postnatal care


Summary: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.

Top Publications

  1. Rudman A, Waldenström U. Critical views on postpartum care expressed by new mothers. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:178 pubmed
  2. Syed U, Asiruddin S, Helal M, Mannan I, Murray J. Immediate and early postnatal care for mothers and newborns in rural Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006;24:508-18 pubmed
  3. Bick D, Rose V, Weavers A, Wray J, Beake S. Improving inpatient postnatal services: midwives views and perspectives of engagement in a quality improvement initiative. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:293 pubmed publisher
    ..initiatives in the United Kingdom to enhance women's experiences of maternity care, improving in-patient postnatal care remains a low priority, although it is an aspect of care consistently rated as poor by women...
  4. Singh A, Yadav A, Singh A. Utilization of postnatal care for newborns and its association with neonatal mortality in India: an analytical appraisal. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the association between postnatal care (PNC) for newborns and neonatal mortality has not hitherto been examined...
  5. Negron R, Martin A, Almog M, Balbierz A, Howell E. Social support during the postpartum period: mothers' views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:616-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. ..
  6. Magoma M, Requejo J, Campbell O, Cousens S, Merialdi M, Filippi V. The effectiveness of birth plans in increasing use of skilled care at delivery and postnatal care in rural Tanzania: a cluster randomised trial. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..8% higher in the intervention units than in the control [95% CI 2.6-31.0; P = 0.02]. Postnatal care utilisation in the first month of delivery was higher (difference in proportions: 30.0% [95% CI 1.3-47...
  7. Neupane S, Doku D. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:1922-30 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women...
  8. Rai R, Singh P, Singh L. Utilization of maternal health care services among married adolescent women: insights from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Womens Health Issues. 2012;22:e407-14 pubmed publisher least four antenatal care (ANC) visits, those who have undergone safe delivery care, and those who received postnatal care within 42 days of delivery. Data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008, were used...
  9. Rowe H, Holton S, Fisher J. Postpartum emotional support: a qualitative study of women's and men's anticipated needs and preferred sources. Aust J Prim Health. 2013;19:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased provision of services that meet men's needs and public understanding and acceptance of Australian integrated models of primary postnatal mental health care are needed. ..

More Information


  1. Seipel M, Shafer K. The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity. Soc Work. 2013;58:241-52 pubmed
    ..Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity. ..
  2. Murdoch M, Franck L. Gaining confidence and perspective: a phenomenological study of mothers' lived experiences caring for infants at home after neonatal unit discharge. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68:2008-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors such as infant health, medical procedures, and family or health professional support may influence the degree of apprehension or confidence. ..
  3. Hartley S, Sutherland G, Brown S, Yelland J. 'You're more likely to tell the GP if you're asked': women's views of care from general practitioners in the first postpartum year. Aust J Prim Health. 2012;18:308-12 pubmed
  4. Chetty T, Knight S, Giddy J, Crankshaw T, Butler L, Newell M. A retrospective study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission, mortality and loss to follow-up among infants in the first 18 months of life in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme in an urban hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Af. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:146 pubmed publisher
  5. Do M, Hotchkiss D. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:6 pubmed publisher
  6. Langlois E, Miszkurka M, Ziegler D, Karp I, Zunzunegui M. Protocol for a systematic review on inequalities in postnatal care services utilization in low- and middle-income countries. Syst Rev. 2013;2:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Utilization of essential obstetric care services including postnatal care (PNC) largely contributes to the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity...
  7. Cormick G, Kim N, Rodgers A, Gibbons L, Buekens P, Belizan J, et al. Interest of pregnant women in the use of SMS (short message service) text messages for the improvement of perinatal and postnatal care. Reprod Health. 2012;9:9 pubmed
    ..To retain active participation, other forms of health communication, such as a 2-way text message systems or toll-free numbers, could be considered in the future. Cost of use and implementing these options should be studied. ..
  8. Smythe E, Payne D, Wilson S, Wynyard S. The dwelling space of postnatal care. Women Birth. 2013;26:110-3 pubmed publisher
    This paper considers the dwelling space of postnatal care, how being-there feels for the woman going through the experience of matrescence. The research takes a hermeneutic approach and draws on philosophical notions from Heidegger...
  9. Singh A, Padmadas S, Mishra U, Pallikadavath S, Johnson F, Matthews Z. Socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care in India. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37037 pubmed publisher
    First, our objective was to estimate socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care (PNC) compared with those in the use of care at birth and antenatal care...
