osteosclerosis

Summary

Summary: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Manganelli P, Giuliani N, Fietta P, Mancini C, Lazzaretti M, Pollini A, et al. OPG/RANKL system imbalance in a case of hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis: the pathogenetic key?. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:296-300 pubmed
    Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is an impressive example of acquired diffuse osteosclerosis in adults, recently described in ten patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  2. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, et al. Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;309:1273-81 pubmed
    The "reduced in osteosclerosis" transporter (Roct), which shows decreased expression in the osteosclerosis (oc) mutant mouse, has high homology with rat and human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3)...
  3. Oncag O, Ozkinay F, Eronat C. Dysosteosclerosis: a case with unique dental findings and SEM evaluation of a hypoplastic tooth. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1999;23:347-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SEM evaluation of the enamel and dentin was performed on a tooth from a patient with dysosteosclerosis for the first time. These studies showed weak ultrastructural compositions due to irregular calcification...
  4. Tagliabracci V, Engel J, Wen J, Wiley S, Worby C, Kinch L, et al. Secreted kinase phosphorylates extracellular proteins that regulate biomineralization. Science. 2012;336:1150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, mutations in Fam20C cause an osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in humans known as Raine syndrome. Fam20C is thus a protein kinase dedicated to the phosphorylation of extracellular proteins...
  5. Magliulo G, Parrotto D, Zicari A, Zappala D, Lo Mele L, Primicerio P, et al. Osteopathia striata-cranial sclerosis: otorhinolaryngologic clinical presentation and radiologic findings. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:59-63 pubmed
    ..Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a rare bone dysplasia that presents with variable symptoms mainly due to the associated CS...
  6. Simpson M, Scheuerle A, Hurst J, Patton M, Stewart H, Crosby A. Mutations in FAM20C also identified in non-lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Clin Genet. 2009;75:271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotype of Raine syndrome in the cases examined was remarkably consistent with generalized osteosclerosis of all bones, periosteal bone formation, characteristic facial phenotype and lethal within the first few weeks ..
  7. Schmidt J, Lumniczky K, Tzschaschel B, Guenther H, Luz A, Riemann S, et al. Onset and dynamics of osteosclerosis in mice induced by Reilly-Finkel-Biskis (RFB) murine leukemia virus. Increase in bone mass precedes lymphomagenesis. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:557-70 pubmed
    ..RFB) murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a murine leukemia virus that has been shown to induce lymphomas, osteosclerosis, and osteomas in susceptible strains of mice...
  8. Javier R, de Vernejoul M, Afif N, Kuntz J, Sibilia J. Skeletal recovery from hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) following antiviral treatment. Joint Bone Spine. 2011;78:409-11 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is characterized by increased bone mass following hepatitis C infection. We report here a case of HCAO that lasted 8 years before the patient received antiviral hepatitis treatment...
  9. Khosla S, Hassoun A, Baker B, Liu F, Zein N, Whyte M, et al. Insulin-like growth factor system abnormalities in hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. Potential insights into increasing bone mass in adults. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:2165-73 pubmed
    Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is a rare disorder characterized by a marked increase in bone mass during adult life. Despite the rarity of HCAO, understanding the mediator(s) of the skeletal disease is of great interest...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Yan X, Lacey D, Hill D, Chen Y, Fletcher F, Hawley R, et al. A model of myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis in mice induced by overexpressing thrombopoietin (mpl ligand): reversal of disease by bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1996;88:402-9 pubmed
    ..TPO) by retroviral-mediated gene transfer into bone marrow (BM) cells develop myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis. It was speculated that these effects were secondary to TPO, resulting from high levels of megakaryocytes and ..
  2. Koudstaal M, Wolvius E, Ongkosuwito E, van der Wal K. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in two cases of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by linear striations of the long bones, osteosclerosis of the cranium, and extraskeletal anomalies...
  3. Simpson M, Hsu R, Keir L, Hao J, Sivapalan G, Ernst L, et al. Mutations in FAM20C are associated with lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia (Raine syndrome), highlighting a crucial molecule in bone development. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:906-12 pubmed
    ..bone dysplasia (or, Raine syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized osteosclerosis with periosteal bone formation and a distinctive facial phenotype...
  4. Holman S, Daniel P, Jenkins Z, Herron R, Morgan T, Savarirayan R, et al. The male phenotype in osteopathia striata congenita with cranial sclerosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:2397-408 pubmed
    ..The observation of striations in males may be indicative of a WTX mutation in a mosaic state supporting the contention that this sign in females is indicative of the differential lyonization of cells in the osteoblastic lineage...
