beauty culture


Summary: An industry that creates products and procedures designed to enhance physical appearance and aesthetic appeal.

Top Publications

  1. Czene K, Tiikkaja S, Hemminki K. Cancer risks in hairdressers: assessment of carcinogenicity of hair dyes and gels. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:108-12 pubmed
    ..Bladder cancer was not increased among hairdressers in the recent decades and is therefore not likely to be associated with modern hair dyes. ..
  2. Cokkinides V, Weinstock M, O Connell M, Thun M. Use of indoor tanning sunlamps by US youth, ages 11-18 years, and by their parent or guardian caregivers: prevalence and correlates. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1124-30 pubmed
    ..However, it is particularly prevalent among older youth, girls, and youth whose parents themselves use indoor tanning sunlamps. The knowledge of these trends may help focus public health initiatives. ..
  3. Hester E, Johnson K, Crane L, Schilling L, Dellavalle R. Indoor UV tanning operator opinion regarding youth access: an electronic survey. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:814-6 pubmed
    ..Our sample of indoor tanning facility operators believed that minimum age and parental consent regulations for indoor tanning should be required. ..
  4. Sayre R, Dowdy J. Sunbathing vs. indoor tanning: a realistic perspective. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2003;19:105-7 pubmed
  5. Diffey B. A quantitative estimate of melanoma mortality from ultraviolet A sunbed use in the U.K. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:578-81 pubmed
    ..While cosmetic tanning using sunbeds should be discouraged, prohibition is not warranted especially as exposure to the sun, which cannot be regulated, remains the major contributory factor to the risk of melanoma. ..
  6. Heckman C, Coups E, Manne S. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning among US adults. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The study design was cross-sectional and all data were self-reported. Health care providers should address indoor tanning as a health risk factor across the lifespan. ..
  7. Schneider S, Zimmermann S, Diehl K, Breitbart E, Greinert R. Sunbed use in German adults: risk awareness does not correlate with behaviour. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The poor quality of services and advice provided by many solariums was alarming. It can be concluded that appropriate measures to change tanning habits need to be identified. Legal regulations could be one option. ..
  8. LoSasso G, Rapport L, Axelrod B, Whitman R. Neurocognitive sequelae of exposure to organic solvents and (meth)acrylates among nail-studio technicians. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2002;15:44-55 pubmed
    ..04). Exposure to low-level neurotoxicants common to nail studios may result in mild cognitive and neurosensory changes similar to those observed among solvent-exposed workers in other settings. ..
  9. Albin M, Rylander L, Mikoczy Z, Lillienberg L, Dahlman Hoglund A, Brisman J, et al. Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:119-23 pubmed
    ..The results are moderately supportive, but not conclusive, of associations between asthma and exposure to hair bleach or hair spray. ..

More Information


  1. Ronda E, Hollund B, Moen B. Airborne exposure to chemical substances in hairdresser salons. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;153:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hairdressers were exposed to low air levels of a large number of chemical substances mostly related to work related to hair dying. There were no differences between exposure levels in salons in central and suburban areas. ..
  2. Börner F, Schütz H, Wiedemann P. A population-based survey on tanning bed use in Germany. BMC Dermatol. 2009;9:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data shows the importance as well as the limitations for risk communication in its current effort to inform effectively about the dangers of artificial UV radiation. ..
  3. Geller A, Colditz G, Oliveria S, Emmons K, Jorgensen C, Aweh G, et al. Use of sunscreen, sunburning rates, and tanning bed use among more than 10 000 US children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1009-14 pubmed
    ..Nationally coordinated campaigns with strong policy components must be developed and sustained to prevent skin cancer in a new generation of children and adolescents. ..
  4. Balk S, Geller A. Teenagers and artificial tanning. Pediatrics. 2008;121:1040-2 pubmed publisher
  5. Lazovich D, Forster J. Indoor tanning by adolescents: prevalence, practices and policies. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:20-7 pubmed
    ..Harm reduction policies, such as eye protection, that reduce risk for adolescents who choose to tan indoors, are also important. ..
  6. Hester E, Heilig L, D Ambrosia R, Drake A, Schilling L, Dellavalle R. Compliance with youth access regulations for indoor UV tanning. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:959-62 pubmed
    ..High compliance levels in states with long-standing youth access regulations (Illinois and Wisconsin) demonstrate the potential for successful tanning industry youth access regulation. ..
