food irradiation


Summary: Treatment of food with RADIATION.

Top Publications

  1. O Bryan C, Crandall P, Ricke S, Olson D. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008;48:442-57 pubmed publisher
    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods...
  2. Thayer D, Boyd G. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on turkey meat. J Food Prot. 1999;62:1136-42 pubmed
    ..0 kGy, there was a concentration-dependent CO2 inhibition of L. monocytogenes multiplication and/or recovery. ..
  3. Tesfai A, Beamer S, Matak K, Jaczynski J. Effect of electron beam on chemical changes of nutrients in infant formula. Food Chem. 2014;149:208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that proteins, lipids, and minerals in infant milk formula are stable when processed with e-beam up to 25 kGy at low temperature and under anaerobic conditions. ..
  4. Duhain G, Minnaar A, Buys E. Effect of chlorine, blanching, freezing, and microwave heating on Cryptosporidium parvum viability inoculated on green peppers. J Food Prot. 2012;75:936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..parvum oocysts, and the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetables may constitute a health risk as C. parvum oocysts can still be found viable on ready-to-eat, minimally processed vegetables. ..
  5. Vogt R, Dippold L. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with consumption of ground beef, June-July 2002. Public Health Rep. 2005;120:174-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, meat from Meatpacker A was associated with a nationwide outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 illness that resulted in the second largest recall of beef in U.S. history at the time. ..
  6. Dong Q, Manns D, Feng G, Yue T, Churey J, Worobo R. Reduction of patulin in apple cider by UV radiation. J Food Prot. 2010;73:69-74 pubmed
  7. Lee J, Kausar T, Kwon J. Characteristic hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones for detecting gamma-irradiated sesame seeds after steaming, roasting, and oil extraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds could be detected at doses > or =0.5 kGy but not in non-irradiated samples. The three types of treatments had no significant effect on the levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. ..
  8. Ismail H, Lee E, Ko K, Paik H, Ahn D. Effect of antioxidant application methods on the color, lipid oxidation, and volatiles of irradiated ground beef. J Food Sci. 2009;74:C25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, mixing was better than the spraying method in preventing lipid oxidation and maintaining color of irradiated ground beef. ..
  9. Valero M, Sarrías J, Alvarez D, Salmerón M. Modeling the influence of electron beam irradiation on the heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores. Food Microbiol. 2006;23:367-71 pubmed
    ..cereus spores. This study also suggests the potential use of EBI followed by heating for food preservation. ..

More Information


  1. Porto Fett A, Juneja V, Tamplin M, Luchansky J. Validation of cooking times and temperatures for thermal inactivation of Yersinia pestis strains KIM5 and CDC-A1122 in irradiated ground beef. J Food Prot. 2009;72:564-71 pubmed
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, appreciably lessens the likelihood, severity, and/or magnitude of consumer illness if the ground beef were purposefully contaminated even with relatively high levels of Y. pestis. ..
  2. McCally M, Donohoe M. Irradiation of food. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:402-3; author reply 402-3 pubmed
  3. Matak K, Churey J, Worobo R, Sumner S, Hovingh E, Hackney C, et al. Efficacy of UV light for the reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in goat's milk. J Food Prot. 2005;68:2212-6 pubmed
    ..0001) when the milk received a cumulative UV dose of 15.8 +/- 1.6 mJ/cm2. The results of this study indicate that UV irradiation could be used for the reduction of L. monocytogenes in goat's milk. ..
  4. Haughton P, Lyng J, Cronin D, Morgan D, Fanning S, Whyte P. Efficacy of UV light treatment for the microbiological decontamination of chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces. J Food Prot. 2011;74:565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, UV could be used for improving the microbiological quality of raw chicken and for decontaminating associated packaging and surface materials. ..
  5. Ukuku D, Geveke D. A combined treatment of UV-light and radio frequency electric field for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in apple juice. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;138:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the effect of the two processing treatment combination on bacterial inactivation was not additive. ..
  6. Rajkovic A, Smigic N, Uyttendaele M, Medic H, De Zutter L, Devlieghere F. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni after exposure to repetitive cycles of mild bactericidal treatments. Food Microbiol. 2009;26:889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Current findings indicate the ability of foodborne pathogens to adapt to mild bactericidal treatments creating new challenges in risk assessment and more specifically in hazard analysis. ..
  7. Keklik N, Demirci A, Puri V. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on unpackaged and vacuum-packaged chicken frankfurters using pulsed UV-light. J Food Sci. 2009;74:M431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05) after mild treatment. Overall, this study demonstrated that pulsed UV-light has a potential to decontaminate ready-to-eat (RTE) poultry-based food products. ..
