district hospitals


Summary: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.

Top Publications

  1. Justin Temu M, Rimoy G, Premji Z, Matemu G. Causes, magnitude and management of burns in under-fives in district hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. East Afr J Public Health. 2008;5:38-42 pubmed
    ..the causes, magnitude and management of burns in children under five years of age who were admitted in the district hospitals of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. In this study, a total of 204 under fives were enrolled...
  2. De Brouwere V, Dieng T, Diadhiou M, Witter S, Denerville E. Task shifting for emergency obstetric surgery in district hospitals in Senegal. Reprod Health Matters. 2009;17:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Central decision-makers considered the policy more viable than training gynaecologists for district hospitals, but resistance from senior academic clinicians, a perceived lack of career progression among the doctors ..
  3. Mosha D, Poulsen A, Reyburn H, Kituma E, Mtei F, Bygbjerg I. Quality of paediatric blood transfusions in two district hospitals in Tanzania: a cross-sectional hospital based study. BMC Pediatr. 2009;9:51 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study describes the quality of paediatric BT delivered in two district hospitals in north-east Tanzania in order to identify areas for quality assurance and improvement in the ..
  4. Okiro E, Hay S, Gikandi P, Sharif S, Noor A, Peshu N, et al. The decline in paediatric malaria admissions on the coast of Kenya. Malar J. 2007;6:151 pubmed
    ..Paediatric admission data were assembled over 8.25 years from three District Hospitals; Kilifi, Msambweni and Malindi, situated along the Kenyan Coast...
  5. Lavy C, Tindall A, Steinlechner C, Mkandawire N, Chimangeni S. Surgery in Malawi - a national survey of activity in rural and urban hospitals. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89:722-4 pubmed
    Malawi is a poor country with few doctors. It has 21 district hospitals all of which have operating theatres but none of which has a permanent surgeon. It also has 4 central hospitals, each with one or more surgeons...
  6. English M. Child survival: district hospitals and paediatricians. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:974-8 pubmed
    ..Progress is further complicated by the diverse conditions and obstacles that may be encountered worldwide. ..
  7. Bossyns P, Abache R, Abdoulaye M, Lerberghe W. Unaffordable or cost-effective?: introducing an emergency referral system in rural Niger. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:879-87 pubmed
    ..Organizing emergency evacuation systems should be a priority for any health district in the world. ..
  8. Kruk M, Wladis A, Mbembati N, Ndao Brumblay S, Hsia R, Galukande M, et al. Human resource and funding constraints for essential surgery in district hospitals in Africa: a retrospective cross-sectional survey. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000242 pubmed publisher
    ..the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries...
  9. Olukoga A. Unit costs of inpatient days in district hospitals in South Africa. Singapore Med J. 2007;48:143-7 pubmed
    This study aims to estimate the unit costs of inpatient days in five district hospitals in South Africa. The study is based on a costing exercise carried out in five district hospitals in South Africa...

More Information


  1. Nordberg E, Mwobobia I, Muniu E. Major and minor surgery output at district level in Kenya: review and issues in need of further research. Afr J Health Sci. 2002;9:17-25 pubmed
  2. Dowie R, Mistry H, Rigby M, Young T, Weatherburn G, Rowlinson G, et al. A paediatric telecardiology service for district hospitals in south-east England: an observational study. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective cohort study over 15 months. Four district hospitals in south-east England and a London paediatric cardiology centre. Babies and children...
  3. Bruijn M, Busari J, Wolf B. Quality of clinical supervision as perceived by specialist registrars in a university and district teaching hospital. Med Educ. 2006;40:1002-8 pubmed
    ..In both settings, generating a good learning environment and respecting the autonomy of the SpRs scored favourably. Supervisory roles focusing on improving cost-effective practice and communicative skills need more emphasis. ..
