Summary: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
- Huang L, Wan W, Li F, Li B, Yang J, Bi J. A two-scale system to identify environmental risk of chemical industry clusters. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:247-55 pubmed publisher..In this study, we propose a two-scale system for assessing the environmental risk level of chemical industry clusters...
- Frisbee S, Shankar A, Knox S, Steenland K, Savitz D, Fletcher T, et al. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:860-9 pubmed publisher..Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with serum lipid levels...
- Sleeuwenhoek A, Cherrie J. Exposure assessment of tetrafluoroethylene and ammonium perfluorooctanoate 1951-2002. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:775-81 pubmed publisher..These data were used to inform an epidemiological study being carried out to investigate possible risks in workers employed in the manufacture of PTFE and to study trends in exposure over time...
- Consonni D, Straif K, Symons J, Tomenson J, van Amelsvoort L, Sleeuwenhoek A, et al. Cancer risk among tetrafluoroethylene synthesis and polymerization workers. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:350-8 pubmed publisher..This pattern of findings narrows the range of uncertainty on potential TFE carcinogenicity but cannot conclusively confirm or refute the hypothesis that TFE is carcinogenic to humans. ..
- Gennaro V, Ceppi M, Montanaro F. [Reanalysis of mortality in a petrochemical plant producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride]. Epidemiol Prev. 2003;27:221-5 pubmed
- Leonard R, Kreckmann K, Sakr C, Symons J. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers in a polymer production plant including a reference population of regional workers. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:15-22 pubmed..This study demonstrates the utility of comparing occupational cohorts with a similar worker reference population in order to reduce bias associated with the healthy worker effect. ..
- Barrow C, Conrad J. Assessing the reliability and credibility of industry science and scientists. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:153-5 pubmedThe chemical industry extensively researches and tests its products to implement product stewardship commitments and to ensure compliance with governmental requirements...
- Sanders J, Scott E, Weusthuis R, Mooibroek H. Bio-refinery as the bio-inspired process to bulk chemicals. Macromol Biosci. 2007;7:105-17 pubmed..Therefore, it is attractive to exploit this in order to by-pass the use, and preparation of, co-reagents as well as to eliminate various process steps by utilizing suitable biomass-based precursors for the production of chemicals. ..
- Steenland K, Jin C, MacNeil J, Lally C, Ducatman A, Vieira V, et al. Predictors of PFOA levels in a community surrounding a chemical plant. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1083-8 pubmed publisher..S. Environmental Protection Agency. It does not exist in nature but has been used widely since World War II. It is present in the serum of most Americans at about 4-5 ng/mL, although the routes of exposure remain unknown...
- Pasetto R, Comba P, Pirastu R. Lung cancer mortality in a cohort of workers in a petrochemical plant: occupational or residential risk?. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008;14:124-8 pubmed
- Guth J, Denison R, Sass J. Require comprehensive safety data for all chemicals. New Solut. 2007;17:233-58 pubmed..Therefore, this Reform calls for manufacturers of chemicals to be required to provide health and safety information as a condition for placing and keeping a chemical on the market. ..
- Olsen G, Burris J, Ehresman D, Froehlich J, Seacat A, Butenhoff J, et al. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate,perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1298-305 pubmed..The presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been reported in humans and wildlife. Pharmacokinetic differences have been observed in laboratory animals...
- Yu C, Wang S, Pan P, Wu M, Ho C, Smith T, et al. Residential exposure to petrochemicals and the risk of leukemia: using geographic information system tools to estimate individual-level residential exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:200-7 pubmed..54 (95 percent confidence interval: 1.14, 2.09). This study illustrates the utility of geographic information system tools for providing refined exposure estimates for residential exposure to petrochemical pollution. ..
- Skogstad A, Føreland S, Bye E, Eduard W. Airborne fibres in the norwegian silicon carbide industry. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:231-40 pubmed..Two other fibre categories were correlated with type of SiC produced (i.e. black or green SiC) and sawdust added to the raw material mix...
- Williams P, Paustenbach D. Reconstruction of benzene exposure for the Pliofilm cohort (1936-1976) using Monte Carlo techniques. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2003;66:677-781 pubmed..These data could be combined with current or future mortality information to calculate a new cancer potency factor or occupational health standard for benzene. ..
- Carlsten C. The Bhopal disaster: prevention should have priority now. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2003;9:93-4 pubmed
- Kleindorfer P, Belke J, Elliott M, Lee K, Lowe R, Feldman H. Accident epidemiology and the U.S. chemical industry: accident history and worst-case data from RMP*Info. Risk Anal. 2003;23:865-81 pubmed..Following the survey of the RMP*Info data, we discuss the rich set of policy decisions that may be informed by research based on these data. ..
