hospital pharmacy service


Summary: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.

Top Publications

  1. Penaforte T, Forste A, Simões M. Evaluation of the performance of pharmacists in terms of providing health assistance at a university hospital. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62:567-72 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that care is still centered on the drug, with few clinical activities. We suggest reformulations in service management, particularly in the management of pharmacists. ..
  2. Oswald S, Caldwell R. Dispensing error rate after implementation of an automated pharmacy carousel system. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:1427-31 pubmed
    ..The implementation of an APCS at a university hospital decreased medication filling errors related to automated cabinets only and did not affect other filling and dispensing errors. ..
  3. Anacleto T, Perini E, Rosa M, Cesar C. Drug-dispensing errors in the hospital pharmacy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62:243-50 pubmed
    ..The dispensing system at the pharmacy can produce many latent failures and does not have an adequate control; it has several conditions that predispose it to the occurrence of errors, contributing to the high rate reported. ..
  4. Beso A, Franklin B, Barber N. The frequency and potential causes of dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy. Pharm World Sci. 2005;27:182-90 pubmed
    ..Dispensing errors occur in about 2% of all dispensed items. About 1 in 100 of these is missed by the final check. The impact on dispensing errors of developments such as automated dispensing systems should be evaluated. ..
  5. Connor T, Sessink P, Harrison B, Pretty J, Peters B, Alfaro R, et al. Surface contamination of chemotherapy drug vials and evaluation of new vial-cleaning techniques: results of three studies. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62:475-84 pubmed
    ..Contamination can be reduced by using decontamination equipment and protective sleeves during the manufacturing process. ..
  6. Ridley S, Booth S, Thompson C. Prescription errors in UK critical care units. Anaesthesia. 2004;59:1193-200 pubmed
    ..9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice. ..
  7. Fortescue E, Kaushal R, Landrigan C, McKenna K, Clapp M, Federico F, et al. Prioritizing strategies for preventing medication errors and adverse drug events in pediatric inpatients. Pediatrics. 2003;111:722-9 pubmed
    ..Development, implementation, and assessment of such interventions in the pediatric inpatient setting are needed. ..
  8. Scarsi K, Fotis M, Noskin G. Pharmacist participation in medical rounds reduces medication errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002;59:2089-92 pubmed
  9. Taxis K, Dean B, Barber N. Hospital drug distribution systems in the UK and Germany--a study of medication errors. Pharm World Sci. 1999;21:25-31 pubmed
    ..Errors occurring with the traditional system and the unit dose system may be reduced if the original prescription is used for medication administration. ..

More Information


  1. Poon E, Cina J, Churchill W, Patel N, Featherstone E, Rothschild J, et al. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:426-34 pubmed
    ..The overall rates of dispensing errors and potential ADEs substantially decreased after implementing bar code technology. However, the technology should be configured to scan every dose during the dispensing process. ..
  2. Cina J, Gandhi T, Churchill W, Fanikos J, McCrea M, Mitton P, et al. How many hospital pharmacy medication dispensing errors go undetected?. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2006;32:73-80 pubmed
    ..Pharmacy distribution systems require further process redesign to achieve the highest possible level of safety and reliability. ..
  3. Mason H, Blair S, Sams C, Jones K, Garfitt S, Cuschieri M, et al. Exposure to antineoplastic drugs in two UK hospital pharmacy units. Ann Occup Hyg. 2005;49:603-10 pubmed
    ..This study, and related studies of hospital oncology ward staff, appear to be the only recent UK studies of occupational cytotoxic drug exposure using environmental and biological monitoring techniques. ..
  4. Meng Q, Cheng G, Silver L, Sun X, Rehnberg C, Tomson G. The impact of China's retail drug price control policy on hospital expenditures: a case study in two Shandong hospitals. Health Policy Plan. 2005;20:185-96 pubmed
    ..Improvement of rational use of drugs and correcting the present incentive structure for hospitals and drug prescribers may be important additional strategies for achieving containment of drug expenditures. ..
  5. Sexton J, Ho Y, Green C, Caldwell N. Ensuring seamless care at hospital discharge: a national survey. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000;25:385-93 pubmed
    ..Few hospitals involved community pharmacies routinely in the discharge process. There is still wide variation within hospital pharmacy practice in meeting the medicines-related needs of patients at discharge. ..
  6. Diehl L, Goo E, Sumiye L, Ferrell R. Reducing waste of intravenous solutions. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1992;49:106-8 pubmed
    ..By using several methods to reduce the waste of i.v. solutions, a pharmacy department has limited the rate of waste to only 3.27%. ..
