extraction and processing industry


Summary: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.

Top Publications

  1. Rich A, Crosby E. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). New Solut. 2013;23:117-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed...
  2. Waage S, Harris A, Pallesen S, Saksvik I, Moen B, Bjorvatn B. Subjective and objective sleepiness among oil rig workers during three different shift schedules. Sleep Med. 2012;13:64-72 pubmed publisher
  3. Waage S, Pallesen S, Moen B, Bjorvatn B. Shift work and age in petroleum offshore industry. Int Marit Health. 2010;62:251-7 pubmed
    ..Older workers may tolerate shift work well. Age, shift work exposure time, and shift type seemed not to affect shift work tolerance in this population. However, this may be due to a healthy worker effect and/or selection bias. ..
  4. Harris A, Waage S, Ursin H, Hansen A, Bjorvatn B, Eriksen H. Cortisol, reaction time test and health among offshore shift workers. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:1339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no increase in health complaints from swing shift or reaction time in the shift from night to day work. Recovery from night shift takes longer time. ..
  5. Di Iorio L, Clark C. Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication. Biol Lett. 2010;6:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This increase was observed for the discrete, audible calls that are emitted during social encounters and feeding. This response presumably represents a compensatory behaviour to the elevated ambient noise from seismic survey operations. ..
  6. Ross J. Offshore industry shift work--health and social considerations. Occup Med (Lond). 2009;59:310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Some unique features of the offshore workplace are identified and a number of possible areas for further research are highlighted. ..
  7. Saksvik I, Bjorvatn B, Harvey A, Waage S, Harris A, Pallesen S. Adaptation and readaptation to different shift work schedules measured with sleep diary and actigraphy. J Occup Health Psychol. 2011;16:331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Readaptation to day work after 1 week of night work affected sleep negatively. There were no differences between the shift schedules the week after the work period. ..
  8. Miller B, Fransman W, Heederik D, Hurley J, Kromhout H, Fitzsimons E. A review of the data quality and comparability of case-control studies of low-level exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010;83:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are consistent with some effect of benzene at higher lifetime exposures. A proposed pooled analysis should improve quantification of any exposure-response relationship. ..
  9. Gun R, Pratt N, Griffith E, Adams G, Bisby J, Robinson K. Update of a prospective study of mortality and cancer incidence in the Australian petroleum industry. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:150-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Huebner W, Wojcik N, Rosamilia K, Jorgensen G, Milano C. Mortality updates (1970-1997) of two refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Baytown, Texas. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:1229-45 pubmed
    ..Mortality surveillance will continue to monitor these outcomes among more recent workers. ..
  2. Murlidhar V, Kanhere V. Asbestosis in an asbestos composite mill at Mumbai: a prevalence study. Environ Health. 2005;4:24 pubmed
    ..We also implore the management to provide all information about the work process and its hazards, conduct medical checkups as mandated by law and give the medical records to the workers. ..
  3. Yazvenko S, McDonald T, Blokhin S, Johnson S, Meier S, Melton H, et al. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia. Environ Monit Assess. 2007;134:45-73 pubmed
    ..e., about five to ten whales in total) has likely been affected by the seismic survey. However, the total number of gray whales observed within the Piltun feeding area remained stable during the seismic survey...
  4. Gower S, Hicks J, Shortreed J, Craig L, McColl S. Development of a health effects-based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:81-5 pubmed
  5. Bhopal R, Moffatt S, Pless Mulloli T, Phillimore P, Foy C, Dunn C, et al. Does living near a constellation of petrochemical, steel, and other industries impair health?. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55:812-22 pubmed
    ..The reasons for the different patterns at different ages, and between men and women, remain a puzzle. ..
  6. Stewart A, Ledingham R, Furnace G, Schranz N, Nevill A. The ability of UK offshore workers of different body size and shape to egress through a restricted window space. Appl Ergon. 2016;55:226-233 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in flexibility and technique may explain these observations, which may be important considerations for future research. ..