- Loewenberg S. US chemical companies leave their mark on EU law. Lancet. 2006;367:556-7 pubmed
- Gavrilescu M, Chisti Y. Biotechnology-a sustainable alternative for chemical industry. Biotechnol Adv. 2005;23:471-99 pubmed
- Dion C, Dufresne A, Jacob M, Perrault G. Assessment of exposure to quartz, cristobalite and silicon carbide fibres (whiskers) in a silicon carbide plant. Ann Occup Hyg. 2005;49:335-43 pubmed..The authors have concluded that the investigations that were performed in the last two decades in this field by researchers from different countries seem to support that SiC fibres (whiskers) constitute a major airborne health hazard...
- Føreland S, Bye E, Bakke B, Eduard W. Exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide and sulphur dioxide in the norwegian silicon carbide industry. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:317-36 pubmed publisher..The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry...
- Belli S, Benedetti M, Comba P, Lagravinese D, Martucci V, Martuzzi M, et al. Case-control study on cancer risk associated to residence in the neighbourhood of a petrochemical plant. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:49-54 pubmed..These figures were confirmed after adjusting for smoking habit, occupation and school level. Random misclassification may have somehow resulted in risk underestimation. ..
- Pasetto R, Biggeri A, Comba P, Pirastu R. [Mortality in the cohort of workers of the petrochemical plant in Gela (Sicily) 1960-2002]. Epidemiol Prev. 2007;31:39-45 pubmed..Information and classification of exposure over time are envisaged developments to better describe the mortality pattern of the Gela cohort. ..
- Gatto E, Mudu P, Saitta P, Faberi M. [Petrochemical industry and health risk perception: a research carried out by means of focus groups]. Epidemiol Prev. 2009;33:53-8 pubmed..The authors suggest that their findings are useful in order to implement communication actions aimed at targeting broader strata of the local population. ..
- Sakr C, Leonard R, Kreckmann K, Slade M, Cullen M. Longitudinal study of serum lipids and liver enzymes in workers with occupational exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:872-9 pubmed..These medical surveillance data collected on workers for up to 25 years contributes useful information on the effects of ammonium perfluorooctanoate exposure on human liver and lipid chemistry. ..
- Aylward L, Brunet R, Starr T, Carrier G, Delzell E, Cheng H, et al. Exposure reconstruction for the TCDD-exposed NIOSH cohort using a concentration- and age-dependent model of elimination. Risk Anal. 2005;25:945-56 pubmed
- t Mannetje A, McLean D, Cheng S, Boffetta P, Colin D, Pearce N. Mortality in New Zealand workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:34-40 pubmed
- Pasetto R, Saitta P, Bracci C. [Development of an epidemiological study in a polluted site: the unexpected contribution of sociological and medico-legal approaches]. Epidemiol Prev. 2008;32:325-8 pubmed..Indications for further research, operative decisions, public communication, should result from the collected indices as a whole. ..
- Ichihara G, Li W, Ding X, Peng S, Yu X, Shibata E, et al. A survey on exposure level, health status, and biomarkers in workers exposed to 1-bromopropane. Am J Ind Med. 2004;45:63-75 pubmed..There were no severe chronic symptoms suggestive of neurological damage in workers exposed to less than 170 ppm. Urinary 1-bromopropane level may be a good indicator of exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 45:63-75, 2004. ..
- Elliott M, Wang Y, Lowe R, Kleindorfer P. Environmental justice: frequency and severity of US chemical industry accidents and the socioeconomic status of surrounding communities. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:24-30 pubmed
- Manassaram D, Orr M, Kaye W. Hazardous substances events associated with the manufacturing of chemicals and allied products. J Hazard Mater. 2003;104:123-35 pubmed
- Sharma D. Bhopal: 20 years on. Lancet. 2005;365:111-2 pubmed
- Matsuyama A, Liya Q, Yasutake A, Yamaguchi M, Aramaki R, Xiaojie L, et al. Distribution of methylmercury in an area polluted by mercury containing wastewater from an organic chemical factory in China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;73:846-52 pubmed
- de Vocht F, Straif K, Szeszenia Dabrowska N, Hagmar L, Sorahan T, Burstyn I, et al. A database of exposures in the rubber manufacturing industry: design and quality control. Ann Occup Hyg. 2005;49:691-701 pubmed
- Gennaro V. [The power of numbers]. Epidemiol Prev. 2005;29:133-4 pubmed
- Sass J, Castleman B, Wallinga D. Vinyl chloride: a case study of data suppression and misrepresentation. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:809-12 pubmed..S. EPA review of VC toxicology, which was drafted with substantial input from the chemical industry, weakened safeguards on both points...