  7. Smoger S, Looney S, Blondell R, Wieland L, Sexton L, Rhodes S, et al. Hospital Use of Ethanol Survey (HUES): preliminary results. J Addict Dis. 2002;21:65-73 pubmed
    ..Alcohol is widely dispensed with few guidelines in this sample of acute-care hospitals. Additional research on therapeutic efficacy, consequences, and institutional oversight of alcohol in hospitals is needed...
  8. Leboucher G, Serratrice F, Bertholle V, Thore L, Bost M. [Evaluation of platinum contamination of a hazardous drug preparation area in a hospital pharmacy]. Bull Cancer. 2002;89:949-55 pubmed
    ..In this way, a centralized unit provides total protection from exposure to hazardous drugs. ..
  9. Rolland P. Occurrence of dispensing errors and efforts to reduce medication errors at the Central Arkansas Veteran's Healthcare System. Drug Saf. 2004;27:271-82 pubmed
    ..Focusing error reduction efforts on selection of the correct drug and correct patient would likely yield the best results in reducing dispensing errors since these errors combined accounted for 55 (67.1%) of the 82 reported errors. ..
  10. Martinez M, Freire A, Castro I, Inaraja M, Ortega A, del Campo V, et al. Clinical and economic impact of a pharmacist-intervention to promote sequential intravenous to oral clindamycin conversion. Pharm World Sci. 2000;22:53-8 pubmed
    ..A sequential program with clindamycin may provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional therapy and the introduction of an information sheet is a cost-effective strategy to promote it. ..
  11. Jornet Montaña S, Canadell Vilarrasa L, Calabuig Mũoz M, Riera Sendra G, Vuelta Arce M, Bardají Ruiz A, et al. [Detection and classification of medication errors at Joan XXIII University Hospital]. Farm Hosp. 2004;28:90-6 pubmed
    ..Recognizing the incidence and types of medication errors that occur in a health-care setting allows us to analyze their causes and effect changes in different stages of the process in order to ensure maximal patient safety. ..
  12. Bremberg E, Hising C, Nylén U, Ehrsson H, Eksborg S. An evaluation of pharmacist contribution to an oncology ward in a Swedish hospital. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2006;12:75-81 pubmed
    ..A pharmacist can improve drug use in an oncology ward as a member of the health-care team. The pharmacist contributes with a systematic focus on the patient from a drug perspective. ..
  13. Kaboli P, Hoth A, McClimon B, Schnipper J. Clinical pharmacists and inpatient medical care: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:955-64 pubmed
    ..Future studies should include multiple sites, larger sample sizes, reproducible interventions, and identification of patient-specific factors that lead to improved outcomes. ..
  14. Engstrom C, Hernandez I, Haywood J, Lilenbaum R. The efficacy and cost effectiveness of new antiemetic guidelines. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1999;26:1453-8 pubmed
    ..This must be performed to achieve cost effectiveness as well as useful clinical outcomes. ..
  15. Sano H, Waddell J, Solimando D, Doulaveris P, Myhand R. Study of the effect of standardized chemotherapy order forms on prescribing errors and anti-emetic cost. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2005;11:21-30 pubmed
    ..SCOFs significantly reduced serotonin antagonist anti-emetic cost and prescribing error rate over a four-month period. ..
  16. Anacleto T, Perini E, Rosa M, Cesar C. Medication errors and drug-dispensing systems in a hospital pharmacy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2005;60:325-32 pubmed
  17. Slama C, Jerome J, Jacquot C, Bonan B. Prescription errors with cytotoxic drugs and the inadequacy of existing classifications. Pharm World Sci. 2005;27:339-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a redefinition of the classifications of errors for cytotoxic preparations seems desirable, and such classifications should include typical pharmaceutical problems, and potential errors that do not reach the patient. ..
  18. Dean B, Schachter M, Vincent C, Barber N. Prescribing errors in hospital inpatients: their incidence and clinical significance. Qual Saf Health Care. 2002;11:340-4 pubmed
    ..Knowing where and when errors are most likely to occur will be helpful in designing initiatives to reduce them. The methods developed could be used to evaluate such initiatives. ..
  19. Schmaus G, Schierl R, Funck S. Monitoring surface contamination by antineoplastic drugs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and voltammetry. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002;59:956-61 pubmed
  20. Facchinetti N, Campbell G, Jones D. Evaluating dispensing error detection rates in a hospital pharmacy. Med Care. 1999;37:39-43 pubmed
    ..It demonstrates the importance of considering the types of errors under examination and of using appropriate measures of error checkers when drawing conclusions on relative competence. ..
  21. Gillerman R, Browning R. Drug use inefficiency: a hidden source of wasted health care dollars. Anesth Analg. 2000;91:921-4 pubmed
    ..The reason most cited for waste was disposal of full, or partially full, syringes. ..
