health care costs


Summary: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.

Top Publications

  1. Chastek B, Harley C, Kallich J, Newcomer L, Paoli C, Teitelbaum A. Health care costs for patients with cancer at the end of life. J Oncol Pract. 2012;8:75s-80s pubmed publisher
    With rising health care costs in the United States, clearly defined end-of-life (EOL) cancer costs are needed to help health administrators proactively manage this important care...
  2. Kacker S, Frick K, Gaydos C, Tobian A. Costs and effectiveness of neonatal male circumcision. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166:910-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the expected change in the prevalence of male circumcision (MC)-reduced infections and resulting health care costs associated with continued decreases in MC rates...
  3. Shepard D, Undurraga E, Halasa Y. Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2055 pubmed publisher
    ..This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B. ..
  4. Soeteman D, Kim J. Cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for personality disorders: treatment recommendations and implementation. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2013;13:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses are important in working towards a more patient-centered approach in psychotherapy research that could potentially help accelerate the implementation and adoption of cost-effective care for PDs. ..
  5. Jensen M, Fenger Grøn M, Fonager K, Omland Ø, Vinding A, Hansen J. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves substantial health-care service and social benefit costs. Dan Med J. 2013;60:A4557 pubmed
    ..This study was supported by The Obel Family Foundation, The Danish Lung Association and The Health Insurance Foundation. Not relevant. ..
  6. Fattore G, Torbica A, Susi A, Giovanni A, Benelli G, Gozzo M, et al. The social and economic burden of stroke survivors in Italy: a prospective, incidence-based, multi-centre cost of illness study. BMC Neurol. 2012;12:137 pubmed publisher
  7. Meyer Rath G, Brennan A, Long L, Ndibongo B, Technau K, Moultrie H, et al. Cost and outcomes of paediatric antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. AIDS. 2013;27:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Costs varied between the two clinics but were comparable with those of adult ART. Few very young children accessed ART in either clinic and those who did were already very ill, emphasizing the importance of early infant treatment. ..
  8. Fukuda T, Yasunaga H, Horiguchi H, Ohe K, Fushimi K, Matsubara T, et al. Health care costs related to out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest in Japan. Resuscitation. 2013;84:964-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to analyze health care costs related to OHCA using a nationwide administrative database in Japan...
  9. Vlassoff M, Fetters T, Kumbi S, Singh S. The health system cost of postabortion care in Ethiopia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118 Suppl 2:S127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..PAC consumes a large portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Ethiopia. Investing more resources in family planning programs to prevent unwanted pregnancies would be cost-beneficial to the health system. ..