- Matsuyama A, Yasuda Y, Yasutake A, Xiaojie L, Pin J, Li L, et al. Detailed pollution map of an area highly contaminated by mercury containing wastewater from an organic chemical factory in People's Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;77:82-7 pubmed
- Yasuda Y, Matsuyama A, Yasutake A, Yamaguchi M, Aramaki R, Xiaojie L, et al. Mercury distribution in farmlands downstream from an acetaldehyde producing chemical company in Qingzhen City, Guizhou, People's Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;72:445-51 pubmed
- Yu C, Wang S, Pan P, Wu M, Ho C, Smith T, et al. No association between residential exposure to petrochemicals and brain tumor risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:3007-9 pubmed
- Burdorf A, van Tongeren M. Commentary: variability in workplace exposures and the design of efficient measurement and control strategies. Ann Occup Hyg. 2003;47:95-9 pubmed..Many occupational hygienists across the globe have adopted these new methods as powerful tools in their exposure assessment strategies. ..
- Eskenazi B, Mocarelli P, Warner M, Needham L, Patterson D, Samuels S, et al. Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:22-7 pubmed..As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD exposure may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations. ..
- Tillett T. Beyond the bench: research helps clean up a water supply. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:A134 pubmed
- Consonni D, Pesatori A, Zocchetti C, Sindaco R, D Oro L, Rubagotti M, et al. Mortality in a population exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy, accident in 1976: 25 years of follow-up. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:847-58 pubmed publisher..A toxic and carcinogenic risk to humans after high TCDD exposure is supported by the results of this study. ..
- Kumar S. Victims of gas leak in Bhopal seek redress on compensation. BMJ. 2004;329:366 pubmed
- Collins J, Bodner K, Aylward L, Wilken M, Swaen G, Budinsky R, et al. Mortality rates among workers exposed to dioxins in the manufacture of pentachlorophenol. J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:1212-9 pubmed publisher..5, 95% CI = 1.2 to 11.5). Other than possibly an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, we find no other cause of death related to the mixture of the dioxin contaminants found in PCP. ..
- Goozner M. Study on failures to disclose conflicts of interest in Environmental Health Perspectives. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:A794-5; author replies A795-7 pubmed
- Olsen G, Zobel L. Assessment of lipid, hepatic, and thyroid parameters with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in fluorochemical production workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007;81:231-46 pubmed..Several explanations are offered for the inconsistent triglyceride associations with PFOA including both methodological as well as biological possibilities. ..
- Pesatori A, Garte S, Popov T, Georgieva T, Panev T, Bonzini M, et al. Early effects of low benzene exposure on blood cell counts in Bulgarian petrochemical workers. Med Lav. 2009;100:83-90 pubmed..Whether benzene effects at low doses are present in Caucasian populations remains uncertain, thus warranting further investigations. ..
- Purkarthofer T, Skranc W, Schuster C, Griengl H. Potential and capabilities of hydroxynitrile lyases as biocatalysts in the chemical industry. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;76:309-20 pubmed..Recently, protein engineering in combination with in silico methods gave rise to the development of a tailor-made HNL for large-scale manufacturing of a specific target cyanohydrin. ..
- Nikolau B, Perera M, Brachova L, Shanks B. Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable chemical industry. Plant J. 2008;54:536-45 pubmed publisherThe chemical industry is currently reliant on a historically inexpensive, petroleum-based carbon feedstock that generates a small collection of platform chemicals from which highly efficient chemical conversions lead to the manufacture ..
- Hood E. Lessons learned? Chemical plant safety since Bhopal. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:A352-9 pubmed
- Naccarati A, Zanello A, Landi S, Consigli R, Migliore L. Sperm-FISH analysis and human monitoring: a study on workers occupationally exposed to styrene. Mutat Res. 2003;537:131-40 pubmed..Overall, confounding factors appeared to exert a more important effect than exposure to styrene on numerical chromosome alterations in sperm nuclei of subjects selected for normal semen parameters. ..
- Lewis R, Rempala G, Dell L, Mundt K. Vinyl chloride and liver and brain cancer at a polymer production plant in Louisville, Kentucky. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45:533-7 pubmed..The Louisville brain cancer cluster has had a significant impact on the reported literature. Although unrelated to VC, the cause of this cluster remains uncertain. ..