  4. Cremers M, Marques Vidal P. Colonoscopies in Portuguese district hospitals: a multicentric transverse study. Dig Liver Dis. 2006;38:912-7 pubmed
    To characterise the colonoscopies performed in the Portuguese District Hospitals. Transverse study conducted between 7 and 18 March 2005 amongst the 33 District Hospitals throughout Portugal...
  5. Pereira C, Cumbi A, Malalane R, Vaz F, McCord C, Bacci A, et al. Meeting the need for emergency obstetric care in Mozambique: work performance and histories of medical doctors and assistant medical officers trained for surgery. BJOG. 2007;114:1530-3 pubmed
    ..Major obstetric surgery is conducted by nonphysicians in 57% of the 12,178 operations scrutinised. In district hospitals, they conducted 92% of 3246 operations...
  6. Kouanfack C, Laborde Balen G, Aghokeng A, Bourgeois A, Dontsop M, Mben J, et al. WHO clinical criteria-based initiation of antiretroviral therapy: lessons from rural district hospitals in Cameroon with regard to 2009 revised WHO recommendations. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:580-3 pubmed publisher
    ..among those classified at WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 who initiated antiretroviral therapy in rural district hospitals in Cameroon to assess the 2009 revised WHO recommendations...
  7. Couper I, Hugo J. Management of district hospitals--exploring success. Rural Remote Health. 2005;5:433 pubmed
    ..exploratory study was carried out using in-depth interviews with 21 managers of well-functioning district hospitals in two districts in South Africa...
  8. Medina Lara A, Mundy C, Kandulu J, Chisuwo L, Bates I. Evaluation and costs of different haemoglobin methods for use in district hospitals in Malawi. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:56-60 pubmed
    ..and provide evidence for the Ministry of Health in Malawi to enable them to choose a suitable method for district hospitals. Criteria on accuracy, clinical usefulness, user friendliness, speed, training time, and economic costs were ..
  9. Basu S, Andrews J, Poolman E, Gandhi N, Shah N, Moll A, et al. Prevention of nosocomial transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in rural South African district hospitals: an epidemiological modelling study. Lancet. 2007;370:1500-7 pubmed
    ..XDR tuberculosis transmission will probably continue in the community, indicating the need to develop and implement parallel community-based programmes. ..
  10. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, et al. Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet. 2004;363:1948-53 pubmed
    ..Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals. ..
  11. Weeks A, Alia G, Ononge S, Mutungi A, Otolorin E, Mirembe F. Introducing criteria based audit into Ugandan maternity units. BMJ. 2003;327:1329-31 pubmed
    ..Follow up is needed to prevent a waning of enthusiasm with time. ..
  12. Bosu W, Odoom S, Deiter P, Essel Ahun M. Epidemiology of measles in the Central Region of Ghana: a five-year case review in three district hospitals. East Afr Med J. 2003;80:312-7 pubmed
    ..A descriptive survey was carried out on retrospective cases of measles. Patients were drawn from the three district hospitals (Assin, Asikuma and Winneba Hospitals) with the highest number of reported cases in the region...
  13. English M, Ngama M, Musumba C, Wamola B, Bwika J, Mohammed S, et al. Causes and outcome of young infant admissions to a Kenyan district hospital. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:438-43 pubmed
    ..8 to 11.2) respectively). Young infants contribute substantially to paediatric inpatient mortality at the first referral level, highlighting the need both for basic supportive care facilities and improved disease prevention strategies. ..
  14. Wagaarachchi P, Graham W, Penney G, McCaw Binns A, Yeboah Antwi K, Hall M. Holding up a mirror: changing obstetric practice through criterion-based clinical audit in developing countries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;74:119-30; discussion 131 pubmed
    ..Criterion-based clinical audit in four typical district hospitals in Ghana and Jamaica is a feasible and acceptable method for quality assurance and appears to have improved ..
