assisted living facilities


Summary: A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living. (

Top Publications

  1. Celso B, Ebener D, Burkhead E. Humor coping, health status, and life satisfaction among older adults residing in assisted living facilities. Aging Ment Health. 2003;7:438-45 pubmed
    ..the relationships between humor coping, health status, and life satisfaction among older residents of assisted living facilities. A structural equation model with latent variables was specified for the three variables...
  2. Freiheit E, Hogan D, Strain L, Schmaltz H, Patten S, Eliasziw M, et al. Operationalizing frailty among older residents of assisted living facilities. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Development and validation of alternative approaches for detecting frailty in this population, including consideration of female/male differences, is warranted. ..
  3. Jang Y, Bergman E, Schonfeld L, Molinari V. Depressive symptoms among older residents in assisted living facilities. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2006;63:299-315 pubmed
    Responding to the dramatic growth in Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs), the present study focused on mental health among older residents in ALFs...
  4. Counard C, Perz J, Linchangco P, Christiansen D, Ganova Raeva L, Xia G, et al. Acute hepatitis B outbreaks related to fingerstick blood glucose monitoring in two assisted living facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:306-11 pubmed publisher
    To establish the etiology for outbreaks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections at two assisted living facilities (ALFs) and devise appropriate control measures. Multisite outbreak investigations, retrospective cohort. Two ALFs in Illinois...
  5. Thompson N, Perz J. Eliminating the blood: ongoing outbreaks of hepatitis B virus infection and the need for innovative glucose monitoring technologies. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3:283-8 pubmed
    ..Advances in technology, such as the development of blood glucose testing meters that can withstand frequent disinfection and noninvasive glucose monitoring methods, will likely prove useful in improving patient safety. ..
  6. Chen K, Chen M, Lin M, Fan J, Lin H, Li C. Effects of yoga on sleep quality and depression in elders in assisted living facilities. J Nurs Res. 2010;18:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..program in improving sleep quality and decreasing depression in transitional frail elders living in assisted living facilities. A quasi-experimental pretest-and-posttest design was used...
  7. Becker M, Boaz T, Andel R, DeMuth A. Predictors of avoidable hospitalizations among assisted living residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13:355-9 pubmed publisher
    Hospitalizations for long term care residents, including those from assisted living facilities (ALFs), are very costly, often traumatic, and increase risk for iatrogenic disorders for those involved...
  8. Villacorta J, Jiménez M, Del Val L, Izquierdo A. A configurable sensor network applied to ambient assisted living. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11:10724-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed system uses a network of sensors capable of motion detection that includes fall warning, identification of persons and a configurable control system which allows its use in different scenarios. ..
  9. Muñoz A, Serrano E, Villa A, Valdés M, Botía J. An approach for representing sensor data to validate alerts in Ambient Assisted Living. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:6282-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a guideline to use the tool when validating alerts is also provided. Finally, the functionality of the proposed tool is demonstrated through two real cases of alert. ..

More Information


  1. Castle N, Wagner L, Sonon K, Ferguson Rome J. Measuring administrators' and direct care workers' perceptions of the safety culture in assisted living facilities. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2012;38:375-82 pubmed
    ..As such, some further attention to safety culture in AL is warranted. This study provides a first step toward assessing safety culture in this underexamined setting. ..
  2. Watson L, Lehmann S, Mayer L, Samus Q, Baker A, Brandt J, et al. Depression in assisted living is common and related to physical burden. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:876-83 pubmed
    ..AL is a rapidly growing segment of long-term care and represents an important setting in which to find and treat serious depression. ..
  3. Patel A, White Comstock M, Woolard C, Perz J. Infection control practices in assisted living facilities: a response to hepatitis B virus infection outbreaks. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:209-14 pubmed publisher
    The medical needs of the approximately 1 million persons residing in assisted living facilities (ALFs) continually become more demanding. Moreover, the number of ALF residents is expected to double by 2030...
  4. Bellantonio S, Kenny A, Fortinsky R, Kleppinger A, Robison J, Gruman C, et al. Efficacy of a geriatrics team intervention for residents in dementia-specific assisted living facilities: effect on unanticipated transitions. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Randomized trial. Two dementia-specific assisted living facilities in Connecticut owned and managed by the same corporation...
  5. Giuliani C, Gruber Baldini A, Park N, Schrodt L, Rokoske F, Sloane P, et al. Physical performance characteristics of assisted living residents and risk for adverse health outcomes. Gerontologist. 2008;48:203-12 pubmed
    ..Simple performance measures identify modifiable functional deficits and suggest targeted interventions to prolong independent mobility and aging in place in RC/AL facilities. ..