  10. Sandall J, Soltani H, Gates S, Shennan A, Devane D. Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD004667 pubmed publisher
  11. Smith L. Postnatal care: development of a psychometric multidimensional satisfaction questionnaire (the WOMBPNSQ) to assess women's views. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61:e628-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Postnatal care is the neglected area of pregnancy care, despite repeated calls to improve it. Changes would require assessment, which should include women's views. No suitable satisfaction questionnaire exists to enable this...
  12. Regassa N. Antenatal and postnatal care service utilization in southern Ethiopia: a population-based study. Afr Health Sci. 2011;11:390-7 pubmed
    Access to antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) services has a great deal of impacts on major causes of infant death and significantly affects trends of mortality in a population...
  13. Althuizen E, van Poppel M, Seidell J, van der Wijden C, van Mechelen W. Design of the New Life(style) study: a randomised controlled trial to optimise maternal weight development during pregnancy. [ISRCTN85313483]. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:168 pubmed
    ..Caregivers and researchers in the field of health promotion are offered more insight in specific elements of the New Life(style) intervention program. ..
  14. Cramp A, Brawley L. Sustaining self-regulatory efficacy and psychological outcome expectations for postnatal exercise: effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioural intervention. Br J Health Psychol. 2009;14:595-611 pubmed publisher
    ..SRE partially mediated the relationship between intervention condition and post home-based PA supporting the targeting of that variable for change as part of the intervention. ..
  15. Titaley C, Hunter C, Heywood P, Dibley M. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:61 pubmed publisher
    Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide...
  16. Baqui A, El Arifeen S, Darmstadt G, Ahmed S, Williams E, Seraji H, et al. Effect of community-based newborn-care intervention package implemented through two service-delivery strategies in Sylhet district, Bangladesh: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;371:1936-44 pubmed publisher
    ..31). A home-care strategy to promote an integrated package of preventive and curative newborn care is effective in reducing neonatal mortality in communities with a weak health system, low health-care use, and high neonatal mortality. ..
  17. Hildingsson I. New parents' experiences of postnatal care in Sweden. Women Birth. 2007;20:105-13 pubmed
    The aim was to study new parents' satisfaction with postnatal care and to estimate the proportion of fathers who were given the option of spending the night at the postnatal ward...
  18. Yelland J, McLachlan H, Forster D, Rayner J, Lumley J. How is maternal psychosocial health assessed and promoted in the early postnatal period? Findings from a review of hospital postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. Midwifery. 2007;23:287-97 pubmed
    ..postal survey of public hospitals providing postnatal care and interviews with care providers...
  19. Shaw E, Levitt C, Wong S, Kaczorowski J. Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health. Birth. 2006;33:210-20 pubmed
    ..There is some evidence that high-risk populations may benefit from postpartum support. ..
  20. Islam M, Odland J. Determinants of antenatal and postnatal care visits among Indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study of the Mru community. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11:1672 pubmed
    Antenatal and postnatal care services are significant interventions to improve maternal health and prevent maternal and infant deaths. However, these services are poorly developed in Bangladesh, particularly among Indigenous women...
  21. Campbell O, Graham W. Strategies for reducing maternal mortality: getting on with what works. Lancet. 2006;368:1284-99 pubmed
    ..Further delays in getting on with what works begs questions about the commitment of decision-makers to this goal. ..
  22. Fenwick J, Butt J, Dhaliwal S, Hauck Y, Schmied V. Western Australian women's perceptions of the style and quality of midwifery postnatal care in hospital and at home. Women Birth. 2010;23:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds to our understandings of women's experiences of the early postnatal period and provides information on which to base improvements in postnatal care and maternity services in WA and across Australia.
  23. McLachlan H, Forster D, Yelland J, Rayner J, Lumley J. Is the organisation and structure of hospital postnatal care a barrier to quality care? Findings from a state-wide review in Victoria, Australia. Midwifery. 2008;24:358-70 pubmed
    to describe the structure and organisation of hospital postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. postal survey sent to all public hospitals in Victoria (n=71) and key-informant interviews with midwives and medical practitioners (n=38)...
  24. Nabukera S, Witte K, Muchunguzi C, Bajunirwe F, Batwala V, Mulogo E, et al. Use of postpartum health services in rural Uganda: knowledge, attitudes, and barriers. J Community Health. 2006;31:84-93 pubmed
    ..The training of providers at all levels is essential, in addition to educating families on the importance of postpartum care services. ..