  7. Castorena Cortés G, Roldán Carrillo T, Reyes Ávila J, Zapata Peñasco I, Mayol Castillo M, Olguín Lora P. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012;114:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. ..
  8. Vujovic A, Kotur Stevuljevic J, Kornic D, Spasic S, Spasojevic Kalimanovska V, Bogavac Stanojevic N, et al. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense in schoolchildren residing in a petrochemical industry environment. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47:233-9 pubmed
    ..01) in comparison to the non-exposed group. The results suggested a relationship between the presence of air pollutants and increased oxidative stress in schoolchildren residing in an industrial environment. ..
  9. Bakke T, Klungsøyr J, Sanni S. Environmental impacts of produced water and drilling waste discharges from the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. Mar Environ Res. 2013;92:154-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The stress is mainly physical. The risk of widespread, long term impact from the operational discharges on populations and the ecosystem is presently considered low, but this cannot be verified from the published literature. ..
  10. Khajehnasiri F, Mortazavi S, Allameh A, Akhondzadeh S, Hashemi H. Total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde in depressive rotational shift workers. J Environ Public Health. 2013;2013:150693 pubmed publisher
    ..07 (±3.84) and 24.92 (±3.65)?kg/m(2), respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r = 0.218 and r = 0.212), respectively, (P < 0.05). ..
  11. Ganjegunte G, King L, Vance G. Cumulative soil chemistry changes from land application of saline-sodic waters. J Environ Qual. 2008;37:S128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Study results suggest that current CBNG water management strategies are not as effective as projected. Additional research is needed to develop management strategies appropriate for mitigating adverse effects of CBNG water irrigation. ..
  12. Cappelli M, Macchione M, Pulini S, Aquilina T, Cancanelli G. [Working overseas and cardiovascular diseases: application of a screening method on Oil&Gas employees]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2012;34:643-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover it was fundamental for evaluation of fitness and timing of health surveillance. ..
  13. Venkatesh A, Jaramillo P, Griffin W, Matthews H. Uncertainty analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum-based fuels and impacts on low carbon fuel policies. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:125-31 pubmed publisher
  14. Scarlett A, West C, Jones D, Galloway T, Rowland S. Predicted toxicity of naphthenic acids present in oil sands process-affected waters to a range of environmental and human endpoints. Sci Total Environ. 2012;425:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..g. priority should perhaps be focused on the polycyclic monoaromatic acids and the aliphatic pentacyclic acids). If shown to be accurate, these compounds can then be targeted for toxicity reduction remediation efforts. ..
  15. Du J, Lu J, Wu Q, Jing C. Reduction and immobilization of chromate in chromite ore processing residue with nanoscale zero-valent iron. J Hazard Mater. 2012;215-216:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1mgL(-1) Cr(VI) in the TCLP leachate. The results indicated that remediation approaches using nZVI to reduce Cr(VI) in COPR should be successful with sufficient water content to facilitate electron transfer from nZVI to COPR...
  16. Bwalya D, Bratveit M, Moen B. Chronic respiratory symptoms among workers at a limestone factory in Zambia. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2011;66:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that exposure to limestone dust is associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Until newer technology is installed, proper use of personal protective equipments should be emphasized. ..
  17. Sugiharto S, Su ud Z, Kurniadi R, Wibisono W, Abidin Z. Radiotracer method for residence time distribution study in multiphase flow system. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1445-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the flow patterns of the water in the pipeline calculated by Reynolds number and predicted by simple tank-in-series model is turbulence in character. ..
  18. Gillenwater P, Urgun Demirtas M, Negri M, ALVARADO J. Improving data quality on low level mercury wastewater analysis. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, significant differences between results from the two laboratories were identified in a split-sample experiment. ..
  19. Mehrdad R, Bolouri A, Shakibmanesh A. Analysis of accidents in nine Iranian gas refineries: 2007-2011. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2013;4:205-10 pubmed
    ..The incidence did not change significantly over the study period. Establishment of an online network for precise registration, notification and meticulous data collection seems necessary. ..