More Information


  1. Miravitlles M, Sicras A, Crespo C, Cuesta M, Brosa M, Galera J, et al. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relation to compliance with guidelines: a study in the primary care setting. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2013;7:139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The cost observed for patients with stage II disease is higher than expected in patients who adhere to treatment, but patients with stage III disease treated according to the GOLD guidelines had significantly higher treatment costs. ..
  2. Popova S, Lange S, Burd L, Rehm J. Health care burden and cost associated with fetal alcohol syndrome: based on official Canadian data. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43024 pubmed publisher
    ..utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008-2009)...
  3. Lehnert T, Sonntag D, Konnopka A, Riedel Heller S, Konig H. Economic costs of overweight and obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;27:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a brief overview of selected economic consequences associated with excess-weight. ..
  4. Knapp M, Iemmi V, Romeo R. Dementia care costs and outcomes: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:551-61 pubmed publisher
  5. Doidge J, Segal L, Gospodarevskaya E. Attributable risk analysis reveals potential healthcare savings from increased consumption of dairy products. J Nutr. 2012;142:1772-80 pubmed publisher
    ..0 billion in 2009-2010). These findings justify the development and evaluation of cost-effective interventions that use dairy products as a vector for reducing the costs of diet-related disease. ..
  6. Kolu P, Raitanen J, Rissanen P, Luoto R. Health care costs associated with gestational diabetes mellitus among high-risk women--results from a randomised trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:71 pubmed publisher
    ..costs of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening have been frequently reported, but total GDM-related health care costs compared to the health care costs of women without GDM have not been reported...
  7. Landrigan P, Goldman L. Chemical safety, health care costs and the Affordable Care Act. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This legislation is critically important for physicians and healthcare organizations because it creates significant new opportunities to prevent disease and cut healthcare costs. ..
  8. Bleibler F, Konnopka A, Benzinger P, Rapp K, Konig H. The health burden and costs of incident fractures attributable to osteoporosis from 2010 to 2050 in Germany--a demographic simulation model. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24:835-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The burden of OAF will sharply increase until 2050. Future demand for hospital and long-term care can be expected to substantially rise and should be considered in future healthcare planning...
  9. Bonafede M, Suaya J, Wilson K, Mannino D, Polsky D. Incidence and cost of CAP in a large working-age population. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18:380-7 pubmed
    ..CAP is a frequent and costly event in a working-age population with a national cost of $10.6 billion. Interventions that could successfully prevent CAP could have a significant impact on healthcare costs and productivity. ..
  10. Fabbricotti I, Janse B, Looman W, de Kuijper R, van Wijngaarden J, Reiffers A. Integrated care for frail elderly compared to usual care: a study protocol of a quasi-experiment on the effects on the frail elderly, their caregivers, health professionals and health care costs. BMC Geriatr. 2013;13:31 pubmed publisher
    ..A successful implementation of the integrated model is also necessary. The involved parties are members of a steering group and have contractually committed themselves to the project. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05748494. ..
  11. Doz M, Chouaid C, Com Ruelle L, Calvo E, Brosa M, Robert J, et al. The association between asthma control, health care costs, and quality of life in France and Spain. BMC Pulm Med. 2013;13:15 pubmed publisher
    ..88; 0.78; 0.63 in France and 0.89; 0.82; 0.69 in Spain). In both countries, patients presenting with uncontrolled asthma had a significantly higher asthma costs and lower scores of Qol compared to the others. ..
  12. Tilburt J, Wynia M, Sheeler R, Thorsteinsdottir B, James K, Egginton J, et al. Views of US physicians about controlling health care costs. JAMA. 2013;310:380-8 pubmed publisher
    Physicians' views about health care costs are germane to pending policy reforms. To assess physicians' attitudes toward and perceived role in addressing health care costs...
  13. Seidl H, Meisinger C, Wende R, Holle R. Empirical analysis shows reduced cost data collection may be an efficient method in economic clinical trials. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:318 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is suitable to enable economic evaluation with lower costs to both study participants and investigators. The trial registration number is ISRCTN02893746. ..
  14. Lopez Bastida J, Oliva Moreno J, Worbes Cerezo M, Perestelo Perez L, Serrano Aguilar P, Monton Alvarez F. Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in stroke survivors in the Canary Islands, Spain. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:315 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of analysis is rare in the Spanish context. We conclude that stroke incurs considerable societal costs among survivors to three years and there is substantial deterioration in HRQOL. ..
  15. Stargardt T, Edel M, Ebert A, Busse R, Juckel G, Gericke C. Effectiveness and cost of atypical versus typical antipsychotic treatment in a nationwide cohort of patients with schizophrenia in Germany. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). This study does not support unconditional superiority of atypicals over typicals, neither in terms of effectiveness nor in terms of cost. ..
  16. Willenberg L, Curtis K, Taylor C, Jan S, Glass P, Myburgh J. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:267 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient populations studied and the cost methods employed are the primary drivers for the treatment costs. Targeted research into the costs of trauma care is required to facilitate informed health service planning. ..
  17. Landry J, Croitoru D, Jin Y, Schwartzman K, Benedetti A, Menzies D. Health care utilization by preterm infants with respiratory complications in Quebec. Can Respir J. 2012;19:255-60 pubmed
    ..Neurological and psychiatric complications occurred at a high frequency in both RDS and BPD subjects, and were associated with significant use of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications. ..
  18. Burton T, Lacey M, Liu F, Yu Y, Monsalvo M, Lang K, et al. One-year follow-up healthcare costs of patients hospitalized for transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke and discharged with aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole or clopidogrel. J Med Econ. 2012;15:1217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study should be considered within the limitations of an administrative claims analysis, as claims data are collected for the purpose of payment. ..
  19. Clare L, Hindle J, Jones I, Thom J, Nelis S, Hounsome B, et al. The AgeWell study of behavior change to promote health and wellbeing in later life: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012;13:115 pubmed publisher