  25. McLachlan H, Gold L, Forster D, Yelland J, Rayner J, Rayner S. Women's views of postnatal care in the context of the increasing pressure on postnatal beds in Australia. Women Birth. 2009;22:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to explore the views of women and their partners regarding a number of theoretical postnatal care 'packages' that could provide an alternative approach to early postnatal care...
  26. Waldenström U, Rudman A, Hildingsson I. Intrapartum and postpartum care in Sweden: women's opinions and risk factors for not being satisfied. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:551-60 pubmed
  27. Koblinsky M, Matthews Z, Hussein J, Mavalankar D, Mridha M, Anwar I, et al. Going to scale with professional skilled care. Lancet. 2006;368:1377-86 pubmed
  28. Moran A, Winch P, Sultana N, Kalim N, Afzal K, Koblinsky M, et al. Patterns of maternal care seeking behaviours in rural Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:823-32 pubmed
  29. Kirkwood B, Manu A, Tawiah Agyemang C, ten Asbroek G, Gyan T, Weobong B, et al. NEWHINTS cluster randomised trial to evaluate the impact on neonatal mortality in rural Ghana of routine home visits to provide a package of essential newborn care interventions in the third trimester of pregnancy and the first week of life: trial pr. Trials. 2010;11:58 pubmed publisher
    ..occur in low- and middle-income countries where a large proportion of births take place at home, and where postnatal care for mothers and neonates is either not available or is of poor quality...
  30. Ellberg L, Hogberg U, Lindh V. 'We feel like one, they see us as two': new parents' discontent with postnatal care. Midwifery. 2010;26:463-8 pubmed publisher
    b>postnatal care has gone through remarkable changes, such as reducing the length of hospital stay and increasing the parents' responsibility. Focusing on dissatisfaction, this study describes how new parents experience postpartum care...
  31. Forster D, McLachlan H, Yelland J, Rayner J, Lumley J, Davey M. Staffing in postnatal units: is it adequate for the provision of quality care? Staff perspectives from a state-wide review of postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:83 pubmed
    ..Little is known of caregivers' perspectives on the provision ofhospital postnatal care: how care is organised and provided in different hospitals; what constrains the provision of postnatal care (..
  32. Beake S, Rose V, Bick D, Weavers A, Wray J. A qualitative study of the experiences and expectations of women receiving in-patient postnatal care in one English maternity unit. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:70 pubmed publisher
    Studies consistently highlight in-patient postnatal care as the area of maternity care women are least satisfied with...
  33. McKellar L, Pincombe J, Henderson A. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period. Midwifery. 2006;22:356-64 pubmed
    ..At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed. ..
  34. Cheng C, Li Q. Integrative review of research on general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of women after childbirth. Womens Health Issues. 2008;18:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity. ..
  35. Ahoua L, Ayikoru H, Gnauck K, Odaru G, Odar E, Ondoa Onama C, et al. Evaluation of a 5-year programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in Northern Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2010;56:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, and 15.5% when HIV-related deaths were considered. Improved tracking of HIV-exposed infants is needed in PMTCT programmes where access to early infant diagnosis is still limited. ..
  36. Baghurst P, Pincombe J, Peat B, Henderson A, Reddin E, Antoniou G. Breast feeding self-efficacy and other determinants of the duration of breast feeding in a cohort of first-time mothers in Adelaide, Australia. Midwifery. 2007;23:382-91 pubmed
    ..Together with other demographic variables, it should be useful for targeting limited resources to those most in need. ..
  37. Forster D, McLachlan H, Rayner J, Yelland J, Gold L, Rayner S. The early postnatal period: exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:27 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006...
  38. Kasenga F, Hurtig A, Emmelin M. Home deliveries: implications for adherence to nevirapine in a PMTCT programme in rural Malawi. AIDS Care. 2007;19:646-52 pubmed
    ..However, none of their babies was taken back to the health facility for NVP syrup. Traditional birth attendants might be crucial in efforts aiming to increase adherence to NVP among women and their babies. ..