  8. Lian X, Tetsutani K, Katayama M, Nakano M, Mawatari K, Harada N, et al. A new colored beverage disinfection system using UV-A light-emitting diodes. Biocontrol Sci. 2010;15:33-7 pubmed
    ..Although less effective in colored solutions and commercially available orange juice than in the positive control PBS, it holds potential for further development and use to ensure food and water safety. ..
  9. Girennavar B, Jayaprakasha G, Mclin S, Maxim J, Yoo K, Patil B. Influence of electron-beam irradiation on bioactive compounds in grapefruits ( Citrus paradisi Macf.). J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-dose E-beam irradiation has very little effect on the bioactive compounds and offers a safe alternative to existing postharvest treatments for the disinfection and decontamination of grapefruits. ..
  10. Oviedo M, Ramirez M, Barros G, Chulze S. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;149:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff...
  11. Fan X, Sommers C, Sokorai K. Ionizing radiation and antioxidants affect volatile sulfur compounds, lipid oxidation, and color of ready-to-eat Turkey bologna. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:3509-15 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that antioxidants did not consistently affect irradiation-induced volatile sulfur compounds of turkey bologna although they did significantly impact color and lipid oxidation. ..
  12. Ortega Y, Liao J. Microwave inactivation of Cyclospora cayetanensis sporulation and viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1957-60 pubmed
    ..Cryptosporidium oocysts could be inactivated only when temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher were reached in the microwave ovens. ..
  13. Saroj S, Hajare S, Shashidhar R, Dhokane V, Sharma A, Bandekar J. Radiation processing for elimination of Salmonella typhimurium from inoculated seeds used for sprout making in India and effect of irradiation on germination of seeds. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1961-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, radiation processing of the final product (sprouts) is recommended, rather than of the seeds. ..
  14. Gomes C, Moreira R, Castell Perez M, Kim J, Da Silva P, Castillo A. E-Beam irradiation of bagged, ready-to-eat spinach leaves (Spinacea oleracea): an engineering approach. J Food Sci. 2008;73:E95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The simulation results confirmed that it is feasible to irradiate baby spinach leaves (up to 1 kGy) to eliminate E. coli 0157:H7 while maintaining the overall quality of the produce. ..
  15. Medina M, Cabeza M, Bravo D, Cambero I, Montiel R, Ordóñez J, et al. A comparison between E-beam irradiation and high pressure treatment for cold-smoked salmon sanitation: microbiological aspects. Food Microbiol. 2009;26:224-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pressurization at 450 MPa for 5 min also kept the microbial population below 6 log(10)cfu/g after 35 days at 5 degrees C and did not alter odor, but affected negatively the visual aspect of smoked salmon. ..
  16. Vosough Ahmadi B, Velthuis A, Hogeveen H, Huirne R. Simulating Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission to assess effectiveness of interventions in Dutch dairy-beef slaughterhouses. Prev Vet Med. 2006;77:15-30 pubmed
    ..Hence, a combination of interventions along the slaughter process is the more promising approach to reduce the prevalence of contaminated beef quarters. ..
  17. Saroj S, Shashidhar R, Pandey M, Dhokane V, Hajare S, Sharma A, et al. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from sprouts. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1858-64 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that a 2-kGy dose of irradiation could be an effective method of processing to ensure microbial safety of sprouts. ..
  18. Kwon J, Kwon Y, Kausar T, Nam K, Rok Min B, Joo Lee E, et al. Effect of cooking on radiation-induced chemical markers in beef and pork during storage. J Food Sci. 2012;77:C211-5 pubmed publisher
  19. Bhatti I, Akram K, Kwon J. An investigation into gamma-ray treatment of shellfish using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:759-63 pubmed
    ..The XRD analysis revealed that aragonite and calcite minerals were present in the shells of shellfish. ..
  20. Braghini R, Pozzi C, Aquino S, Rocha L, Correa B. Effects of gamma-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1622-8 pubmed publisher
    ..alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different gamma-radiation doses used. ..
  21. Follett P, Armstrong J. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies. J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:1254-62 pubmed
    ..Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies. ..
  22. Kundu D, Holley R. Effect of low-dose electron beam irradiation on quality of ground beef patties and raw, intact carcass muscle pieces. J Food Sci. 2013;78:S920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05) on any of the sensory attributes of the patties. Low-dose irradiation of beef trim to formulate ground beef appears to be a viable alternative processing approach that does not affect product quality. ..
  23. Ben Salem I, Fekih S, Sghaier H, Bousselmi M, Saidi M, Landoulsi A, et al. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves. Food Chem. 2013;141:1398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. ..