  15. Accorsi S, Fabiani M, Lukwiya M, Ravera M, Costanzi A, Ojom L, et al. Impact of insecurity, the AIDS epidemic, and poverty on population health: disease patterns and trends in Northern Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:214-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, preventable and/or treatable communicable diseases, mainly those related to poverty and poor hygiene, represent the leading causes of admission and death, reflecting the socioeconomic disruption in Northern Uganda. ..
  16. Fenton P, Whitty C, Reynolds F. Caesarean section in Malawi: prospective study of early maternal and perinatal mortality. BMJ. 2003;327:587 pubmed
    ..Questionnaires were returned for 5236 caesarean sections in district hospitals and 2834 in central hospitals; 7622 (94%) were emergencies, 5110 (63%) were because of obstructed labour...
  17. Berkley J, Mwangi I, Ngetsa C, Mwarumba S, Lowe B, Marsh K, et al. Diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children at a district hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 2001;357:1753-7 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of childhood acute bacterial meningitis is likely to be missed in a third of cases at district hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa without adequate and reliable laboratory resources...
  18. Blas E, Limbambala M. The challenge of hospitals in health sector reform: the case of Zambia. Health Policy Plan. 2001;16 Suppl 2:29-43 pubmed
    ..If the problems are to be dealt with, the Zambian planners must, together with the politicians, work to create a broad national consensus for understanding the situation, its urgency, and the limited options for forward action. ..
  19. McCarron M, Armstrong M, McCarron P. Potential for quality improvement of acute stroke management in a district general hospital. Emerg Med J. 2008;25:270-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved stroke unit access is required in this district general hospital. Reorganisation of acute stroke services should allow thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke in most district general hospitals. ..
  20. Kumpulainen S, Kuoppala T, Leminen A, Komulainen M, Puistola U, Sankila R, et al. Surgical staging, treatment, and follow-up of borderline tumors in different hospital categories: a prospective nationwide survey in Finland. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:610-4 pubmed
    ..Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy was performed for the majority of patients with borderline ovarian tumor. More attention should be paid to adequate staging of borderline tumors in all hospital categories. ..
  21. Baumgartner J, Cometta A, Fumeaux T. [The chief internist of the general internal medicine department of a regional hospital: an endangered species?]. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3:2579-80 pubmed
  22. Pushparajah K, Garvie D, Hickey A, Qureshi S. Managed Care Network for the assessment of cardiac problems in children in a district general hospital: a working model. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:892-5 pubmed
    ..Paediatricians with specific training in paediatric cardiology are potentially well equipped to provide this basic screening service. ..
  23. Green J, Young J, Forster A, Mallinder K, Bogle S, Lowson K, et al. Effects of locality based community hospital care on independence in older people needing rehabilitation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005;331:317-22 pubmed
    ..Care in a locality based community hospital is associated with greater independence for older people than care in wards for elderly people in a district general hospital. ..
  24. Harahsheh B, Hiyasat B, Abulail A, Al Basheer M. Management of wound infection after appendectomy: are parenteral antibiotics useful?. East Mediterr Health J. 2002;8:638-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that antibiotics do not offer any advantage in post-appendectomy wound infections except for cases of perforated appendix. ..
  25. Shvarts S, Doron H, Sherf M. [The struggle over the establishment of the central hospital in the Negev--the Soroka Medical Center]. Harefuah. 2010;149:131-6, 196 pubmed
    ..The research is based on both archival material and on input from informants from the period who constitute primary sources. ..
  26. Bigsby E, Madhusudana K. To catheterise or not to catheterise: study in hip and knee primary arthroplasty. J Perioper Pract. 2009;19:114-6 pubmed
    ..We examine the rationale for catheterisation in hip and knee arthroplasty and review the available literature. ..
  27. Trinchieri A, Paparella S, Cappoli S, Esposito N, Butti A, Vaiani R, et al. Prospective assessment of the efficacy of the EAU guidelines for the prevention of nosocomial acquired infections after genitourinary surgery in a district hospital. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2009;81:46-50 pubmed
    ..A further effort should be made in order to identify sub-populations of patients for which the actual prophylactic regimen proved to be less efficacious. ..
  28. Motosomane S, Peu M. Nurses' views about tuberculosis patients' discharge plan at Moses Kotane in the North-West Province. Curationis. 2008;31:59-67 pubmed
    ..The data were classified into themes, categories and subcategories. The participants' suggestions regarding discharge plans were addressed and discussed. Finally, recommendations were disseminated to concerned authorities. ..
  29. Todd A, Anderson E. CT scanning in stroke patients: meeting the challenge in the remote and rural district general hospital. Scott Med J. 2009;54:17-20 pubmed
    ..Target times of three hours from onset of symptoms to scan to allow thrombolysis may however be impossible to meet for all stroke patients in rural areas. ..
  30. Rossetti A, Novy J, Ruffieux C, Olivier P, Foletti G, Hayoz D, et al. Management and prognosis of status epilepticus according to hospital setting: a prospective study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009;139:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Since SE severity was similar in the two settings but adherence to national treatment guidelines was higher in the academic centre, further investigation on the prognostic role of SE treatment and outcome determinants is required. ..
  31. Verma S, Rai S, Kant S, Choudhury K. Morbidity profile of paediatric inpatents at a community health centre and a nearby [correction of near by] district hospital in northern India. Indian J Public Health. 2007;51:125-6 pubmed
    ..The blood bank or blood storage facility at a CHC is desirable. ..
  32. Cook T, Gibbison B. Analysis of 1000 consecutive uses of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway by one anaesthetist at a district general hospital. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:436-9 pubmed
    ..Correct placement rates approached 100%. The incidence of complications was low. ..
  33. Kunkler I, Prescott R, Lee R, Brebner J, Cairns J, Fielding R, et al. TELEMAM: a cluster randomised trial to assess the use of telemedicine in multi-disciplinary breast cancer decision making. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:2506-14 pubmed
    ..Telemedicine delivered breast cancer multi-disciplinary meetings have similar clinical effectiveness to standard 'in-person' meetings. ..
  34. Sprigge J, Harper S. Accidental dural puncture and post dural puncture headache in obstetric anaesthesia: presentation and management: a 23-year survey in a district general hospital. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:36-43 pubmed
    ..04%). Successful management of accidental dural puncture and post dural puncture headache requires adherence to clear policies and protocols, with close follow-up of patients by an experienced obstetric anaesthetist. ..
  35. Carmont M, Daynes R, Sedgwick D. The impact of an extreme sports event on a district general hospital. Scott Med J. 2005;50:106-8 pubmed
    ..District General Hospitals continue to provide a substantial contribution to the provision of health care for extreme sports within the UK. ..
  36. Kampa R, Clasper J. Incidence of SLAP lesions in a military population. J R Army Med Corps. 2005;151:171-5 pubmed
    ..Given the high incidence in military personnel, this diagnosis should be considered in military patients presenting with shoulder symptoms, and there should be a low threshold for shoulder arthroscopy. ..
  37. Price L. Treating the clock and not the patient: ambulance response times and risk. Qual Saf Health Care. 2006;15:127-30 pubmed
    ..There is a need for less simplistic quality indicators which recognise that there are many stages between a patient's call for help and safe arrival in hospital. ..
  38. Márkus B, Bajner A, Csejtei A, Firisz B, Hegedus A, Kocsis E, et al. [Surgical aspects of breast cancer screening at our hospital]. Magy Seb. 2006;59:375-82 pubmed
    ..Indications and contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy have been summed up. ..
  39. Mwaniki M, Talbert A, Mturi F, Berkley J, Kager P, Marsh K, et al. Congenital and neonatal malaria in a rural Kenyan district hospital: an eight-year analysis. Malar J. 2010;9:313 pubmed publisher
    ..This study does not support routine treatment with anti-malarial drugs among admitted neonates with or without fever even in a malaria endemic region. ..
  40. Zia M, Rajakumar V, Delicata R, Shandall A. Is there a need for resident general surgical cover in small peripheral hospitals?. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2004;86:455-6 pubmed
    ..A resident staff grade surgeon is not required in a small peripheral hospital and this service could be provided by the resident on-call surgical SpR in a neighbouring larger hospital. ..
  41. Potdar N, Jabbar B, Burrell S. Thromboprophylaxis after vaginal delivery: a district general hospital experience. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:24-6 pubmed
    ..It is less expensive to use enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin for thromboprophylaxis. ..
  42. Cullum S, Tucker S, Todd C, Brayne C. Screening for depression in older medical inpatients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:469-76 pubmed
    ..74, specificity 0.81). This study confirms that depression is common amongst older UK medical inpatients with 1 in 6 suffering from clinical depression. The cut-point for GDS-15 for this population is >or=7. ..
  43. Kasem A, Kamal T, Chandra N, Dayoub I, Munyira H, El Hasani S. Management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a district hospital. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2006;16:355-61 pubmed
    ..A protocol and early endoscopy improve clinical outcome and reduce mortality, which occurred mostly among elderly patients with high risk scores. It is advisable to introduce the Rockall scoring system in practice. ..
  44. Simmons M. Insider ethnography: tinker, tailor, researcher or spy?. Nurse Res. 2007;14:7-17 pubmed
    ..Maxine Simmons reflects on her experiences as an 'insider' ethnographer - a senior manager undertaking research with nurse consultants within her own employing organisation - and the issues that arose as a result. ..
  45. Said E. Capsule endoscopy in a district general hospital. BMJ. 2008;337:a905 pubmed publisher
  46. Hickson G, Federspiel C, Blackford J, Pichert J, Gaska W, Merrigan M, et al. Patient complaints and malpractice risk in a regional healthcare center. South Med J. 2007;100:791-6 pubmed
    ..Associations of risk management experiences with volume of clinical activity (RVUs) for surgeons in the regional medical center environment were not as strong as those found in a similar study reported from an academic medical center. ..
  47. Richard F, Ouedraogo C, Zongo V, Ouattara F, Zongo S, Gruenais M, et al. The difficulty of questioning clinical practice: experience of facility-based case reviews in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. BJOG. 2009;116:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The World Health Organization must take all these factors into account when promoting the institutionalisation of medical audits in obstetrics. ..
  48. Otchere S, Binh H. Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Thanh Hoa and Quang Tri provinces in Vietnam. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;99:165-72 pubmed
    ..The project improved the functional capacity of 3 provincial and 1 district hospitals providing comprehensive EmOC services, and upgraded 1 district hospital providing basic EmOC into a ..
  49. O Reilly J, Lowson K, Young J, Forster A, Green J, Small N. A cost effectiveness analysis within a randomised controlled trial of post-acute care of older people in a community hospital. BMJ. 2006;333:228 pubmed
    ..Post-acute care for older people in a locality based community hospital is of similar cost effectiveness to that of an elderly care department in a district general hospital. ..
  50. Kotagal M, Lee P, Habiyakare C, Dusabe R, Kanama P, Epino H, et al. Improving quality in resource poor settings: observational study from rural Rwanda. BMJ. 2009;339:b3488 pubmed publisher
  51. Nakling J, Backe B. Routine ultrasound screening and detection of congenital anomalies outside a university setting. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:1042-8 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that midtrimester routine ultrasound examination in district hospitals can achieve a detection rate of congenital anomalies comparable with tertiary centers...
  52. Pfaff C, Couper I. The consequences upon patient care of moving Brits Hospital: a case study. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:109-12 pubmed
    ..It is the result of a planning process that did not examine the consequences of the move, both logistic and financial, in adequate detail. Committed hospital staff have tried their best to offer good care in difficult circumstances. ..
  53. Singhal N, Bhutta Z. Newborn resuscitation in resource-limited settings. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;13:432-9 pubmed publisher