  6. Larrayadieu A, Abellan van Kan G, Piau A, Soto Martin M, Nourhashemi F, Rolland Y, et al. Associated factors with antipsychotic use in assisted living facilities: a cross-sectional study of 4367 residents. Age Ageing. 2011;40:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-pharmacological alternatives should be enhanced and further developed viewing the high prevalence of antipsychotic prescription. ..
  7. McNabney M, Samus Q, Lyketsos C, Brandt J, Onyike C, Baker A, et al. The spectrum of medical illness and medication use among residents of assisted living facilities in central Maryland. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008;9:558-64 pubmed publisher
    Although increasing numbers of older adults are living in assisted living facilities, there is little information on the types and amount of chronic medical illness and the medications required by such residents...
  8. Pitkala K, Juola A, Soini H, Laakkonen M, Kautiainen H, Teramura Grönblad M, et al. Reducing inappropriate, anticholinergic and psychotropic drugs among older residents in assisted living facilities: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13:85 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this trial is to investigate whether training professionals in assisted living facilities reduces the use of inappropriate drugs among residents and has an effect on residents' quality of life ..
  9. Kemp C, Ball M, Hollingsworth C, Perkins M. Strangers and friends: residents' social careers in assisted living. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012;67:491-502 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss implications for practice including the need for useable spaces, thoughtful activity programming, and the promotion of neighboring through staff and family involvement. ..
  10. Maas M, Buckwalter K. Providing quality care in assisted living facilities: Recommendations for enhanced staffing and staff training. J Gerontol Nurs. 2006;32:14-22 pubmed
  11. Schaffzin J, Southwick K, Clement E, Konings F, Ganova Raeva L, Xia G, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus associated with assisted monitoring of blood glucose at an assisted living facility in New York State. Am J Infect Control. 2012;40:726-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Strengthening direct care provider, infection preventionist, and health department partnerships with ALFs is crucial to ensure safe AMBG practices and prevent HBV transmission. ..
  12. Sharaf A, Ibrahim H. Physical and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling: among older adults in assisted living facilities. J Gerontol Nurs. 2008;34:27-35 pubmed aims to identify physical and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling among older adults in assisted living facilities. Data were collected from interviews with 208 residents using measures of fear of falling, physical and ..
  13. Falcó J, Vaquerizo E, Lain L, Artigas J, Ibarz A. AmI and deployment considerations in AAL services provision for elderly independent living: the MonAMI project. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:8950-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Deployment was proven successful and awareness of open-platform AAL service delivery was raised in local communities throughout Europe. ..
  14. Thompson N, Barry V, Alelis K, Cui D, Perz J. Evaluation of the potential for bloodborne pathogen transmission associated with diabetes care practices in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, Pinellas County. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:914-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate and characterize routine blood glucose monitoring practices in nursing homes and assisted living facilities (ALFs).
  15. Park N, Zimmerman S, Sloane P, Gruber Baldini A, Eckert J. An empirical typology of residential care/assisted living based on a four-state study. Gerontologist. 2006;46:238-48 pubmed
    ..We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term Care, which examined 193 assisted living facilities in four states: Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, and North Carolina...
  16. Gruber Baldini A, Boustani M, Sloane P, Zimmerman S. Behavioral symptoms in residential care/assisted living facilities: prevalence, risk factors, and medication management. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:1610-7 pubmed
    ..Integrating mental health services within the process of care in RC/AL is needed to manage and accommodate the high prevalence of behavioral symptoms in this evolving long-term setting. ..
  17. Aud M, Rantz M. Admissions to skilled nursing facilities from assisted living facilities. J Nurs Care Qual. 2005;20:16-25 pubmed
    ..were analyzed to investigate the reasons older adults were admitted to skilled nursing facilities from assisted living facilities. Residents admitted from assisted living facilities, private homes, hospitals, and hospitals with ..
  18. Zimmerman S, Sloane P, Eckert J, Gruber Baldini A, Morgan L, Hebel J, et al. How good is assisted living? Findings and implications from an outcomes study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005;60:S195-204 pubmed
    ..Therefore, practice and policy should not focus narrowly on any one area or restrict the type of care-this being welcome news that supports diversity to accommodate individual preferences. ..
  19. Sloane P, Zimmerman S, Gruber Baldini A, Hebel J, Magaziner J, Konrad T. Health and functional outcomes and health care utilization of persons with dementia in residential care and assisted living facilities: comparison with nursing homes. Gerontologist. 2005;45 Spec No 1:124-32 pubmed
    ..Many persons with dementia can be served equally well in either setting; however, those with major medical care needs may benefit from nursing home residence. ..