  24. Louppis A, Katikou P, Georgantelis D, Badeka A, Kontominas M. Effect of ozonation and ?-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:1735-44 pubmed publisher
  25. Shao Y, He Y, Wu C. Dose detection of radiated rice by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results indicted that the ICA was an effective way for the selection of SWs, and infrared spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM models had the capability to predict the different radiation doses of rice. ..
  26. Gailunas K, Matak K, Boyer R, Alvarado C, Williams R, Sumner S. Use of UV light for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria species in recirculated chill brines. J Food Prot. 2008;71:629-33 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that in-line treatment of chill brines with UV light reduces the number of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria. ..
  27. Hagiwara A, Yoshino H, Sano M, Kawabe M, Tamano S, Sakaue K, et al. Thirteen-week feeding study of thaumatin (a natural proteinaceous sweetener), sterilized by electron beam irradiation, in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43:1297-302 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that electron beam-irradiation of thaumatin does not cause changes of any toxicological significance. ..
  28. Selma M, Allende A, López Gálvez F, Conesa M, Gil M. Heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection of wash waters from the fresh-cut vegetable industry. J Food Prot. 2008;71:286-92 pubmed
    ..The conclusions derived from this study illustrate that implementation of a heterogeneous photocatalytic system in the fresh-cut vegetable washing processes could allow the reuse of wash water. ..
  29. Gómez Díaz J, Santiesteban López A, Palou E, López Malo A. Zygosaccharomyces bailii inactivation by means of UV light and low-frequency ultrasound treatments. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1751-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined treatment was more effective than individual US or UVC treatments. ..
  30. Kudra L, Sebranek J, Dickson J, Mendonca A, Zhang Q, Jackson Davis A, et al. Control of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in chicken breast meat by irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1833-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that irradiation is an effective means of reducing Salmonella on meat or poultry, but packaging in either vacuum or MAP had little impact during subsequent refrigerated storage. ..
  31. Mohamed H, Elnawawi F, Yousef A. Nisin treatment to enhance the efficacy of gamma radiation against Listeria monocytogenes on meat. J Food Prot. 2011;74:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5 kGy) and stored at 4 °C for 72 h, the pathogen's most probable number was <0.03/g, indicating that such a combination is potentially effective in eliminating L. monocytogenes in meat. ..
  32. Allende A, McEvoy J, Luo Y, Artes F, Wang C. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce. Food Microbiol. 2006;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce. ..
  33. Sin D, Wong Y, Yao W. Analysis of gamma-irradiated melon, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:7159-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GC-MS is a versatile and complimentary technique for the confirmation of irradiation treatment to seeds. ..
  34. Variyar P, Chatterjee S, Sajilata M, Singhal R, Sharma A. Natural existence of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:11817-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite food irradiation being a known effective method to eliminate pathogens that are difficult to eradicate by conventional methods,..
  35. Bialka K, Demirci A. Decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on blueberries using ozone and pulsed UV-light. J Food Sci. 2007;72:M391-6 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this study indicate that ozone and pulsed UV-light are good candidates for decontamination of blueberries. ..
  36. Obana H, Furuta M, Tanaka Y. Detection of irradiated meat, fish and their products by measuring 2-alkylcyclobutanones levels after frozen storage. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2007;48:203-6 pubmed
    ..The 2-alkylcyclobutanones became undetectable in highly dried samples, such as feed for lab animals, during the same period. ..
  37. Jeong S, Marks B, Ryser E, Moosekian S. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce, using low-energy X-ray irradiation. J Food Prot. 2010;73:547-51 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7 at the center of the stack. Based on these findings, low-energy X-ray irradiation appears to be a promising microbial inactivation strategy for leafy greens and potentially for other types of fresh produce. ..
  38. Pardo E, Marin S, Ramos A, Sanchis V. Effect of water activity and temperature on mycelial growth and ochratoxin A production by isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus on irradiated green coffee beans. J Food Prot. 2005;68:133-8 pubmed
    ..Primary data for lag phases prior to mycelial growth under the influence of temperature and a(w) were modelled by multiple linear regression, and the response surface plots were obtained...
  39. Li J, Zhang Q, Cui Y, Yan J, Cao J, Zhao Y, et al. Use of UV-C treatment to inhibit the microbial growth and maintain the quality of Yali pear. J Food Sci. 2010;75:M503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that 5 kJ m?² UV-C irradiation can control postharvest disease and maintain the quality of Yali pear. This method may be applied to reduce the decay of Yali pears during exporting and storage. ..