  20. Allers E, Abed R, Wehrmann L, Wang T, Larsson A, Purser A, et al. Resistance of Lophelia pertusa to coverage by sediment and petroleum drill cuttings. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;74:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, complete burial of coral branches for >24 h in reef sediment resulted in suffocation. ..
  21. Steinzor N, Subra W, Sumi L. Investigating links between shale gas development and health impacts through a community survey project in Pennsylvania. New Solut. 2013;23:55-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This method, recently applied to the gas development areas of Pennsylvania, indicates the need for a range of policy and research efforts to safeguard public health. ..
  22. Goldstein B, Kriesky J, Pavliakova B. Missing from the table: role of the environmental public health community in governmental advisory commissions related to Marcellus Shale drilling. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:483-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Ordòñez C, Martinez J, Saavedra A, Mourelle A. Intercomparison exercise for gases emitted by a cement industry in Spain: a functional data approach. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2011;61:135-41 pubmed
    ..This is because the functional approach compares curves rather than mean values. Furthermore, it does not presuppose a normal distribution of the data. ..
  24. Gangopadhyay S, Ghosh T, Das T, Ghoshal G, Das B. Effect of working posture on occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders among the sand core making workers of West Bengal. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2010;18:38-42 pubmed
    ..It was concluded from the study that health of the core-making workers was highly affected by different awkward postures and that they suffer from posture-related musculoskeletal disorders primarily affecting the low back region. ..
  25. Talwar B, Pipalatkar P, Gajghate D, Nema P. Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable. ..
  26. Karras G. Combustion emissions from refining lower quality oil: what is the global warming potential?. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:9584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6-3.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually from fuel combustion to process the oil. ..
  27. Goldstein B, Osofsky H, Lichtveld M. The Gulf oil spill. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1334-48 pubmed publisher
  28. Xiong Y, Adhikari C, Kawakita H, Ohto K, Inoue K, Harada H. Selective recovery of precious metals by persimmon waste chemically modified with dimethylamine. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:4083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, its excellent adsorption characteristics for the precious metals were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the DMA-PW gel...
  29. Felipe de Melo E, da Silva R, Assis A, Pinto E. [Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in administrative workers in the oil industry]. Cien Saude Colet. 2011;16:3443-52 pubmed
    ..In this sense, actions aiming to promote a healthy lifestyle can be developed by the companies, in order to enhance the health and quality of life of their employees. ..
  30. Fu X, Cui Z, Zang G. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014;16:1737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil. ..
  31. Sundt R, Ruus A, Jonsson H, Skarpheðinsdottir H, Meier S, Grung M, et al. Biomarker responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to produced water from a North Sea oil field: laboratory and field assessments. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The applicability of the biomarkers for use in water column biomonitoring programs is discussed. ..
  32. Pakpahan E, Isa M, Kutty S, Chantara S, Wiriya W. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from petroleum sludge cake using thermal treatment with additives. Environ Technol. 2013;34:407-16 pubmed
    ..Low levels of PAH emissions, particularly carcinogenic PAH and toxic equivalent concentration (sigma TEC), were observed in gas, particulate and residue phases after treatment. ..
  33. Leszczyńska I, Jezewska M. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees. Int Marit Health. 2010;62:159-67 pubmed
    ..Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. ..
  34. Ross J, Macdiarmid J, Dick F, Watt S. Hearing symptoms and audiometry in professional divers and offshore workers. Occup Med (Lond). 2010;60:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Divers suffer more NIHL than a control population. Current guidance on the assessment of total threshold shift for the detection of significant NIHL was inadequate in the sample studied. ..
  35. Stallones L, Doenges T, Dik B, Valley M. Occupation and suicide: Colorado, 2004-2006. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56:1290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences in means of suicide were seen by occupation, which could guide future suicide prevention interventions that may decrease work-related suicide risks. ..
  36. Nielsen M, Tvedt S, Matthiesen S. Prevalence and occupational predictors of psychological distress in the offshore petroleum industry: a prospective study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013;86:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry. ..
