clinical pharmacy information systems


Summary: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.

Top Publications

  1. Hoch I, Heymann A, Kurman I, Valinsky L, Chodick G, Shalev V. Countrywide computer alerts to community physicians improve potassium testing in patients receiving diuretics. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2003;10:541-6 pubmed
    ..The success of this reminder system encourages expansion to include more drug-laboratory interactions. Furthermore, direct alerts to patients at multiple organization/patient contact points are planned. ..
  2. Cornish P, Knowles S, Marchesano R, Tam V, Shadowitz S, Juurlink D, et al. Unintended medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:424-9 pubmed
    ..Medication errors at the time of hospital admission are common, and some have the potential to cause harm. Better methods of ensuring an accurate medication history at the time of hospital admission are needed. ..
  3. Koppel R, Metlay J, Cohen A, Abaluck B, Localio A, Kimmel S, et al. Role of computerized physician order entry systems in facilitating medication errors. JAMA. 2005;293:1197-203 pubmed
    ..As CPOE systems are implemented, clinicians and hospitals must attend to errors that these systems cause in addition to errors that they prevent. ..
  4. Cordero L, Kuehn L, Kumar R, Mekhjian H. Impact of computerized physician order entry on clinical practice in a newborn intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2004;24:88-93 pubmed
    ..In spite of the complexities of medication orders in pediatric populations, commercially available software programs for CPOE can successfully be adjusted to accommodate NICU needs and to beneficially impact clinical practice. ..
  5. Potts A, Barr F, Gregory D, Wright L, Patel N. Computerized physician order entry and medication errors in a pediatric critical care unit. Pediatrics. 2004;113:59-63 pubmed
    ..9%, and MPEs and RVs were reduced by 99.4% and 97.9%, respectively. The implementation of CPOE resulted in almost a complete elimination of MPEs and RVs and a significant but less dramatic effect on potential ADEs. ..
  6. Shulman R, Singer M, Goldstone J, Bellingan G. Medication errors: a prospective cohort study of hand-written and computerised physician order entry in the intensive care unit. Crit Care. 2005;9:R516-21 pubmed
    ..Moderate and major errors, however, remain a significant concern with CPOE. ..
  7. Tamblyn R, Huang A, Perreault R, Jacques A, Roy D, Hanley J, et al. The medical office of the 21st century (MOXXI): effectiveness of computerized decision-making support in reducing inappropriate prescribing in primary care. CMAJ. 2003;169:549-56 pubmed
  8. Tamblyn R, Huang A, Kawasumi Y, Bartlett G, Grad R, Jacques A, et al. The development and evaluation of an integrated electronic prescribing and drug management system for primary care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:148-59 pubmed
    ..Primary care physicians believed an integrated electronic prescribing and drug management system would improve continuity of care, and they were more likely to use the system for patients with more complex, fragmented care. ..
  9. Schiff G, Klass D, Peterson J, Shah G, Bates D. Linking laboratory and pharmacy: opportunities for reducing errors and improving care. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:893-900 pubmed
    ..While many guidelines, admonitions, and rules exist regarding drugs and the laboratory, substantial new knowledge and evidence in this area are needed. Focusing on these unmet needs and accompanying logistical challenges is a priority. ..

More Information


  1. Jackevicius C, Paterson J, Naglie G. Concordance between discharge prescriptions and insurance claims in post-myocardial infarction patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:207-15 pubmed
    ..Among the data elements studied, concordance between written prescriptions and insurance claims was greatest for daily dose. Concordance was greater for scheduled cardiac medications than for other medications. ..
  2. Poon E, Blumenfeld B, Hamann C, Turchin A, Graydon Baker E, McCarthy P, et al. Design and implementation of an application and associated services to support interdisciplinary medication reconciliation efforts at an integrated healthcare delivery network. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13:581-92 pubmed
    ..Results from early pilot testing suggest that this new medication reconciliation process is well accepted by clinicians and has significant potential to prevent medication errors during transitions of care. ..