  5. Shaker J, Reinus W, Whyte M. Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis: late onset after blood transfusion in an elderly woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:93-8 pubmed
    ..HC-associated osteosclerosis has been reported in nine individuals 27-73 yr of age, most with a history of i.v. drug abuse...
  6. Jochum W, David J, Elliott C, Wutz A, Plenk H, Matsuo K, et al. Increased bone formation and osteosclerosis in mice overexpressing the transcription factor Fra-1. Nat Med. 2000;6:980-4 pubmed
    ..transgenic mice overexpressing Fra-1 in various organs develop a progressive increase in bone mass leading to osteosclerosis of the entire skeleton, which is due to a cell-autonomous increase in the number of mature osteoblasts...
  7. Sabatakos G, Rowe G, Kveiborg M, Wu M, Neff L, Chiusaroli R, et al. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic mice that overexpress the naturally occurring DeltaFosB splice variant of FosB develop severe osteosclerosis. Translation of Deltafosb mRNA produces both DeltaFosB and a further truncated isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) that ..
  8. Diamond T, Smith A, Schnier R, Manoharan A. Syndrome of myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis: a series of case reports and review of the literature. Bone. 2002;30:498-501 pubmed
    ..by bone marrow evidence of myeloid metaplasia associated with reactive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. We report serum biochemistry, noninvasive markers of bone turnover, tetracycline-labeled bone ..
  9. Voskaridou E, Stoupa E, Antoniadou L, Premetis E, Konstantopoulos K, Papassotiriou I, et al. Osteoporosis and osteosclerosis in sickle cell/beta-thalassemia: the role of the RANKL/osteoprotegerin axis. Haematologica. 2006;91:813-6 pubmed
    ..Seventeen (32%) patients had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 30 (57%) had osteosclerosis. Bone resorption was diminished in patients with osteosclerosis and increased in those with osteopenia/..
  10. van Bezooijen R, Papapoulos S, Lowik C. Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists: the sclerostin paradigm. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:15-7 pubmed
  11. Kakumitsu H, Kamezaki K, Shimoda K, Karube K, Haro T, Numata A, et al. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine thrombopoietin develop myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis. Leuk Res. 2005;29:761-9 pubmed
    ..Exogenous overexpression of TPO in vivo by viral-mediated gene transfer induced bone marrow (BM) fibrosis and osteosclerosis. On the other hand, transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing TPO using a liver-specific apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) ..
  12. van Bezooijen R, Ten Dijke P, Papapoulos S, Lowik C. SOST/sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived negative regulator of bone formation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005;16:319-27 pubmed
    ..The exclusive bone phenotype of good quality of patients with sclerosteosis and Van Buchem disease and the specific localization of sclerostin make it an attractive target for the development of bone forming therapeutics...
  13. Hulskamp G, Wieczorek D, Rieder H, Louwen F, Hörnig Franz I, Rickert C, et al. Raine syndrome: report of a family with three affected sibs and further delineation of the syndrome. Clin Dysmorphol. 2003;12:153-60 pubmed
    ..Further research is required to detect the underlying metabolic and molecular defects of this autosomal recessive syndrome...
  14. Lemire E, Wiebe S. Clinical and radiologic findings in an adult male with dysosteosclerosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:474-8 pubmed publisher
    Dysosteosclerosis is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. A case of dysosteosclerosis in a 17-year-old male from our institution was first published by Houston et al. 1978...
  15. van Bezooijen R, Bronckers A, Gortzak R, Hogendoorn P, van der Wee Pals L, Balemans W, et al. Sclerostin in mineralized matrices and van Buchem disease. J Dent Res. 2009;88:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, sclerostin is expressed by all 3 terminally differentiated cell types embedded within mineralized matrices: osteocytes, cementocytes, and hypertrophic chondrocytes...
  16. Tanaka T, Oki S, Muro S, Tanaka K, Hashimoto J. A case of hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis in an elderly Japanese man. Endocr J. 2006;53:393-9 pubmed
    Hepatitis C-Associated Osteosclerosis (HCAO) is characterized by a marked increase in bone mass with deep bone pain. Since 1992, eleven cases of HCAO have been reported...
  17. Wakeling E, Cruwys M, Suri M, Brady A, Aylett S, Hall C. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:541-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this ..