  7. Labrèche F, Forest J, Trottier M, Lalonde M, Simard R. Characterization of chemical exposures in hairdressing salons. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2003;18:1014-21 pubmed
  8. Dellavalle R, Parker E, Cersonsky N, Hester E, Hemme B, Burkhardt D, et al. Youth access laws: in the dark at the tanning parlor?. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:443-8 pubmed
    ..Youth access laws governing indoor tanning display remarkable variety. Uniform indoor tanning youth access laws modeled on the example of tobacco youth access laws merit consideration. ..
  9. Boldeman C, Jansson B, Dal H, Ullén H. Sunbed use among Swedish adolescents in the 1990s: a decline with an unchanged relationship to health risk behaviors. Scand J Public Health. 2003;31:233-7 pubmed
    ..A national and international harmonization of survey tools is also recommended for improved comparability. ..
  10. Heilig L, D Ambrosia R, Drake A, Dellavalle R, Hester E. A case for informed consent? Indoor UV tanning facility operator's provision of health risks information (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:557-60 pubmed
    ..The provision of informed consent by indoor tanning facility operators needs improved adaptation by the tanning industry as a standard for customer service. ..
  11. Francis S, Burkhardt D, Dellavalle R. 2005: A banner year for new US youth access tanning restrictions. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:524-5 pubmed
  12. McLaughlin J, Francis S, Burkhardt D, Dellavalle R. Indoor UV tanning youth access laws: update 2007. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:529-32 pubmed
  13. Demko C, Borawski E, Debanne S, Cooper K, Stange K. Use of indoor tanning facilities by white adolescents in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:854-60 pubmed
    ..The risks of artificial tanning need increased emphasis among adolescents, especially in the Midwest and South where extremes in the availability of natural light appear to send intentional tanners indoors. ..
  14. Evci E, Bilgin M, Akgör S, Zencirci S, Ergin F, Beser E. Measurement of selected indoor physical environmental factors in hairdresser salons in a Turkish City. Environ Monit Assess. 2007;134:471-7 pubmed
  15. O Riordan D, Field A, Geller A, Brooks D, Aweh G, Colditz G, et al. Frequent tanning bed use, weight concerns, and other health risk behaviors in adolescent females (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:679-86 pubmed
    ..This effect may be mediated by peer influence and a desire to look like other females in the media. Multi-pronged approaches, particularly those that target attitudes of young females, are needed to combat increased use of tanning beds. ..
  16. Hoerster K, Mayer J, Woodruff S, Malcarne V, Roesch S, Clapp E. The influence of parents and peers on adolescent indoor tanning behavior: findings from a multi-city sample. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:990-7 pubmed
    ..0) also were significantly associated. The cross-sectional design was a limitation of this study. Interventions targeting adolescent indoor tanning should address both family- and peer-related factors. ..
  17. Demierre M. Time for the national legislation of indoor tanning to protect minors. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:520-4 pubmed
  18. Lazovich D, Vogel R, Berwick M, Weinstock M, Anderson K, Warshaw E. Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case-control study in a highly exposed population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1557-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated risks were observed across devices. This study overcomes some of the limitations of earlier reports and provides strong support for the recent declaration by the IARC that tanning devices are carcinogenic in humans. ..
  19. Akpinar Elci M, Cimrin A, Elci O. Prevalence and risk factors of occupational asthma among hairdressers in Turkey. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:585-90 pubmed
    ..Occupational asthma did not differ among subgroups of hairdressers. We observed an important risk of occupational asthma among hairdressers. The most prominent risk factors were work intensity and atopy. ..
  20. Palmer R, Mayer J, Woodruff S, Eckhardt L, Sallis J. Indoor tanning facility density in eighty U.S. cities. J Community Health. 2002;27:191-202 pubmed
    ..S. urban-dwellers. Cities having the higher density profile may be logical targets for interventions promoting less or safer use of these facilities. ..
  21. Oliver H, Ferguson J, Moseley H. Quantitative risk assessment of sunbeds: impact of new high power lamps. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:350-6 pubmed
    ..There is a strong case for regulation of sunbed operators coupled to improved public education. ..