  3. Vigoda M, Gencorelli F, Lubarsky D. Discrepancies in medication entries between anesthetic and pharmacy records using electronic databases. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1061-5, table of contents pubmed
    ..An electronic interface between an AIMS and a medication dispensing system could alert users of medication entry errors prior to finalizing a case, thus reducing the time (and cost) of reconciling discrepancies. ..
  4. Schnipper J, Hamann C, Ndumele C, Liang C, Carty M, Karson A, et al. Effect of an electronic medication reconciliation application and process redesign on potential adverse drug events: a cluster-randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Software integration issues are likely important for successful implementation of computerized medication reconciliation tools. ..
  5. Weingart S, Cleary A, Seger A, Eng T, Saadeh M, Gross A, et al. Medication reconciliation in ambulatory oncology. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33:750-7 pubmed
    ..Implementation required broad staff engagement and ongoing attention to operational issues. ..
  6. Steele A, Eisert S, Witter J, Lyons P, Jones M, Gabow P, et al. The effect of automated alerts on provider ordering behavior in an outpatient setting. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e255 pubmed
    ..Implementation of rules technology to prevent medication errors could be an effective tool for reducing medication errors in an outpatient setting. ..
  7. Wears R, Berg M. Computer technology and clinical work: still waiting for Godot. JAMA. 2005;293:1261-3 pubmed
  8. Garg A, Adhikari N, McDonald H, Rosas Arellano M, Devereaux P, Beyene J, et al. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: a systematic review. JAMA. 2005;293:1223-38 pubmed
    ..001). Many CDSSs improve practitioner performance. To date, the effects on patient outcomes remain understudied and, when studied, inconsistent. ..
  9. Bizovi K, Beckley B, McDade M, Adams A, Lowe R, Zechnich A, et al. The effect of computer-assisted prescription writing on emergency department prescription errors. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:1168-75 pubmed
    ..10 to 0.36)] than were the HW prescriptions. Computer-assisted prescriptions were more than three times less likely to contain errors and five times less likely to require pharmacist clarification than handwritten prescriptions. ..
  10. Kuperman G, Teich J, Gandhi T, Bates D. Patient safety and computerized medication ordering at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2001;27:509-21 pubmed
    ..CPOE and several forms of clinical decision support targeted at increasing patient safety have substantially decreased the frequency of serious medication errors and have had an even bigger impact on the overall medication error rate. ..
  11. Mekhjian H, Kumar R, Kuehn L, Bentley T, Teater P, Thomas A, et al. Immediate benefits realized following implementation of physician order entry at an academic medical center. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002;9:529-39 pubmed
    ..The reductions in transcription errors, medication turn-around times, and timely reporting of results supports the view that POE and eMAR provide a good return on investment. ..
  12. Bates D, Teich J, Lee J, Seger D, Kuperman G, Ma Luf N, et al. The impact of computerized physician order entry on medication error prevention. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1999;6:313-21 pubmed
    ..A major reduction in errors was achieved with the initial version of the system, and further reductions were found with addition of decision support features. ..
  13. Solano T, Matthews Z. Comparison of antibiotic dispensing data with administration data in intensive care. J Hosp Infect. 2004;58:87-8 pubmed
  14. Pham P. Drug-drug interaction programs in clinical practice. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:396-8 pubmed publisher
  15. McKinney M. Telemedicine. Without leaving the city, pharmacists fill void at rural hospitals. Hosp Health Netw. 2008;82:12 pubmed
  16. Bouchand F, Thomas A, Zerhouni L, Dauphin A, Conort O. [Pharmacists' interventions before and after prescription computerization in an internal medicine department]. Presse Med. 2007;36:410-8 pubmed
    ..CPOE introduced new risks of serious errors. In our study, CPOE did not prevent medication errors and led to new types of errors. The presence and intervention of clinical pharmacists remained necessary. ..
  17. Bierstock S, Kanig S, Marcus E. Computerized physician order entry systems and medication errors. JAMA. 2005;294:178-9; author reply 180-1 pubmed
  18. Kirkman K. The five foundations of successful e-prescribing programs. The right combination of technology, people, process and commitment drive success for electronic prescribing. Health Manag Technol. 2005;26:32-3 pubmed
  19. Brient P. Maximizing the gains of mobility. Mobile technology's workflow improvements for physicians have a downstream effect throughout entire healthcare systems. Health Manag Technol. 2005;26:22-4 pubmed
  20. Lin C, Tsai F, Tsai W, Wen H, Hu M. The feasibility of QR-code prescription in Taiwan. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2012;37:643-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, pharmacists can offer better quality of pharmacy service to patients. ..