  18. Gütgemann I, Stevens K, Loftus D, Schmidt Wolf I, George T. VEGF and osteosclerosis in POEMS syndrome. Ann Hematol. 2008;87:243-5 pubmed publisher
  19. Luerssen K, Ptok M. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis and hearing loss. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:123-6 pubmed
    ..As a possible alternative, children with osteopathia striata and cranial sclerosis with hearing loss should be fitted with hearing aids because surgery of the middle ear probably will be difficult or perhaps not possible...
  20. Bsoul S, Alborz S, Terezhalmy G, Moore W. Idiopathic osteosclerosis (enostosis, dense bone silands, focal periapical osteopetrosis). Quintessence Int. 2004;35:590-1 pubmed
  21. Lee R. Clinical images of osteopathia striata. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:753 pubmed
  22. Waterval J, Stokroos R, Bauer N, de Bondt R, Manni J. Phenotypic manifestations and management of hyperostosis cranialis interna, a hereditary bone dysplasia affecting the calvaria and the skull base. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperostosis cranialis interna is a hereditary bone disorder that is characterized by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the calvaria and the skull base (OMIM 144755)...
  23. Williams H, Davies A, Allen G, Evans N, Mangham D. Imaging features of intraosseous ganglia: a report of 45 cases. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:1761-9 pubmed
    ..IGs, particularly when large, may be mistaken for a bone tumour. Correlation of the typical radiographic and MR imaging features will indicate the correct diagnosis and obviate the need for biopsy...
  24. Barbosa M, Perdu B, Senra V, Macedo F, Van Hul W, Reis Lima M, et al. [Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis]. Acta Med Port. 2010;23:1147-50 pubmed
    ..A mutation in WTX gene confirmed the clinical and radiological diagnosis of Osteopathia Striata with Cranial Sclerosis in this patient and allowed proper genetic counseling and providing prenatal diagnosis...
  25. Sabatakos G, Sims N, Chen J, Aoki K, Kelz M, Amling M, et al. Overexpression of DeltaFosB transcription factor(s) increases bone formation and inhibits adipogenesis. Nat Med. 2000;6:985-90 pubmed
    ..bone formation throughout the skeleton and a continuous post-developmental increase in bone mass, leading to osteosclerosis. In contrast, DeltaFosB inhibits adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, and downregulates the expression of ..
  26. Chanchairujira K, Chung C, Lai Y, Haghighi P, Resnick D. Intramedullary osteosclerosis: imaging features in nine patients. Radiology. 2001;220:225-30 pubmed
    To determine the conventional radiographic, computed tomographic (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, scintigraphic, and histologic features of intramedullary osteosclerosis and to review the clinical features.
  27. Viot G, Lacombe D, David A, Mathieu M, de Broca A, Faivre L, et al. Osteopathia striata cranial sclerosis: non-random X-inactivation suggestive of X-linked dominant inheritance. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:1-4 pubmed
    ..This finding, in combination with a sex ratio in favor of females and an increased morbidity and mortality in males, is highly suggestive of X-linked dominant inheritance...
  28. Staehling Hampton K, Proll S, Paeper B, Zhao L, Charmley P, Brown A, et al. A 52-kb deletion in the SOST-MEOX1 intergenic region on 17q12-q21 is associated with van Buchem disease in the Dutch population. Am J Med Genet. 2002;110:144-52 pubmed
  29. Schwartz K, Skinner J. Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis: a case report. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..drug use 20 years earlier, and the bony findings and clinical symptoms attributed to hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO)...
  30. Deniz F, Koseoglu R. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis and lumbar spinal stenosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149:811-5; discussion 815 pubmed
    ..This coexistence has not been previously reported in the medical literature. The possible mechanisms of this clinical association is discussed...
  31. Wagner Ballon O, Pisani D, Gastinne T, Tulliez M, Chaligne R, Lacout C, et al. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib impairs both myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis induced by high thrombopoietin levels in mice. Blood. 2007;110:345-53 pubmed
    ..myeloproliferation associated with cytokine-mediated bone marrow stromal reaction including fibrosis and osteosclerosis. Current drug therapy remains mainly palliative...
  32. Fradin M, Stoetzel C, Muller J, Koob M, Christmann D, Debry C, et al. Osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in siblings with a Fam20C mutation. Clin Genet. 2011;80:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report also prompted us to revisit the FAM20 gene classification and allowed us to highlight the ancestral status of Fam20C...