  22. Roelofs C, Azaroff L, Holcroft C, Nguyen H, Doan T. Results from a community-based occupational health survey of Vietnamese-American nail salon workers. J Immigr Minor Health. 2008;10:353-61 pubmed
    ..Work-related health effects may be common in nail salon work. Chemical and musculoskeletal hazards should be reduced through product and equipment redesign. ..
  23. Schulman J, Fisher D. Indoor ultraviolet tanning and skin cancer: health risks and opportunities. Curr Opin Oncol. 2009;21:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Acting upon this information provides a unique opportunity for protecting the public health. ..
  24. Bagdasarov Z, Banerjee S, Greene K, Campo S. Indoor tanning and problem behavior. J Am Coll Health. 2008;56:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Interventions focusing on friend and acquaintance social network influences may be more effective than health-risk campaigns in reducing tanning bed use. ..
  25. Galiotte M, Kohler P, Mussi G, Gattas G. Assessment of occupational genotoxic risk among Brazilian hairdressers. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:645-51 pubmed publisher
  26. Danoff Burg S, Mosher C. Predictors of tanning salon use: behavioral alternatives for enhancing appearance, relaxing and socializing. J Health Psychol. 2006;11:511-8 pubmed
    ..Findings suggest that interventions for reducing skin cancer risk should focus not only on decreasing favorable attitudes toward tanning, but also on increasing favorable attitudes toward healthier alternatives to tanning salon use. ..
  27. Tossa P, Bohadana A, Demange V, Wild P, Michaely J, Hannhart B, et al. Early markers of airways inflammation and occupational asthma: rationale, study design and follow-up rates among bakery, pastry and hairdressing apprentices. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:113 pubmed publisher
    ..Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives. ..
  28. Kwon H, Mayer J, Walker K, Yu H, Lewis E, Belch G. Promotion of frequent tanning sessions by indoor tanning facilities: two studies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:700-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the indoor tanning industry, through pricing incentives that allow frequent sessions, may be promoting overexposure to UVR. Stronger legislation is needed to address this issue. ..
  29. Pichon L, Mayer J, Hoerster K, Woodruff S, Slymen D, Belch G, et al. Youth access to artificial UV radiation exposure: practices of 3647 US indoor tanning facilities. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Law was not significantly related to allowable tanning frequency (P = .81). Conclusion We recommend that additional states pass youth access legislation, preferably in the form of bans. ..
  30. Levine J, Sorace M, Spencer J, Siegel D. The indoor UV tanning industry: a review of skin cancer risk, health benefit claims, and regulation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:1038-44 pubmed
    ..Systematic review of the literature was not performed. Health care providers must increase efforts to warn and educate the public and government about the dangers of UV radiation. ..
  31. Johnson K, Heilig L, Hester E, Francis S, Deakyne S, Dellavalle R. Indoor tanning attitudes and practices of US dermatologists compared with other medical specialists. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:465-70 pubmed
    ..Dermatologists regard indoor UV tanning more negatively compared with other physicians. Physician sex and geographic location were associated with specific indoor UV tanning attitudes. ..
  32. Gira A, Reisenauer A, Hammock L, Nadiminti U, Macy J, Reeves A, et al. Furunculosis due to Mycobacterium mageritense associated with footbaths at a nail salon. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1813-7 pubmed
    ..M. mageritense bacteria isolated from two whirlpool footbaths were determined to be closely related to the patient isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
  33. Mayer J, Hoerster K, Pichon L, Rubio D, Woodruff S, Forster J. Enforcement of state indoor tanning laws in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A125 pubmed
    ..We recommend that future studies assess whether legislation, enforcement practices, or a combination of the 2 affects the practices of indoor tanning facilities or of consumers. ..
  34. Cokkinides V, Weinstock M, Lazovich D, Ward E, Thun M. Indoor tanning use among adolescents in the US, 1998 to 2004. Cancer. 2009;115:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Multipronged approaches are needed to reduce indoor tanning use in youths. ..
  35. Winthrop K, Albridge K, South D, Albrecht P, Abrams M, Samuel M, et al. The clinical management and outcome of nail salon-acquired Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:38-44 pubmed
    ..Early administration of therapy was associated with shorter duration of disease only in persons with multiple boils (P<.01). One untreated, healthy patient had lymphatic disease dissemination...
  36. Hamlet N, Kennedy K. Reconnaissance study of sunbed use by primary school children in Lanarkshire. J Public Health (Oxf). 2004;26:31-3 pubmed
    ..More rigorous research is urgently required to test these findings. The precautionary principle suggests that public action is justified on present evidence. ..