  21. Spencer D, Leininger A, Daniels R, Granko R, Coeytaux R. Effect of a computerized prescriber-order-entry system on reported medication errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62:416-9 pubmed
  22. Scavuzzo J, Gamba N. Bridging the gap: the Virtual Chemotherapy Unit. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2004;21:27-32 pubmed
    ..Nurses identified situations with potential for error in the ordering and administration of chemotherapy. These scenarios were analyzed and used in creating a safer system. ..
  23. Runy L. American Hospital Quest for Quality Prize winner. Heading off harm before it happens. Abington (Pa.) Memorial Hospital. Trustee. 2004;57:22-3 pubmed
  24. Chaffee B, Bonasso J. Strategies for pharmacy integration and pharmacy information system interfaces, Part 2: Scope of work and technical aspects of interfaces. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61:506-14 pubmed
  25. Baldwin F. A two-party line. E-prescribing has gotten faster and soon will be smarter. Healthc Inform. 2005;22:31-2, 34 pubmed
  26. Goedert J. A tablet a day keeps the errors away. Health Data Manag. 2003;11:42, 45-6 pubmed
  27. Cimino J, Bright T, Li J. Medication reconciliation using natural language processing and controlled terminologies. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2007;129:679-83 pubmed
    ..This approach has implications for efforts to improve medication history-taking, order entry, and automated auditing of patient records for quality assurance. ..
  28. Fishman P, Goodman M, Hornbrook M, Meenan R, Bachman D, O Keeffe Rosetti M. Risk adjustment using automated ambulatory pharmacy data: the RxRisk model. Med Care. 2003;41:84-99 pubmed
  29. Hornick T, Higgins P, Stollings C, Wetzel L, Barzilai K, Wolpaw D. Initial evaluation of a computer-based medication management tool in a geriatric clinic. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2006;4:62-9 pubmed
    ..The VMP is a promising tool for use by both patients and providers to improve medication management. Although it was developed in the VAMC system, its Web-based platform has the potential for export to other systems. ..
  30. Dexter F. Detecting diversion of anesthetic drugs by providers. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:897-8 pubmed
  31. Marshalek G, Casey S. Pain-free CPOE. Following the right protocol is a critical step for encouraging physician adoption. Health Manag Technol. 2003;24:24-7 pubmed
  32. Lee J. EMR management system for patient pulse data. J Med Syst. 2012;36:3255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, when a comprehensive medical testing center system including the people medical examination and diverse physical examination is established, the quality of medical service is expected to be improved than now. ..
  33. Bryson C, Au D, Young B, McDonell M, Fihn S. A refill adherence algorithm for multiple short intervals to estimate refill compliance (ReComp). Med Care. 2007;45:497-504 pubmed
    ..231; [95% CI, 0.222-0.239]; MEDSUM R2 = 0.054; [95% CI, 0.049-0.059]; MEDOUT R2 = 0.053; [95% CI, 0.048-0.058]). ReComp is better suited to shorter observation intervals with repeated measures than previously used measures. ..
  34. Barnett N, Francis S, Jenner C, Lubel D, Denham M. Medicines. Back to the future. Health Serv J. 2003;113:32 pubmed
  35. MacQueen A. "Doctor shoppers": at risk by any other name. Med J Aust. 2004;181:342 pubmed
  36. Raebel M, Carroll N, Kelleher J, Chester E, Berga S, Magid D. Randomized trial to improve prescribing safety during pregnancy. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14:440-50 pubmed
    ..Systems limitations contributed to project discontinuation. Linking ambulatory clinical, laboratory, and pharmacy information to provide safety alerts is not sufficient to ensure project success and sustainability. ..
  37. Odukoya O, Chui M. Retail pharmacy staff perceptions of design strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012;19:1059-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This information can be used by policy makers to create e-prescribing standards for pharmacies. ..