  33. Elcioglu N, Vellodi A, Hall C. Dysosteosclerosis: a report of three new cases and evolution of the radiological findings. J Med Genet. 2002;39:603-7 pubmed
  34. Whyte M, McAlister W, Novack D, Clements K, Schoenecker P, Wenkert D. Bisphosphonate-induced osteopetrosis: novel bone modeling defects, metaphyseal osteopenia, and osteosclerosis fractures after drug exposure ceases. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:1698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Metaphyseal osteosclerosis had remodeled imperfectly to become focal areas of dense, diaphyseal bone...
  35. Berenholz L, Lippy W, Harrell M. Conductive hearing loss in osteopathia striata-cranial sclerosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127:124-6 pubmed
  36. Halse A, Molven O. Idiopathic osteosclerosis of the jaws followed through a period of 20-27 years. Int Endod J. 2002;35:747-51 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in a baseline sample and to follow the patients through an extended period of time.
  37. Fukuzawa R, Holman S, Chow C, Savarirayan R, Reeve A, Robertson S. WTX mutations can occur both early and late in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumour. J Med Genet. 2010;47:791-4 pubmed publisher
    ..One explanation may be that a somatic mutation in WTX may need to occur late in tumour development to contribute to tumourigenesis...
  38. Tao J, Chen S, Yang T, Dawson B, Munivez E, Bertin T, et al. Osteosclerosis owing to Notch gain of function is solely Rbpj-dependent. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2175-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteosclerosis is a pathologic bone disease characterized by an increase in bone formation over bone resorption. Genetic factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease are poorly understood...
  39. Whyte M, Kempa L, McAlister W, Zhang F, Mumm S, Wenkert D. Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aspartate transaminase distinguish Albers-Schönberg disease (Chloride Channel 7 Deficiency Osteopetrosis) among the sclerosing bone disorders. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:2515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, high serum levels of several enzymes characterize A-SD. Elevated serum LDH isoenzymes and AST indicate a disturbance (of uncertain clinical significance) within multiple extraosseous tissues when there is CLCN7 deficiency...
  40. Yonetsu K, Yuasa K, Kanda S. Idiopathic osteosclerosis of the jaws: panoramic radiographic and computed tomographic findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997;83:517-21 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and anatomic location of idiopathic osteosclerosis in the jawbones and to present computed tomographic findings of this lesion in Japanese patients.
  41. Raine J, Winter R, Davey A, Tucker S. Unknown syndrome: microcephaly, hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, low set ears, and osteosclerosis. J Med Genet. 1989;26:786-8 pubmed
    ..We report a neonate, born at term, with microcephaly, a hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, and low set ears, who died at 86 minutes of age. Radiographs showed diffuse sclerosis of the bones...
  42. Kveiborg M, Sabatakos G, Chiusaroli R, Wu M, Philbrick W, Horne W, et al. DeltaFosB induces osteosclerosis and decreases adipogenesis by two independent cell-autonomous mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2820-30 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the changes in osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in DeltaFosB transgenic mice result from independent cell-autonomous mechanisms...
  43. Schreiber M, Poirier C, Franchi A, Kurzbauer R, Guenet J, Carle G, et al. Structure and chromosomal assignment of the mouse fra-1 gene, and its exclusion as a candidate gene for oc (osteosclerosis). Oncogene. 1997;15:1171-8 pubmed
    ..Since fra-1 maps to the same genomic region as oc (osteosclerosis), an autosomal recessive disorder leading to the bone remodelling disease osteopetrosis, we tested it as a ..
  44. Garimella R, Kacena M, Tague S, Wang J, Horowitz M, Anderson H. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and their receptors in the bone marrow megakaryocytes of GATA-1(low) mice: a possible role in osteosclerosis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:745-52 pubmed
    The mechanism of osteosclerosis associated with myelofibrosis in megakaryocyte (MK)-related myeloproliferative disorders is largely unknown...
  45. Heaney C, Shalev H, Elbedour K, Carmi R, Staack J, Sheffield V, et al. Human autosomal recessive osteopetrosis maps to 11q13, a position predicted by comparative mapping of the murine osteosclerosis (oc) mutation. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1407-10 pubmed
    ..This phenotype is similar to that of the murine mutation osteosclerosis (oc), which is localized to proximal mouse chromosome 19...