  22. Bond C, Raehl C, Franke T. Medication errors in United States hospitals. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:1023-36 pubmed
    ..The results of this study should help hospitals reduce the number of medication errors that occur each year. ..
  23. Flynn E, Barker K, Pepper G, Bates D, Mikeal R. Comparison of methods for detecting medication errors in 36 hospitals and skilled-nursing facilities. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002;59:436-46 pubmed
    ..Pharmacy technicians were more efficient and accurate than R.N.s and L.P.N.s in collecting data about medication errors. ..
  24. Bolas H, Brookes K, Scott M, McElnay J. Evaluation of a hospital-based community liaison pharmacy service in Northern Ireland. Pharm World Sci. 2004;26:114-20 pubmed
    ..The study indicated clear benefits from the involvement of a hospital based community liaison pharmacist in achieving seamless pharmaceutical care between the primary and secondary healthcare settings. ..
  25. Mason H, Morton J, Garfitt S, Iqbal S, Jones K. Cytotoxic drug contamination on the outside of vials delivered to a hospital pharmacy. Ann Occup Hyg. 2003;47:681-5 pubmed
    ..Levels of glove and floor contamination for some drugs were found to be comparable with values found in our study of the clean rooms where the isolators were situated and the pharmacy staff prepared the cytotoxic drugs. ..
  26. Corley S. Electronic prescribing: a review of costs and benefits. Top Health Inf Manage. 2003;24:29-38 pubmed
    ..The conclusion is made that electronic prescribing software is cost-effective for all size practices with a more rapid return on investment in larger practices. ..
  27. Goldspiel B, DeChristoforo R, Daniels C. A continuous-improvement approach for reducing the number of chemotherapy-related medication errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57 Suppl 4:S4-9 pubmed
    ..The continuous-improvement process used prospectively by the task force helps ensure that safe chemotherapy practices are instituted uniformly throughout the hospital. ..
  28. Limat S, Drouhin J, Demesmay K, Tissot E, Jacquet M, Woronoff Lemsi M. Incidence and risk factors of preparation errors in a centralized cytotoxic preparation unit. Pharm World Sci. 2001;23:102-6 pubmed
    ..Preparation mistakes appeared to have many causes. These results could be used to revise the general organization and determine a suitable purchasing policy. ..
  29. Fontan J, Maneglier V, Nguyen V, Loirat C, Brion F. Medication errors in hospitals: computerized unit dose drug dispensing system versus ward stock distribution system. Pharm World Sci. 2003;25:112-7 pubmed
  30. Koinuma M, Imai Y, Kanda M, Koike K, Miyazaki Y, Sato T, et al. [Search for consciousness of hospital pharmacists on the future prospects of their practices and on their practices of blood drawing or injection]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2009;129:887-96 pubmed
    ..We hope this study results will be utilized as objective information in the discussion on the expansion of pharmacists' job categories. ..
  31. Pedersen C, Schneider P, Scheckelhoff D. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration--2008. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66:926-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacists are continuing to improve medication use at the dispensing and administration steps of the medication-use process. ..
  32. López M, Saliente M, Company E, Monsalve A, Cueva M, Domingo E, et al. Drug-related problems at discharge: results on the Spanish pharmacy discharge programme CONSULTENOS. Int J Pharm Pract. 2010;18:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..DRPs occur frequently after patient discharge. A pharmaceutical care programme can identify and solve DRPs in this scenario. The clinical impact of the pharmacists' interventions should be better addressed. ..
  33. Bosma L, Jansman F, Franken A, Harting J, van den Bemt P. Evaluation of pharmacist clinical interventions in a Dutch hospital setting. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30:31-8 pubmed
    ..Clinical pharmacy services provided by a junior hospital pharmacist on an internal medicine ward contribute to rationalization of drug therapy and are therefore likely to increase medication safety. ..
  34. Estellat C, Colombet I, Vautier S, Huault Quentel J, Durieux P, Sabatier B. Impact of pharmacy validation in a computerized physician order entry context. Int J Qual Health Care. 2007;19:317-25 pubmed
    ..Those improvements would allow pharmacists to concentrate on the most relevant interventions. ..
  35. Magarinos Torres R, Osorio de Castro C, Edais Pepe V. [Establishment of criteria and outcome indicators for hospital pharmacies in Brazil using Delphos]. Cad Saude Publica. 2007;23:1791-802 pubmed
  36. Roberts R, Russell W. A pharmacist-based toxicology service. 1978. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1719-24 pubmed
  37. Tahaineh L, Wazaify M, Albsoul Younes A, Khader Y, Zaidan M. Perceptions, experiences, and expectations of physicians in hospital settings in Jordan regarding the role of the pharmacist. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing physician awareness of these clinical pharmacy skills will be an important step in developing CWRs. ..