  38. Maviglia S. Delivering informed care. Health Manag Technol. 2006;27:26-8 pubmed
  39. Kitson N, Price M, Bowen M, Lau F. Usability inspection to improve an electronic provincial medication repository. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;183:168-73 pubmed
    ..As such, some of the features do not have a strong fit for other clinical activities. To improve fit, we recommend: having a Current Medications List and Displaying Medication Utilization Charts. ..
  40. Cohen M. Interview with a quality leader: Michael Cohen on medication error reporting and patient safety. Interview by Pamela K. Scarrow and Cherrie Routon. J Healthc Qual. 2005;27:29-36 pubmed
  41. Kazemi A, Ellenius J, Pourasghar F, Tofighi S, Salehi A, Amanati A, et al. The effect of Computerized Physician Order Entry and decision support system on medication errors in the neonatal ward: experiences from an Iranian teaching hospital. J Med Syst. 2011;35:25-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Physicians ignored alerts when they could not understand why they appeared. A suggestion is to add explanations about these reasons to increase physicians' compliance with the system's recommendations. ..
  42. Carmichael J, Alvarez A, Chaput R, DiMaggio J, Magallon H, Mambourg S. Establishment and outcomes of a model primary care pharmacy service system. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61:472-82 pubmed
    ..A system using pharmacists as independent practitioners to promote primary care has achieved high-quality and cost-effective patient care. ..
  43. Hernandez P, Podchiyska T, Weber S, Ferris T, LOWE H. Automated mapping of pharmacy orders from two electronic health record systems to RxNorm within the STRIDE clinical data warehouse. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2009;2009:244-8 pubmed
    ..5 million pharmacy orders showed that the system could accurately assign pharmacy orders in over 96% of cases. This paper describes the algorithm and discusses some of the causes of failures in mapping to RxNorm. ..
  44. Reece K, Lozano M, Roux R, Spivey S. Implementation and evaluation of a gravimetric i.v. workflow software system in an oncology ambulatory care pharmacy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized workflow processes and the elimination of time-consuming manual steps increased productivity while vial management decreased costs. ..
  45. Crane A. The payoff: preventing errors. Medication management. Hosp Health Netw. 2007;81:57-8, 60, 2 pubmed
    ..To reduce the chance of errors, hospitals are investing in technology that tracks medications from the clinician to the pharmacy to the patient. ..
  46. Lawrence D. RHIO or not--it works. A pilot program on medication histories in EDs is first for Vermont Health Information Exchange. Healthc Inform. 2007;24:46 pubmed
  47. Indermitte J, Beutler M, Bruppacher R, Meier C, Hersberger K. Management of drug-interaction alerts in community pharmacies. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2007;32:133-42 pubmed
    ..Until these become available, it is important to ensure that at least potentially severe drug interactions are not missed; a goal that seems to be largely achieved. ..
  48. Miller R, Gardner R, Johnson K, Hripcsak G. Clinical decision support and electronic prescribing systems: a time for responsible thought and action. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:403-9 pubmed
  49. Turner K, Meyer B, Stewart M. "Mercy meds" boosts safety. An initiative at a St. Louis-based system reduces the danger of medication errors. Health Prog. 2004;85:37-9, 62 pubmed
  50. Silverman J, Stapinski C, Huber C, Ghandi T, Churchill W. Computer-based system for preventing adverse drug events. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61:1599-603 pubmed
  51. Rogers J, Wroe C, Roberts A, Swallow A, Stables D, Cantrill J, et al. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53:838-44 pubmed
  52. Smetzer J, Vaida A, Cohen M, Tranum D, Pittman M, Armstrong C. Findings from the ISMP Medication Safety Self-Assessment for hospitals. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29:586-97 pubmed
    ..Enormous opportunities exist to improve medication safety, especially in domains related to culture, information management, and communication. ..
  53. Morrissey J. Always vigilant. At Banner Health in Phoenix, a computerized decision-support system helps warn caregivers when adverse drug interactions or other harmful events are imminent. Mod Healthc. 2003;33:28-30, 35 pubmed