  37. Moscato G, Pignatti P, Yacoub M, Romano C, Spezia S, Perfetti L. Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers. Chest. 2005;128:3590-8 pubmed
  38. Culley C, Mayer J, Eckhardt L, Busic A, Eichenfield L, Sallis J, et al. Compliance with federal and state legislation by indoor tanning facilities in San Diego. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:53-60 pubmed
    ..The investigators recommend instituting mandatory, comprehensive training for operators, as well as systematic compliance monitoring with enforcement of penalties for noncompliance. ..
  39. Kreiss K, Esfahani R, Antao V, Odencrantz J, Lezotte D, Hoffman R. Risk factors for asthma among cosmetology professionals in Colorado. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48:1062-9 pubmed
    ..6-2.9. The increased risk of asthma with onset during employment among cosmetologists is probably attributable to their exposure to sensitizers and irritants in tasks demonstrated to be associated with asthma. ..
  40. Freeman S, Francis S, Lundahl K, Bowland T, Dellavalle R. UV tanning advertisements in high school newspapers. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:460-2 pubmed
    ..Public health skin cancer prevention policies should include the prohibition of UV tanning advertising to minors. ..
  41. Hoerster K, Garrow R, Mayer J, Clapp E, WEEKS J, Woodruff S, et al. Density of indoor tanning facilities in 116 large U.S. cities. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that commercial indoor tanning is widely available in the urban U.S., and this availability may help explain the high usage of indoor tanning. ..
  42. Hillhouse J, Turrisi R, Shields A. Patterns of indoor tanning use: implications for clinical interventions. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:1530-5 pubmed
    ..Tanning behavioral types, which can be clinically assessed, can serve as a guide to physicians so that they can tailor their skin cancer prevention messages to be more effective. ..
  43. Winthrop K, Abrams M, Yakrus M, Schwartz I, Ely J, Gillies D, et al. An outbreak of mycobacterial furunculosis associated with footbaths at a nail salon. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1366-71 pubmed
    ..Physicians should suspect this cause in patients with persistent furunculosis after exposure to whirlpool footbaths. ..
  44. Woodruff S, Pichon L, Hoerster K, Forster J, Gilmer T, Mayer J. Measuring the stringency of states' indoor tanning regulations: instrument development and outcomes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:774-80 pubmed
    ..The instrument appears to be an easy-to-use, reliable, and valid methodology. Application of the instrument to actual laws showed that, in general, state laws are relatively weak, although there was considerable variability by state. ..
  45. Thyssen J, Milting K, Bregnhøj A, Søsted H, Duus Johansen J, Menne T. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..When nickel allergic hairdressers present with hand eczema, their work tools should be investigated for nickel release. ..
  46. Loland S. [Body image, sports and exercise]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000;120:2919-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it is suggested that the good life is a life in which the various perspectives of the body are balanced, with valuable experiences as body-subjects as the primary goal. ..
  47. Sinclair C, Makin J, Tang A, Brozek I, Rock V. The role of public health advocacy in achieving an outright ban on commercial tanning beds in Australia. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e7-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have illustrated that incremental change can be an effective pathway to securing substantial public health reforms. ..
  48. Davis G. Occupation and carpal tunnel syndrome. ANZ J Surg. 2006;76:1130-1; author reply 1131-2 pubmed
  49. Weinberg J. UV dependence. Cutis. 2006;78:25-6 pubmed
  50. Bencard A. [The beauty factory--current history of the cosmetic surgery]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005;167:4742-3 pubmed
  51. Paul C, Stacey F, Girgis A, Brozek I, Baird H, Hughes J. Solaria compliance in an unregulated environment: the Australian experience. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:1178-84 pubmed
    ..While new legislation may be useful, other harm minimisation strategies including mandatory staff training and taxation should be considered. ..
  52. Ling T, Coulson I. What do trainee hairdressers know about hand dermatitis?. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;47:227-31 pubmed
    ..Prevention of hand dermatitis by education and pre-employment counselling is of fundamental importance. ..
  53. Kirchhoff R, Kirchhoff G, Schacke G, Lüth P. [Occupational disability insurance--evaluating the work capacity in beauty culture regarding Meyerding II L4/5 Spondylolisthesis]. Versicherungsmedizin. 2002;54:91-4 pubmed