  37. Allen D, Torres V, Thomas J, Sullivan D, Harrison M, Hendler A, et al. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17768-73 pubmed publisher
    ..42% of gross gas production). ..
  38. Urgun Demirtas M, Benda P, Gillenwater P, Negri M, Xiong H, Snyder S. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration. J Hazard Mater. 2012;215-216:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1±0.0?m to 0.74±0.2?m after UF. ..
  39. Nfotabong Atheull A, Din N, Essomè Koum L, Satyanarayana B, Koedam N, Dahdouh Guebas F. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2011;7:41 pubmed publisher
  40. Campo G. [Occupational diseases in the petrochemical sector: types and temporal trends]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2013;35:288-90 pubmed
    ..6%). Diseases of the respiratory system are clearly proportionally more frequent (16.5%) compared to data reported to the total industrial sectors (6%). ..
  41. Iwegbue C. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;87:469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. ..
  42. Rowland S, West C, Scarlett A, Jones D. Identification of individual acids in a commercial sample of naphthenic acids from petroleum by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:1741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, characterisation of the acids will be important for improving the understanding of the role of naphthenic acids in petroleum engineering, particularly for oil pipeline deposition problems. ..
  43. Webster K, Fraser S, Mair F, Ferguson J. A low-cost decision support network for electrocardiograph transmission from oil rigs in the North Sea. J Telemed Telecare. 2008;14:162-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The 41 remaining ECGs did not to have acute changes requiring immediate evacuation. The use of email for ECG transmission proved to be highly effective in managing chest pain offshore. ..
  44. Rodriguez M, Barna M, Moore T. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2009;59:1111-8 pubmed
  45. Beiser M, Wiwa O, Adebajo S. Human-initiated disaster, social disorganization and post-traumatic stress disorder above Nigeria's oil basins. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71:221-227 pubmed publisher
    ..In places like the Niger Delta, where people do not physically escape from past trauma, sociocultural disintegration may interfere with communal functioning, thereby eroding community capacity to promote self-healing. ..
  46. Finkel M, Selegean J, Hays J, Kondamudi N. Marcellus Shale Drilling's Impact on the Dairy Industry in Pennsylvania: A Descriptive Report. New Solut. 2013;23:189-201 pubmed publisher
  47. Kargbo D, Wilhelm R, Campbell D. Natural gas plays in the Marcellus Shale: challenges and potential opportunities. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:5679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Tapping the lucrative Marcellus Shale natural gas deposits may have a host of environmental concerns. ..
  48. Lee N, Jung S, Kim J. Evaluation of the measurement geometries and data processing algorithms for industrial gamma tomography technology. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1441-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Future developments of the industrial gamma ray CT will be focused on a large-scale application which is more practical for a diagnosis in the petrochemical industry. ..
  49. Kannel P, Gan T. Naphthenic acids degradation and toxicity mitigation in tailings wastewater systems and aquatic environments: a review. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:1-21 pubmed publisher
  50. Ponsonby W, Mika F, Irons G. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry. Occup Med (Lond). 2009;59:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce. ..
  51. Kokoska L, Havlik J, Valterova I, Sovova H, Sajfrtova M, Jankovska I. Comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods. J Food Prot. 2008;71:2475-80 pubmed
    ..All oil samples were significantly more active against gram-positive than against gram-negative bacteria. Thymoquinone exhibited potent growth-inhibiting activity against gram-positive bacteria, with MICs ranging from 8 to 64 microg/ml...
  52. Lewis S. Lessons on corporate "sustainability" disclosure from Deepwater Horizon. New Solut. 2011;21:197-214 pubmed publisher
    ..Since GRI may prove a leading source for sustainability disclosure rules in integrating reporting, lessons learned from the BP experience must be applied to the next GRI revisions. ..
  53. Hugh Jones S, Madill A. The air's got to be far cleaner here: a discursive analysis of place-identity threat. Br J Soc Psychol. 2009;48:601-24 pubmed publisher