  38. Fahimi F, Abbasi Nazari M, Abrishami R, Sistanizad M, Mazidi T, Faghihi T, et al. Transcription errors observed in a teaching hospital. Arch Iran Med. 2009;12:173-5 pubmed
    ..The evaluation clearly showed that errors at transcription stage were not infrequent. To cut these errors down we suggest implementation of surveillance systems, which might help to decrease medication errors. ..
  39. Thompson C. Hospital inspectors eye black-box warnings. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:890-4 pubmed publisher
  40. Marín Gil R, Santos Ramos B, Briones Pérez de la Blanca E, Flores Moreno S, Gallego Villanueva S, Bautista Paloma J. [Implementation of the guidelines for the introduction of new drugs (GINF) in Andalusian hospitals]. Farm Hosp. 2007;31:212-7 pubmed
    ..They are considered a useful tool and influence the drug selection process, in particular in training hospitals with a higher classification. ..
  41. Wick J. How to eliminate "do not use" abbreviations. Consult Pharm. 2007;22:870-3 pubmed
    ..As a dead language (a language with no native speakers), it was exact in its meaning and unlikely to be misinterpreted. Many health care providers, having used these abbreviations for decades, are unwilling or reluctant to change. ..
  42. Bertsche T, Mayer Y, Stahl R, Hoppe Tichy T, Encke J, Haefeli W. Prevention of intravenous drug incompatibilities in an intensive care unit. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:1834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Incompatible drug pairs that were governed by the new SOP were reduced from 1.9% to 0.5%. Administration of incompatible i.v. drugs in critically ill patients was frequent but significantly reduced by procedural interventions with SOPs. ..
  43. Matzke G, St Peter W, Comstock T, Foote E. Nephrology pharmaceutical care preceptorship: a programmatic and clinical outcomes assessment. 2000. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1892-8 pubmed
  44. Du Parc E, Nguyen Khoa B, Jones J. Specialized pharmacy education in France. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:1647-50 pubmed
  45. Tan W, Chua S, Yong K, Wu T. Impact of pharmacy automation on patient waiting time: an application of computer simulation. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009;38:501-7 pubmed
    ..Simulation was found to be a useful and low cost method that allows an otherwise expensive and resource intensive evaluation of new work processes and technology to be completed within a short time. ..
  46. Sarani B, Brenner S, Gabel B, Myers J, Gibson G, Phillips J, et al. Improving sepsis care through systems change: the impact of a medical emergency team. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008;34:179-82, 125 pubmed
    ..The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania achieved a significant reduction in the time between prescription and administration of antibiotics by embedding a pharmacist in an MET to facilitate antibiotic delivery. ..
  47. Tokui K, Kobayashi K. [Histories of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Department of Pharmacy, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital]. Yakushigaku Zasshi. 2007;42:22-7 pubmed
    ..There has also been a sharp increase in the number of pharmacists, from 0 to 34. Over these many years, our hospital operations have continued to evolve to meet the needs of the time. ..
  48. Koczmara C, Broadfield L, Hyland S, Cheng R. A near miss involving cyclophosphamide. Dynamics. 2009;20:25-6 pubmed
    ..The learning from this incident, including recommendations, is shared. ..
  49. Gillespie U, Alassaad A, Henrohn D, Garmo H, Hammarlund Udenaes M, Toss H, et al. A comprehensive pharmacist intervention to reduce morbidity in patients 80 years or older: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..If implemented on a population basis, the addition of pharmacists to health care teams would lead to major reductions in morbidity and health care costs. ..
  50. Jaehde U, Liekweg A, Simons S, Westfeld M. Minimising treatment-associated risks in systemic cancer therapy. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30:161-8 pubmed
    ..Pharmaceutical care for cancer patients should be developed within research projects and integrated into disease management programs in order to ensure broad implementation. ..
  51. Benko R, Matuz M, Hajdu E, Peto Z, Hegedus A, Bogar L, et al. [The participation of pharmacist in antibiotic related activities of Hungarian hospitals and intensive care units]. Acta Pharm Hung. 2009;79:57-62 pubmed
    ..The role of pharmacist remained marginal in every field. All these findings suggest the need for appointment of a responsible, multidisciplinary antibiotic manamement team including also a pharmacist. ..
  52. Padiyara R, Komperda K. Effect of postgraduate training on job and career satisfaction among health-system pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..7% of pharmacists without postgraduate training (p < 0.001). Pharmacists who completed postgraduate training were more satisfied with their job than those who did not complete such training. ..
  53. Kubica A, White S. Leading from the middle: positioning for success. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:1739-42 pubmed