  46. Holman S, Morgan T, Baujat G, Cormier Daire V, Cho T, Lees M, et al. Osteopathia striata congenita with cranial sclerosis and intellectual disability due to contiguous gene deletions involving the WTX locus. Clin Genet. 2013;83:251-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Horny H. Review. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2004;2:752 pubmed
  48. Krithika C, Neelakandan R, Sivapathasundaram B, Koteeswaran D, Rajaram P, Shetkar G. Osteopetrosis-associated osteomyelitis of the jaws: a report of 4 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:e56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..All 4 cases were treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy and debridement of necrotic bone. ..
  49. Song H, Sohn Y, Choi Y, Chung Y, Jang J. A case report of pycnodysostosis with atypical femur fracture diagnosed by next-generation sequencing of candidate genes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6367 pubmed publisher
    ..recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, acro-osteolysis, osteosclerosis, and brittle bone with poor healing...
  50. Lorenzo Sellares V, Torres Ramirez A, Hernández Marrero D, Rodriguez Perez J, Gonzalez Posada J, Losada Cabrera M, et al. [A study using nondecalcified bone biopsy of the incidence and presentation forms of renal osteodystrophy]. Med Clin (Barc). 1991;96:561-5 pubmed
    ..No instance of aluminium poisoning with osteodystrophy and bone fractures was seen. The most severe histological forms of OM were found in hemodialysis patients with persistent hypophosphoremia and associated with osteosclerosis.
  51. Gomes R, Buttke P, Paul E, Sikes R. Osteosclerotic prostate cancer metastasis to murine bone are enhanced with increased bone formation. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26:641-51 pubmed publisher
  52. Yamasaki A, Itabashi M, Sakai Y, Ito H, Ishiwari Y, Nagatsuka H, et al. Expression of type I, type II, and type X collagen genes during altered endochondral ossification in the femoral epiphysis of osteosclerotic (oc/oc) mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;68:53-60 pubmed
  53. Chagraoui H, Tulliez M, Smayra T, Komura E, Giraudier S, Yun T, et al. Stimulation of osteoprotegerin production is responsible for osteosclerosis in mice overexpressing TPO. Blood. 2003;101:2983-9 pubmed
    Myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis are prominent features arising in mice overexpressing thrombopoietin (TPO)...
  54. Hariya Y, Yuasa K, Nakayama E, Kawazu T, Okamura K, Kanda S. Value of computed tomography findings in differentiating between intraosseous malignant tumors and osteomyelitis of the mandible affecting the masticator space. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;95:503-9 pubmed
    ..We sought to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of computed tomography (CT) images in the differentiation between intraosseous malignant tumors and osteomyelitis spreading into the masticator space...
  55. Fernandez Torre J, Orizaola P, Figols J, Rebollo M. [Osterosclerotic myeloma and polyneuropathy]. Rev Neurol. 1997;25:883-6 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis of this syndrome is unclear, but the presence of M protein and elevated levels of interleukin-6 in the serum of patients, suggests an immunologic mechanism...
  56. Jevtic V. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy. Eur J Radiol. 2003;46:85-95 pubmed
  57. Khurana N, Khurana G, Uppal N. Socket sclerosis: a rare complication obstructing orthodontic tooth movement. Orthodontics (Chic.). 2011;12:e1-5 pubmed
    ..This article demonstrates the problems encountered during the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old woman with socket sclerosis and the treatment strategy employed to overcome the same...
  58. Wang J, Hemavathy K, Charles W, Zhang H, Dua P, Novetsky A, et al. Osteosclerosis in idiopathic myelofibrosis is related to the overproduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). Exp Hematol. 2004;32:905-10 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of osteosclerosis in IMF in relation to OPG derangement.
  59. Gasser R. Cholestasis and metabolic bone disease - a clinical review. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158:553-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After orthotopic liver transplantation bone mineral density improves in long-term follow-up. Studies are needed for fracture prevention in chronic liver disease...
  60. Rima B, Duprex W. Morbilliviruses and human disease. J Pathol. 2006;208:199-214 pubmed
    ..Thus, an attempt has been made to clarify the published data and separate human diseases actually linked to morbilliviruses from those that are merely anecdotally associated...
  61. Brouard R, Wybier M, Miquel A, Laredo J. The lucent rim: a radiographic and computed tomography sign of Paget's disease of the skull. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:1308-11 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this sign has been reported in one single previous article dealing with two pagetic patients with the bisphosphonate escape phenomenon...