  20. Golant S. Do impaired older persons with health care needs occupy U.S. assisted living facilities? An analysis of six national studies. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2004;59:S68-79 pubmed
    ..Average duration of stays may be as long as 3 years. Researchers must conduct more carefully executed studies with replicable methodologies that produce unbiased and generalized findings. ..
  21. Rosenblatt A, Samus Q, Steele C, Baker A, Harper M, Brandt J, et al. The Maryland Assisted Living Study: prevalence, recognition, and treatment of dementia and other psychiatric disorders in the assisted living population of central Maryland. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:1618-25 pubmed
    ..Dementia and psychiatric disorders are common in AL and have suboptimal rates of recognition and treatment. This may contribute to morbidity and interfere with the ability of residents to age in place. ..
  22. Sikorska Simmons E. Predictors of organizational commitment among staff in assisted living. Gerontologist. 2005;45:196-205 pubmed
  23. Munn J, Hanson L, Zimmerman S, Sloane P, Mitchell C. Is hospice associated with improved end-of-life care in nursing homes and assisted living facilities?. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:490-5 pubmed
  24. Abbott K, Bettger J, Hanlon A, Hirschman K. Factors associated with health discussion network size and composition among elderly recipients of long-term services and supports. Health Commun. 2012;27:784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests an opportunity for interventions aimed at maintaining and enhancing the HDNs of older adults beyond family members. ..
  25. Mulpuru S, McKay J, Ronksley P, Thavorn K, Kobewka D, Forster A. Factors contributing to high-cost hospital care for patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:989-995 pubmed publisher
    ..require acute medical treatment for severe illness and patients with functional limitation who require assisted living facilities upon discharge...
  26. Kaskie B, Nattinger M, Potter A. Policies to protect persons with dementia in assisted living: déjà vu all over again?. Gerontologist. 2015;55:199-209 pubmed publisher
  27. Blasco R, Marco A, Casas R, Cirujano D, Picking R. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living. Sensors (Basel). 2014;14:1629-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. ..
  28. Karki A, Sävel J, Sallinen M, Kuusinen J. Ethicted (evaluation process model to improve personalised ICT services for independent living and active ageing)--future scenario. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;189:50-5 pubmed
    ..This future scenario work included partners from 6 EU member countries. The combination of academic research and industrial/commercial interest of ICT developers should and can bring new value to assistive ICT for elderly care. ..
  29. Macdougall E, Mansbach W. The Judgment Test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): psychometric considerations in an assisted-living sample. Clin Neuropsychol. 2013;27:827-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents promising preliminary evidence of the incremental validity of Judgment subtest scores for predicting both basic and instrumental activities of daily living in an assisted-living sample. ..
  30. Abbott K, Bettger J, Hampton K, Kohler H. Exploring the use of social network analysis to measure social integration among older adults in assisted living. Fam Community Health. 2012;35:322-33 pubmed publisher
  31. Bayne M. A room with a grim view: the 'ambient despair' that marks life in assisted living. Health Aff (Millwood). 2012;31:1633-5 pubmed publisher
    ..After entering an assisted living facility at age fifty-three because of young-onset Parkinson's, an observer-advocate contemplates the dire need for long-term care reform. ..
  32. Teri L, McKenzie G, Pike K, Farran C, Beck C, Paun O, et al. Staff training in assisted living: evaluating treatment fidelity. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate a protocol for identifying and evaluating treatment fidelity in Staff Training in Assisted-living Residences (STAR), a structured but flexible program to train direct care staff to improve care of residents with dementia...
  33. Stroiescu F, Daly K, Kuris B. Event detection in an assisted living environment. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:7581-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus of this paper is on the design of the system architecture and the compliance challenges in applying this technology. ..
  34. Rosenblatt A, Gao J, Mackell J, Richardson S. Efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease in assisted living facilities. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010;25:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..determine the safety and efficacy of donepezil in participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) residing in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Participants received 5 mg donepezil daily for 6 weeks followed by 10 mg daily for 6 weeks...
  35. Biola H, Sloane P, Williams C, Daaleman T, Zimmerman S. Preferences versus practice: life-sustaining treatments in last months of life in long-term care. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2010;11:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..034). Most respondents reported decision making with a doctor about life-sustaining treatments, but those decisions were not consistently heeded. Being older and living in a NH were risk factors for decisions not being heeded. ..
  36. Sung K. The effects of 16-week group exercise program on physical function and mental health of elderly Korean women in long-term assisted living facility. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009;24:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Elderly women can realize benefits from a group exercise program that can improve their functional ability and self-esteem, both important to cardiovascular health. ..
  37. Badriah F, Abe T, Miyamoto H, Moriya M, Babazono A, Hagihara A. Interaction effects between rehabilitation and discharge destination on inpatients' functional abilities. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50:821-34 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These findings may be useful in deciding on discharge destinations for patients. ..
  38. Samus Q, Vavilikolanu A, Mayer L, McNabney M, Brandt J, Lyketsos C, et al. Cohort differences in dementia recognition and treatment indicators among assisted living residents in Maryland: did a change in the resident assessment tool make a difference?. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013;25:2047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We noted few cohort differences in dementia care indicators after accounting for covariates, and concluded that rates of dementia recognition and treatment did not appear to change much organically following the policy modifications. ..
  39. Copertaro B, Bevilacqua G, Cocchioni M. [An epidemic strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in two long-term care facilities]. Recenti Prog Med. 2013;104:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..AB is an opportunistic pathogen with increasing relevance in a variety of nosocomial infections. ..
  40. Scott D, Dewey M, Johnson T, Kessler M, Friesner D. Preliminary evaluation of medication therapy management services in assisted living facilities in rural Minnesota. Consult Pharm. 2010;25:305-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the number and type of drug-therapy problems (DTPs) that were identified by consultant pharmacists in assisted living facilities, 2) assess resident and administrator satisfaction of consultant pharmacist MTM services, and 3) assess ..
  41. Nord C. Individual care and personal space in assisted living in Sweden. Health Place. 2011;17:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflexibility at the first level had to be compensated for by staff strategies at the second. Advantageous conditions at both levels offer a dynamic architectural situation to the staff, in which individual care may arise and thrive. ..
  42. Sikorska Simmons E. Linking resident satisfaction to staff perceptions of the work environment in assisted living: A multilevel analysis. Gerontologist. 2006;46:590-8 pubmed
    ..The sample included 335 residents and 298 staff members in 43 assisted living facilities. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires...
  43. Boggatz T. [Attitude of seniors about assisted living - a qualtiative study]. Pflege. 2011;24:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to obtain basic information for the planning of assisted living facilities according to older persons needs and to identify characteristic combinations of needs...
  44. Lourde K. Caregivers focus on sharpening skills. Provider. 2007;33:20-2, 25, 28-32 passim pubmed
  45. Gelhaus L. Top 40 assisted living chains. 2007. Sunrise continues to hold top spot. Provider. 2008;34:45-8 pubmed
  46. LaPorte M, Gelhaus L. Top 50 nursing facility chains & top 40 assisted living chains. Provider. 2006;32:35-9, 41-3 pubmed
  47. Chao S, Dwyer J, Houser R, Jacques P, Tennstedt S. Experts stress both wellness and amenity aspects of food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:1654-61 pubmed publisher
    There has been no consensus on best practices in food and nutrition services in assisted living facilities for older adults...
  48. Lyketsos C, Samus Q, Baker A, McNabney M, Onyike C, Mayer L, et al. Effect of dementia and treatment of dementia on time to discharge from assisted living facilities: the Maryland assisted living study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:1031-7 pubmed
    ..Dementia may accelerate time to discharge, and its treatment may attenuate this effect. The hypothesis that the detection and treatment of dementia might delay discharge from AL should be tested in randomized trials. ..
  49. Woods D, Guo G, Kim H, Phillips L. We've got trouble: medications in assisted living. J Gerontol Nurs. 2010;36:30-9 pubmed publisher
    The rise in assisted living facilities (ALFs), coupled with residents with increasingly complex conditions, leads to unanticipated problems linked to medication management...
  50. Lam A, Li M. A cross-sectional comparison of prevalent diagnoses and medication profiles for residents in an assisted living facility at two time periods. Consult Pharm. 2007;22:312-9 pubmed
    ..To address the changing needs of assisted living facility residents over time, active ongoing monitoring and assessment of residents' medication therapies by pharmacists are indicated. ..
  51. Lam A, Chung Y. Establishing an on-site influenza vaccination service in an assisted-living facility. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008;48:758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza vaccination rates were improved, and patients and staff were highly satisfied with the service. ..
  52. Gustavsson A, Brinck P, Bergvall N, Kolasa K, Wimo A, Winblad B, et al. Predictors of costs of care in Alzheimer's disease: a multinational sample of 1222 patients. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..ADL-ability is the most important predictor of societal costs of care in community dwellings irrespective of country and should therefore be central in the economic evaluation of Alzheimer's disease therapies. ..
  53. Wong Y, Poulin S, Lee S, Davis M, Hadley T. Tracking residential outcomes of supported independent living programs for persons with serious mental illness. Eval Program Plann. 2008;31:416-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of the findings for the development of permanent supportive housing for persons with serious mental illness are discussed. ..