et al. Lithium-assisted electrochemical welding in silicon nanowire battery electrodes. Nano Lett. 2012;12:1392-7 pubmed publisher
    From in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we present direct evidence of lithium-assisted welding between physically contacted silicon nanowires (SiNWs) induced by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation...
  31. Fidan F, Unlu M, Koken T, Tetik L, Akgün S, Demirel R, et al. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers. J Occup Health. 2005;47:286-92 pubmed
    b>Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes...
  32. el Zein M, Infante Rivard C, Malo J, Gautrin D. Is metal fume fever a determinant of welding related respiratory symptoms and/or increased bronchial responsiveness? A longitudinal study. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:688-94 pubmed
    ..The study consisted of a pre-exposure and two follow up assessments of 286 welding apprentices during an average period of 15 months...
  33. Nuernberg A, Boyce P, Cavallari J, Fang S, Eisen E, Christiani D. Urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG concentrations in boilermakers with welding exposure. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5) with DNA damage and oxidative stress in boilermakers exposed to welding fumes...
  34. Sung J, Kim C, Yang S, Khang H, Cheong H, Lee J, et al. Changes in blood manganese concentration and MRI t1 relaxation time during 180 days of stainless steel welding-fume exposure in cynomolgus monkeys. Inhal Toxicol. 2007;19:47-55 pubmed
    Welders are at risk of being exposed to high concentrations of welding fumes and developing pneumoconiosis or other welding-fume exposure-related diseases...
  35. Munoz X, Cruz M, Freixa A, Guardino X, Morell F. Occupational asthma caused by metal arc welding of iron. Respiration. 2009;78:455-9 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to welding fumes can be a cause of occupational asthma (OA), although the mechanisms implicated are unknown...
  36. Rim K, Park K, Sung J, Chung Y, Han J, Cho K, et al. Gene-expression profiling using suppression-subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray in rat mononuclear cells in response to welding-fume exposure. Toxicol Ind Health. 2004;20:77-88 pubmed
    ..In some cases, the pulmonary fibrosis associated with welding fumes appears in a more severe form in welders...
  37. Ross J, Macdiarmid J, Semple S, Watt S, Moir G, Henderson G. Cognitive symptoms and welding fume exposure. Ann Occup Hyg. 2013;57:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether cognitive symptoms are related to welding fume exposure or diving...
  38. Holm M, Kim J, Lillienberg L, Storaas T, Jogi R, Svanes C, et al. Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:553-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample...
  39. Solano Lopez C, Zeidler Erdely P, Hubbs A, Reynolds S, Roberts J, Taylor M, et al. Welding fume exposure and associated inflammatory and hyperplastic changes in the lungs of tumor susceptible a/j mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34:364-72 pubmed
    It has been suggested that welding fume (WF) exposure increases lung cancer risk in welders. Epidemiology studies have failed to conclude that WF alone causes lung cancer and animal studies are lacking...
  40. Bowler R, Nakagawa S, Drezgic M, Roels H, Park R, Diamond E, et al. Sequelae of fume exposure in confined space welding: a neurological and neuropsychological case series. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:298-311 pubmed
    b>Welding fume contains manganese (Mn) which is known to be bio-available to and neurotoxic for the central nervous system. Although an essential metal, Mn overexposure may cause manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome...
  41. Schaller K, Csanády G, Filser J, Jüngert B, Drexler H. Elimination kinetics of metals after an accidental exposure to welding fumes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007;80:635-41 pubmed
    ..The renal clearance of aluminium and nickel was about 2 l/h estimated for the last monitoring day. ..
  42. Laohaudomchok W, Lin X, Herrick R, Fang S, Cavallari J, SHRAIRMAN R, et al. Neuropsychological effects of low-level manganese exposure in welders. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..04), adjusting for age and time between the 2 tests. Our study suggests that even at relatively low Mn exposure levels neuropsychological effects may manifest particularly with respect to attention, mood, and fine motor control. ..
  43. Seel E, Zaebst D, Hein M, Liu J, Nowlin S, Chen P. Inter-rater agreement for a retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, chromium, nickel and welding fumes in a study of lung cancer and ionizing radiation. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51:601-10 pubmed
    A retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, welding fumes, chromium and nickel (in welding fumes) was conducted at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for a nested case-control study of lung cancer risk from external ionizing radiation...
  44. Hobson A, Seixas N, Sterling D, Racette B. Estimation of particulate mass and manganese exposure levels among welders. Ann Occup Hyg. 2011;55:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Historical exposure estimates for welding-exposed workers are needed for epidemiological studies evaluating the relationship between welding and ..
  45. Paris C, Clement Duchene C, Vignaud J, Gislard A, Stoufflet A, Bertrand O, et al. Relationships between lung adenocarcinoma and gender, age, smoking and occupational risk factors: A case-case study. Lung Cancer. 2010;68:146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Significant associations were observed between ADC and exposure to welding fumes and silica in the whole population and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ever smokers...
  46. Sabitu K, Iliyasu Z, Dauda M. Awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures among welders in Kaduna metropolis, northern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2009;8:46-51 pubmed
    ..There is therefore need for health and safety education of these workers for health and increased productivity. ..
  47. Hannu T, Piipari R, Tuppurainen M, Nordman H, Tuomi T. Occupational asthma caused by stainless steel welding fumes: a clinical study. Eur Respir J. 2007;29:85-90 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of occupational asthma (OA) due to stainless steel welding fumes diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during the period 1994-2003...
  48. Hannu T, Piipari R, Toskala E. Immediate hypersensitivity type of occupational laryngitis in a welder exposed to welding fumes of stainless steel. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:402-5 pubmed
    ..have been reported to occur in welders, occupational laryngitis of immediate hypersensitivity type due to welding fumes of stainless steel has not been previously reported...
  49. Ambroise D, Wild P, Moulin J. Update of a meta-analysis on lung cancer and welding. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006;32:22-31 pubmed
    ..26 (95% CI 1.20-1.32) after partial control of publication bias. No difference was observed according to welding activities...
  50. Stark M, Zubareb J, Jacovovitz R, Schwartz Y, Lerman Y, Grinberg N, et al. HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions are time dependant during exposure to welding fumes. Cytokine. 2009;46:290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..33, P=0.05). Particulate matters significantly influenced HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions, caused neutrophilic inflammation and promoted oxidative stress in welders with long-term exposure. ..
  51. Zaebst D, Seel E, Yiin J, Nowlin S, Chen P. Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2009;6:404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fume (as iron oxide fume), and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume...
  52. Elihn K, Berg P. Ultrafine particle characteristics in seven industrial plants. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..and mass concentration were measured at 10 different job activities, including fettling, laser cutting, welding, smelting, core making, moulding, concreting, grinding, sieving powders, and washing machine goods...
  53. McNeilly J, Jimenez L, Clay M, MacNee W, Howe A, Heal M, et al. Soluble transition metals in welding fumes cause inflammation via activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Toxicol Lett. 2005;158:152-7 pubmed
    We previously reported that the molecular pro-inflammatory effects of welding fumes in vitro were caused by soluble transition metals via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism...