recovery room


Summary: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.

Top Publications

  1. Reed H. Criteria for the safe discharge of patients from the recovery room. Nurs Times. 2003;99:22-4 pubmed
    Guidelines need to be in place to help nurses in the recovery room make appropriate and safe decisions when discharging patients to a surgical ward...
  2. Smith A, Pope C, Goodwin D, Mort M. Interprofessional handover and patient safety in anaesthesia: observational study of handovers in the recovery room. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:332-7 pubmed publisher anaesthetists hand over information and professional responsibility to nurses in the operating theatre recovery room. We carried out non-participant practice observation and in-depth interviews with practitioners working in the ..
  3. Swaiss I, Badran I. Discomfort, awareness and recall in the intensive care-still a problem?. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2004;17:951-8 pubmed
    ..More work is still needed i.e. using sedation measuring systems, to improve our sedation and analgesia in the ICU. ..
  4. Battisti A, Michotte J, Tassaux D, Van Gessel E, Jolliet P. Non-invasive ventilation in the recovery room for postoperative respiratory failure: a feasibility study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2005;135:339-43 pubmed
    ..NIV can be safely implemented with a bilevel device in a recovery ward not accustomed to the use of ICU ventilators. The cost-effectiveness of its systematic use in this setting should be assessed. ..
  5. Schoenmeyr T, Dunn P, Gamarnik D, Levi R, Berger D, Daily B, et al. A model for understanding the impacts of demand and capacity on waiting time to enter a congested recovery room. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:1293-304 pubmed publisher
    When a recovery room is fully occupied, patients frequently wait in the operating room after emerging from anesthesia...
  6. Harvey A. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recovery room. A report from Guyana. West Indian Med J. 2001;50:31-6 pubmed
    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients in the recovery room can delay transfer of such patients to the wards, preventing a smooth inflow of patients into the recovery area...
  7. Frasco P, Sprung J, Trentman T. The impact of the joint commission for accreditation of healthcare organizations pain initiative on perioperative opiate consumption and recovery room length of stay. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:162-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the increase in opiate use, which could be explained by compliance with the JCAHO pain initiative, was not associated with additional opiate-induced morbidity in the immediate postoperative period. ..
  8. Leykin Y, Pellis T, Ambrosio C, Zanette G, Malisano A, Rapotec A, et al. A recovery room-based acute pain service. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73:201-6 pubmed
    ..We describe a recovery room (RR) based acute pain service model...
  9. Fredrickson M, Smith K, Wong A. Importance of volume and concentration for ropivacaine interscalene block in preventing recovery room pain and minimizing motor block after shoulder surgery. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1374-81 pubmed publisher
    This three-staged study estimated the volume and concentration of interscalene ropivacaine that would prevent recovery room pain after shoulder surgery under general anesthesia...

More Information


  1. Sharma P, Sieber F, Zakriya K, Pauldine R, Gerold K, Hang J, et al. Recovery room delirium predicts postoperative delirium after hip-fracture repair. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:1215-20, table of contents pubmed
    In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of recovery room delirium in elderly patients having hip-fracture repair under general anesthesia and to discover whether recovery room delirium is associated with continuing ..
  2. Tang C, Wan G. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61093 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center...
  3. Radtke F, Franck M, Schneider M, Luetz A, Seeling M, Heinz A, et al. Comparison of three scores to screen for delirium in the recovery room. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:338-43 pubmed publisher
    Delirium is often seen in the recovery room and is a predictor for postoperative delirium on the ward. However, monitoring to detect delirium in the recovery room as a basic prerequisite for early intervention is rarely used...
  4. Veiga M, Lam M, Gemeinhardt C, Houlihan E, Fitzsimmons B, Hodgson Z. Social support in the post-abortion recovery room: evidence from patients, support persons and nurses in a Vancouver clinic. Contraception. 2011;83:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was carried out in two phases. In Phase I, no accompaniment was allowed in the post-anesthesia recovery room (PAR); in Phase II, accompaniment was permitted...
  5. Radtke F, Franck M, MacGuill M, Seeling M, Lütz A, Westhoff S, et al. Duration of fluid fasting and choice of analgesic are modifiable factors for early postoperative delirium. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine hundred and ten patients were observed in the recovery room and 862 patients on the first postoperative day in the ward at the Charité-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin...
  6. Osmer C, Vogele C, Zickmann B, Hempelmann G. Comparative use of muscle relaxants and their reversal in three European countries: a survey in France, Germany and Great Britain. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1996;13:389-99 pubmed
    ..Side effects of reversal agents are reported by colleagues from all three countries in too high a percentage to justify uncritical administration of these drugs. In Germany there seems to be a noteworthy lack of recovery facilities...
  7. Uakritdathikarn T, Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater A, Vasinanukorn M, Thinchana S, Klayna S. Perioperative desaturation and risk factors in general anesthesia. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:1020-9 pubmed
    ..55% (6/1093), 2.01% (22/1093), and 0.18% (2/1093), respectively. Occurrences of desaturation at the recovery room (RR) were noted in 224 patients (20.49%)...
  8. Ferreira R, Coelli F, Pereira W, Almeida R. Optimizing patient flow in a large hospital surgical centre by means of discrete-event computer simulation models. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14:1031-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It was observed that the introduction of a flexible scheduling/increase in PABs would lead to a significant improvement in the SC productivity. ..
  9. Payne C, Smith C, Newkirk L, Hicks R. Pediatric medication errors in the postanesthesia care unit: analysis of MEDMARX data. AORN J. 2007;85:731-40; quiz 741-4 pubmed
    ..The results of the study indicate that an organization can focus on causes of errors and products involved in errors to mitigate future error occurrence. ..
  10. Seim A, Andersen B, Berger D, Sokal S, Sandberg W. The effect of direct-from-recovery room discharge of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients on recovery room workload. Surg Innov. 2006;13:257-64 pubmed
    ..In this study, we attempt to assess the operational impact on recovery room workload of directly discharging laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients to home...
  11. Magboul M, Odugbesan C, el Dawlatly A, al Saud S. Pulse oximetry: an added criterion for discharge from the post-operative care unit. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 1998;14:417-24 pubmed
    ..Oxygen saturation and PAR score were recorded from the time of arrival till their discharge by the recovery room staff nurses...
  12. Voepel Lewis T, Malviya S, Tait A. A prospective cohort study of emergence agitation in the pediatric postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:1625-30, table of contents pubmed
    ..Children may become agitated after general anesthesia. This study describes several factors that may increase the risk for agitation. These data are important in planning anesthesia care for young children. ..
  13. Houston S, Gentry L, Pruitt V, Dao T, Zabaneh F, Sabo J. Reducing the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in cardiovascular surgery patients. Qual Manag Health Care. 2003;12:28-41 pubmed
    ..The benefits of this outcome effort are easily identified and well-illustrated. The backbone of the initiative--proactive identification of problems and the methodical, reasoned search for answers--is universally applicable. ..
  14. Zoumenou E, Gbenou S, Assouto P, Ouro Bang na Maman A, Lokossou T, Hounnou G, et al. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries: experience in the two main university hospitals of Benin in West Africa. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20:741-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric anesthesia in the two University Hospitals is far from satisfactory. Morbidity and mortality are unacceptably high. Suggestions are made to improve the safety of children undergoing anesthesia. ..
  15. Kinstner C, Likar R, Sandner Kiesling A, Hutschala D, Pipam W, Gustorff B. [Quality of postoperative pain therapy in Austria: national survey of all departments of anesthesiology]. Anaesthesist. 2011;60:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Pain assessment is generally barely adequate and written documentation of pain assessment is missing almost completely. In addition, almost two thirds of hospitals in Austria are still lacking an acute pain service. ..
  16. Cope K, Merritt W, Krenzischek D, Schaefer J, Bukowski J, Foster W, et al. Phase II collaborative pilot study: preliminary analysis of central neural effects from exposure to volatile anesthetics in the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002;17:240-50 pubmed
    ..05). There was no statistical difference in pre- versus postbreath isoflurane or occlusion pressure on Friday. These data indicate that after increased exposure to isoflurane, central neurorespiratory activity was depressed. ..
  17. Pradervand Mooser M, Gardaz J, Capt H, Spahn D. [Relative anesthesia-cost for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: fairly low]. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49:540-4 pubmed
    ..6%) represent a small portion only of total hospital costs. Cost savings thus may result from improving operating room efficiency and shortening of hospitalisation rather than programs aiming at lowering anesthesia costs. ..
  18. Guillon A, Espitalier F, Ehrmann S, Masseret E, Laffon M. [Influence of pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation on pulse pressure variations: randomized study]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013;32:548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PP values obtained with both ventilator modes were not interchangeable. On average, ?PP decreases by more than two points in the passage VVC to VPC for a given patient, all others things being equal. ..
  19. Kaufman B, Dhar P, O Neill D, Leitman B, Fermon C, Wahlander S, et al. Chest radiograph interpretation skills of anesthesiologists. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:680-3 pubmed
    ..Of the participants, 92% were involved in cases requiring general anesthesia; 96% managed patients in the recovery room; and 34% managed patients in the intensive care unit...
  20. Grover A, Duggan E. Chinese whispers in the post anaesthesia care unit (PACU). Ir Med J. 2013;106:241-3 pubmed
    We audited verbal handover of information by anaesthetists to recovery room nurses based on Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation. In Audit A, 100 handovers for elective procedures were included...
  21. Junger A, Hartmann B, Benson M, Schindler E, Dietrich G, Jost A, et al. The use of an anesthesia information management system for prediction of antiemetic rescue treatment at the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:1203-9 pubmed
    ..With the help of computerized data evaluation, 7 of 34 variables could be detected as risk factors. By implementing an automatic score into the record keeping system, an individual risk calculation could be made possible. ..
  22. Ellerkmann R, Soehle M, Riese G, Zinserling J, Wirz S, Hoeft A, et al. The Entropy Module and Bispectral Index as guidance for propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia in combination with regional anaesthesia compared with a standard clinical practice group. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:159-66 pubmed
  23. Gonzalez Perez L, Monedero P, De Irala J, Kadri C, Lushchenkov D. [Prognostic factors for cancer patients in the postanesthetic recovery unit]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2007;54:405-13 pubmed
  24. Ehrenfeld J, Dexter F, Rothman B, Minton B, Johnson D, Sandberg W, et al. Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit. Anesth Analg. 2013;117:1444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, the only evidence-based method of reducing PACU delays is to adjust PACU staffing and staff scheduling using computational algorithms to match the historical workload (e.g., as developed in 2001). ..
  25. Jenkins J. Eliminating common PACU delays. J Healthc Inf Manag. 2007;21:53-8 pubmed
    ..The team recommended and implemented changes to improve operational effectiveness. ..
  26. Fernández Ordóñez M, Tenias J, Picazo Yeste J. [Spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia. Cost-effectiveness analysis]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2014;61:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Both techniques showed similar effectiveness. The overall costs for subarachnoid anesthesia were greater than for the general. The cost-effectiveness of general anesthesia is better for outpatient inguinal hernia repair surgery. ..
  27. Arcangeli A, Antonelli M, Mignani V, Sandroni C. Sedation in PACU: the role of benzodiazepines. Curr Drug Targets. 2005;6:745-8 pubmed
    ..The recent literature focuses on the differences between Midazolam and Propofol, the most used sedatives in ICU, their sequential use and combination. Relevant studies have been performed about propylene glycol toxicity. ..
  28. De Cosmo G, Congedo E, Clemente A, Aceto P. Sedation in PACU: the role of propofol. Curr Drug Targets. 2005;6:741-4 pubmed
    ..Sedation with propofol is associated with adequate sedation in ICU patients, shorter weaning time and earlier tracheal extubation compared to midazolam, but not before ICU discharge. ..
  29. Leykin Y, Costa N, Gullo A. [Analysis and comparison of the guidelines regarding recovery-room management]. Minerva Anestesiol. 2001;67:563-71 pubmed
    ..Guidelines are subject, as any regulation, to continuous revision, and this is a very important requirement which helps keeping them always update and in line with scientific research. ..
  30. Thorgaard P, Ertmann E, Noerregaard A, Hansen V, Spanggaard L. Designed sound and music environment in postanaesthesia care units--a multicentre study of patients and staff. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2005;21:220-5 pubmed
    ..The opinion of the staff was more similar concerning the beneficial effect on working conditions and distress, but varied still significantly. The opinion of the staff had no demonstrable impact on that of the patients. ..
  31. Pollock N, Langtont E, Stowell K, Simpson C, McDonnell N. Safe duration of postoperative monitoring for malignant hyperthermia susceptible patients. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2004;32:502-9 pubmed
    ..5h in a step-down unit if indicated. A prospective study in a further 68 MH susceptible/related patients showed that no MH reactions were missed due to the shorter monitoring period. ..
  32. Lapierre E, Ritchey K, Newhouse R. Barriers to research use in the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs. 2004;19:78-83 pubmed
    ..The greatest perceived barriers related to attributes of the organization. This is an area that nurse leaders can affect by building the infrastructure needed for nurses to develop skill and knowledge related to research use. ..
  33. Sprung J, Warner M, Contreras M, Schroeder D, Beighley C, Wilson G, et al. Predictors of survival following cardiac arrest in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a study of 518,294 patients at a tertiary referral center. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:259-69 pubmed
    ..Although many factors determining survival may not be amenable to modification, the fact that arrests during nonregular working hours had worse outcomes may indicate that the availability of human resources influences survival. ..
  34. Wegener J. [Postoperative nursing in the recovery room: security about the critical hours]. Pflege Z. 2003;56:324-7 pubmed
  35. Nilsson U, Rawal N, Enqvist B, Unosson M. Analgesia following music and therapeutic suggestions in the PACU in ambulatory surgery; a randomized controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47:278-83 pubmed
    ..Although statistically significant, the improvement in analgesia is modest in this group of patients with low overall pain levels. ..
  36. Asher M. Cross-cultural comparison of perianesthesia nursing: challenges encountered in the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs. 2003;18:4-7 pubmed
    ..The author elaborates on how to provide safe, competent, and culturally sensitive care to children within the PACU setting. ..
  37. Duncan P, Shandro J, Bachand R, Ainsworth L. A pilot study of recovery room bypass ("fast-track protocol") in a community hospital. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48:630-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the effectiveness of short-acting anesthetic drugs and techniques to achieve recovery room bypass criteria after minor surgery in a community hospital environment...
  38. Belletti D, Bolash R, Arcona S, Reed J. Improving guideline compliance: assessment of unit-based reminder for monitoring platelet counts post-PCI. J Healthc Qual. 2002;24:9-14; quiz 14, 48 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the practical application of a standard operating procedure can have a secondary beneficial effect despite not meeting the stringent parameters set in prescribing guidelines. ..
  39. Richardson L. High-dependency care: developing a joint surgical recovery unit. Br J Nurs. 2002;11:129-34 pubmed
    ..It is clear that an area never ceases to develop as the findings of this article show. Further collection and auditing of data are essential in the future to ensure a useful, viable, quality service. ..
  40. Lalani S, Ali F, Kanji Z. Prolonged-stay patients in the PACU: a review of the literature. J Perianesth Nurs. 2013;28:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited studies discuss the impact of prolonged PACU stays on patients, families, and PACU nurses. Future research is required to explore the experiences of PACU nurses related to prolonged-stay patients. ..
  41. Haanschoten M, van Straten A, ter Woorst J, Stepaniak P, van der Meer A, van Zundert A, et al. Fast-track practice in cardiac surgery: results and predictors of outcome. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15:989-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Age and left ventricular dysfunction are significant preoperative predictors of failure of this protocol. ..
  42. Salhiyyah K, Elsobky S, Raja S, Attia R, Brazier J, Cooper G. A clinical and economic evaluation of fast-track recovery after cardiac surgery. Heart Surg Forum. 2011;14:E330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a cost-effective strategy compared with conventional recovery protocols; however, it does not reduce the total hospital LOS or the incidence of complications. ..
  43. Klein N, Weissman C. Evaluating intraoperative therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1373-80, table of contents pubmed
    ..The scoring system was validated and correlated well with surgical complexity; it was able to differentiate between the intensity of care provided during various surgical procedures. ..
  44. Klopman M, Sebel P. Cost-effectiveness of bispectral index monitoring. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the trivial cost of the BIS and the proven benefits demonstrated in prospective randomized studies, we consider its use justified in every general anesthetic. ..
  45. Knutsson J, Tibbelin A, von Unge M. Postoperative pain after paediatric adenoidectomy and differences between the pain scores made by the recovery room staff, the parent and the child. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:1079-83 pubmed
    ..There was no gender difference in how the pain was perceived by the child. The parents tended to score the pain higher with older age of the child. ..
  46. Barbieri S, Feltracco P, Michieletto E, Basso I, Spagna A, Giron G. Demand and availability of Intensive Care beds. A study based on the data collected at the SUEM 118 Central of Padua from October 1996 to December 2001. Minerva Anestesiol. 2003;69:625-34, 634-9 pubmed
    ..The available resources of ICU beds should be more rationally distributed between the peripheral and the Regional Hospitals, since the activation of an ICU bed in the operating theatre is a valid, transient option. ..
  47. Idali B, Lahyat B, Khaleq K, Ibahioin K, El Azhari A, Barrou L. [Postoperative infection following craniotomy in adults]. Med Mal Infect. 2004;34:221-4 pubmed
    ..The risk factors identified thanks to a univariate analysis were the emergency level of surgery (P < 0.01), duration of surgery >200 min, and duration of stay in ICU >72 h (P < 0.02). ..
  48. Williams B, Kentor M, Williams J, Vogt M, DaPos S, Harner C, et al. PACU bypass after outpatient knee surgery is associated with fewer unplanned hospital admissions but more phase II nursing interventions. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:981-8 pubmed
    ..3,P = 0.007). For outpatient lower extremity surgery, applying our PACU-bypass criteria led to an 87% PACU bypass rate with no reportable adverse events. ..
  49. Yoo J, Kim M, Cho S, Shin Y, Kim N. [The effects of pre-operative visual information and parental presence intervention on anxiety, delirium, and pain of post-operative pediatric patients in PACU]. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2012;42:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that this intervention can be a safe pre-operative nursing intervention for post-surgical pediatric patients at PACU. ..
  50. Smykowski L, Rodriguez W. The post anesthesia care unit experience: a family-centered approach. J Nurs Care Qual. 2003;18:5-15 pubmed
    ..Morale is high, and nurses take pride in meeting the needs of patients and families. ..
  51. Krenzischek D, Schaefer J, Nolan M, Bukowski J, Twilley M, Bernacki E, et al. Phase I collaborative pilot study: Waste anesthetic gas levels in the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs. 2002;17:227-39 pubmed
    ..Modifications in some of the measurement methods tested here are also suggested, including the use of procedures to measure the efficacy of air exchange and other engineering controls related to staff exposure. ..
  52. Toft P. [From recovery room to observation and therapeutic department]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:4235 pubmed
  53. Villalonga A, Sabaté S, Campos J, Fornaguera J, Hernandez C, Sistac J. [Anesthesia practice in Catalan hospitals and other health care facilities]. Med Clin (Barc). 2006;126 Suppl 2:27-31 pubmed
    ..The complexity of both anesthesia and surgical practice and the severity of patient condition increased with hospital size and public funding status. ..