  39. Hanlon C, Whitley R, Wondimagegn D, Alem A, Prince M. Postnatal mental distress in relation to the sociocultural practices of childbirth: an exploratory qualitative study from Ethiopia. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:1211-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Mazia G, Narayanan I, Warren C, Mahdi M, Chibuye P, Walligo A, et al. Integrating quality postnatal care into PMTCT in Swaziland. Glob Public Health. 2009;4:253-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Existing MNH services are inadequate, especially postnatal care (PNC) of mothers and babies, with delayed postnatal visits occurring at 4-6 weeks after delivery...
  41. Bryant A, Haas J, McElrath T, McCormick M. Predictors of compliance with the postpartum visit among women living in healthy start project areas. Matern Child Health J. 2006;10:511-6 pubmed
    ..Policies aimed at improving interconception care will need to address these barriers to accessing health services. ..
  42. Warren C, Mwangi A, Oweya E, Kamunya R, Koskei N. Safeguarding maternal and newborn health: improving the quality of postnatal care in Kenya. Int J Qual Health Care. 2010;22:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..More women accepted a family planning method at 6 weeks (35-63%). The introduction of new comprehensive postnatal care package improved performance of providers in counselling in maternal and newborn complications, infant feeding ..
  43. Kerber K, de Graft Johnson J, Bhutta Z, Okong P, Starrs A, Lawn J. Continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health: from slogan to service delivery. Lancet. 2007;370:1358-69 pubmed
    ..babies and children); four through outpatient and outreach services (reproductive health, antenatal care, postnatal care and child health services); and one through integrated family and community care throughout the lifecycle...
  44. Barennes H, Simmala C, Odermatt P, Thaybouavone T, Vallee J, Martinez Aussel B, et al. Postpartum traditions and nutrition practices among urban Lao women and their infants in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:323-31 pubmed
    ..04-1.75). The high prevalence of traditional postpartum restricted diets and practices, and inadequate maternal nutritional intake in urban Laos, suggest that antenatal care may be an important opportunity to improve postpartum diets. ..
  45. Christiaens W, Gouwy A, Bracke P. Does a referral from home to hospital affect satisfaction with childbirth? A cross-national comparison. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:109 pubmed
    ..We need to understand more about referral processes and how women experience them. ..
  46. Schytt E, Waldenström U. Risk factors for poor self-rated health in women at 2 months and 1 year after childbirth. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007;16:390-405 pubmed
    ..Ongoing physical and emotional problems, lack of support, and infant factors seem more important than sociodemographic background. Mode of delivery and childbirth experience may have a longterm effect on SRH. ..
  47. Smeltzer S. Pregnancy in women with physical disabilities. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2007;36:88-96 pubmed
    ..This article describes the preconception, antenatal, pregnancy, and postpartum issues of women with disabilities and suggests approaches to ensuring that women with disabilities have successful reproductive experiences. ..
  48. Carlgren I, Berg M. Postpartum consultation: occurrence, requirements and expectations. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:29 pubmed publisher
    ..It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care. ..
  49. MacKenzie I, Findlay J, Thompson K, Roseman F. Compliance with routine antenatal rhesus D prophylaxis and the impact on sensitisations: observations over 14 years. BJOG. 2006;113:839-43 pubmed
    ..4%. However, this low rate occurred despite significant proportions of women delivering more than 42 days after the second injection. Fifteen of the 16 sensitised women had received routine antenatal prophylaxis. ..
  50. Ystrom E, Niegel S, Klepp K, Vollrath M. The impact of maternal negative affectivity and general self-efficacy on breastfeeding: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2008;152:68-72 pubmed
    ..The adjusting variables were also predictors of breastfeeding behavior in their own right. Our results show that NA and GSE are important antenatal predictors of breastfeeding status at 6 months postpartum. ..
  51. McLachlan H, Forster D, Ford R, Farrell T. Addressing the midwifery workforce crisis: evaluating an employment model for undergraduate midwifery students at a tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Women Birth. 2011;24:173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Progression of such models will be contingent on the collaboration and cooperation of the various stakeholders involved in maternity workforce and education. ..
  52. Morrow M, Smith J, Lai Y, Jaswal S. Shifting landscapes: immigrant women and postpartum depression. Health Care Women Int. 2008;29:593-617 pubmed publisher
  53. Dhaher E, Mikolajczyk R, Maxwell A, Kramer A. Factors associated with lack of postnatal care among Palestinian women: a cross-sectional study of three clinics in the West Bank. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:26 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess factors associated with lack of postnatal care, women's reasons for not obtaining postnatal care, and their attitudes towards its importance...