  40. Follett P. Irradiation as a methyl bromide alternative for postharvest control of Omphisa anastomosalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Euscepes postfasciatus and Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sweet potatoes. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:32-7 pubmed
    ..formicarius elegantulus adults, 62,323 E. postfasciatus adults, and 30,282 O. anastomosalis pupae at a dose of 150 Gy resulted in no production of F1 adults, demonstrating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. ..
  41. Kumari N, Kumar P, Mitra D, Prasad B, Tiwary B, Varshney L. Effects of ionizing radiation on microbial decontamination, phenolic contents, and antioxidant properties of triphala. J Food Sci. 2009;74:M109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala. ..
  42. Yalçin H, Ozturk I, Hayta M, Sagdic O, Gumus T. Effect of gamma-irradiation on some chemical characteristics and volatile content of linseed. J Med Food. 2011;14:1223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although styrene and p-xylene content decreased as a result of irradiation, 1-hexanol content only decreased at 7.0 kGy. Benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and nonanol were not determined at irradiation doses above 4.0 kGy. ..
  43. Chiaravalle A, Mangiacotti M, Marchesani G, Vegliante G. Electron spin resonance (ESR) detection of irradiated fish containing bone (gilthead sea bream, cod, and swordfish). Vet Res Commun. 2010;34 Suppl 1:S149-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Food irradiation is a preservation method that has been approved by the European Union for a limited number of foods or food products and within a limited range of doses...
  44. Chiasson F, Borsa J, Lacroix M. Combined effect of carvacrol and packaging conditions on radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in ground beef. J Food Prot. 2005;68:2567-70 pubmed
    ..053 kGy for Salmonella Typhi. Under vacuum and 100% CO2 conditions, the radiation D10 reduction was not as great as that for the modified atmosphere regardless of the presence or absence of carvacrol and tetrasodium pyrophosphate. ..
  45. Jeong S, Marks B, Ryser E, Harte J. The effect of X-ray irradiation on Salmonella inactivation and sensory quality of almonds and walnuts as a function of water activity. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;153:365-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, low-energy X-ray irradiation technology appears to be a promising non-thermal pasteurization strategy for certain types of nuts. ..
  46. Fan X, Kays S. Formation of trans fatty acids in ground beef and frankfurters due to irradiation. J Food Sci. 2009;74:C79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to variations in trans fatty acid content and fatty acid composition occurring naturally in meat and meat products, the changes due to irradiation were negligible. ..
  47. Ha J, Kim S, Ryu S, Kang D. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches by radio-frequency heating. Food Microbiol. 2013;34:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..05) different from the control. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control pathogens in peanut butter products without affecting quality. ..
  48. Kundu D, Gill A, Holley R. Use of low-dose irradiation to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella in phosphate-buffered saline. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1438-42 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Salmonella strains had a slightly higher range of D-values (0.061 to 0.147 kGy) and a mean D-value that was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than that of both the E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC groups. ..
  49. Gao W, Zheng Y, Slusser J, Heisler G, Grant R, Xu J, et al. Effects of supplementary ultraviolet-B irradiance on maize yield and qualities: a field experiment. Photochem Photobiol. 2004;80:127-31 pubmed
    ..The levels of protein, sugar and starch of maize seed decreased with enhanced UV-B radiation, whereas the level of lysine increased with enhanced UV-B radiation. ..
  50. Teets A, Minardi C, Sundararaman M, Hughey C, Were L. Extraction, identification, and quantification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in electron beam-irradiated almond skin powder. J Food Sci. 2009;74:C298-305 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in aglycones respective to their glycosides was not observed with irradiation. Therefore, the increase in phenolics was attributed to release of phenolics from their cellular matrix. ..
  51. Begum M, Hocking A, Miskelly D. Inactivation of food spoilage fungi by ultra violet (UVC) irradiation. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;129:74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..flavus, P. corylophilum, E. rubrum and A. niger but the efficacy of UVC radiation against fungal spores varies significantly according to methods of exposure to the irradiation, and among genera. ..
  52. Arvanitoyannis I, Stratakos A, Mente E. Impact of irradiation on fish and seafood shelf life: a comprehensive review of applications and irradiation detection. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009;49:68-112 pubmed publisher
    ..The information related to fish and seafood irradiation and its detection is presented by means of 11 comprehensive tables and 9 figures. ..
  53. Park S, Kang S, Ha S. Inactivation of murine norovirus-1 in the edible seaweeds Capsosiphon fulvescens and Hizikia fusiforme using gamma radiation. Food Microbiol. 2016;56:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The inactivation kinetics due to gamma radiation against NoV in these algae might provide basic information for use in seaweed processing and distribution. ..