    ..Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30080637 ( ..
  20. Persson J, Ferraz Nunes J, Karlberg I. Economic burden of stroke in a large county in Sweden. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:341 pubmed publisher
    ..The result of this study can be used for further development of the methods for economic analyses as well as for analysis of improvements and investments in health care. ..
  21. Fineberg N, Haddad P, Carpenter L, Gannon B, Sharpe R, Young A, et al. The size, burden and cost of disorders of the brain in the UK. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27:761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Addressing the clinical and economic challenges posed by brain disorders requires a coordinated effort at an EU and national level to transform the current scientific, healthcare and educational agenda. ..
  22. da Silva N, Takemoto M, Damasceno A, Fragoso Y, Finkelsztejn A, Becker J, et al. Cost analysis of multiple sclerosis in Brazil: a cross-sectional multicenter study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:102 pubmed publisher
    ..When patients move upwards on the disease severity scale, costs with health resources other than drugs are significantly increased. ..
  23. Agboola S, Golas S, Fischer N, Nikolova Simons M, Op den Buijs J, Schertzer L, et al. Healthcare utilization in older patients using personal emergency response systems: an analysis of electronic health records and medical alert data : Brief Description: A Longitudinal Retrospective Analyses of healthcare utilization rates in older pa. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:282 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that PERS data combined with electronic medical records data can provide useful insights that can be used to improve health outcomes in older patients. ..
  24. Boughey J, Keeney G, Radensky P, Song C, Habermann E. Economic Implications of Widespread Expansion of Frozen Section Margin Analysis to Guide Surgical Resection in Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Breast-Conserving Surgery. J Oncol Pract. 2016;12:e413-22 pubmed publisher
  25. Corral J, Castells X, Molins E, Chiarello P, Borras J, Cots F. Long-term costs of colorectal cancer treatment in Spain. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:56 pubmed publisher
  26. Piseddu T, Brundu D, Stegel G, Loi F, Rolesu S, Masu G, et al. The disease burden of human cystic echinococcosis based on HDRs from 2001 to 2014 in Italy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005771 pubmed publisher
    ..It demonstrates the need of implementing a CE control program aimed at preventing the considerable economic and social losses it causes in high incidence areas. ..
  27. Hoeks M, Kranenburg F, Middelburg R, van Kraaij M, Zwaginga J. Impact of red blood cell transfusion strategies in haemato-oncological patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Haematol. 2017;178:137-151 pubmed publisher
    ..All currently available evidence suggests that restrictive strategies do not have a negative impact regarding clinical outcomes in haemato-oncological patients, while it reduces RBC use and associated costs...
  28. Reynolds S, Ghate S, Sheer R, Gandhi P, Moretz C, Wang C, et al. Healthcare utilization and costs for patients initiating Dabigatran or Warfarin. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15:128 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, dabigatran users had lower risk of all-cause ER visits. Despite higher pharmacy costs, the two cohorts did not differ significantly in medical or total all-cause costs. ..
  29. Nunes S, Minamisava R, Vieira M, Itria A, Pessoa V, Andrade A, et al. Hospitalization costs of severe bacterial pneumonia in children: comparative analysis considering different costing methods. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2017;15:212-219 pubmed publisher
  30. Costa E, Hyeda A. Chronic case management: Clinical governance with cost reductions. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2016;62:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..36% in monthly costs. Multidisciplinary monitoring carried out by CDNCD patient management programs can reduce hospitalizations, emergency room visits and complications, positively impacting the costs with health care. ..
  31. Vennera M, Valero A, Uría E, Forne C, Picado C. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Omalizumab for the Treatment of Severe Persistent Asthma in Real Clinical Practice in Spain. Clin Drug Investig. 2016;36:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..79 (95 % CI 3281.69-5186.73) per 3-point increase in the ACT. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of the addition of omalizumab to standard therapy in patients with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma. ..
  32. Foo J, Landis S, Maskell J, Oh Y, van der Molen T, Han M, et al. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152618 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to allow COPD patients to remain in work are important for addressing the substantial wider societal costs. ..
  33. Kuo M, Chen H, Chen C, Fann J, Chen S, Chiu S, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of population-based screening of hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparing ultrasonography with two-stage screening. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:3460-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass screening using AUS is more cost effective than two-stage biomarker-ultrasound screening. The most optimal strategy is an initial screening age at 50 years old with a 2-year inter-screening interval. ..
  34. Schmid M, Reich O, Blozik E, Faes L, Bodmer N, Locher S, et al. Outcomes and costs of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept treatment in a health-service research context. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:64 pubmed publisher
    ..The health insurers provided the health claim costs for the ophthalmologic care and the total health care costs of each patient in the observation period...
  35. Gandhoke G, Shin H, Chang Y, Tempel Z, Gerszten P, Okonkwo D, et al. A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Open Transforaminal and Minimally Invasive Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusions Using the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio at 2-Year Follow-up. Neurosurgery. 2016;78:585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Total mean cost and EuroQol-5D were statistically equivalent between the 2 treatment groups. TLIF and LLIF produced equivalent 2-year patient outcomes at an equivalent cost-effectiveness profile. ..
  36. Saleh S, Mourad Y, Dimassi H, Hitti E. Distribution and predictors of emergency department charges: the case of a tertiary hospital in Lebanon. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:97 pubmed publisher
    As health care costs continue to increase worldwide, health care systems, and more specifically hospitals are facing continuous pressure to operate more efficiently...
  37. Kim H, Kim D, Jang E, Lee M, Song H, Park S, et al. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthrit. Rheumatol Int. 2016;36:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured. ..
  38. Dewana Z, Fikadu T, G Mariam A, Abdulahi M. Client perspective assessment of women's satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia. Reprod Health. 2016;13:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, public health intervention working on improving delivery care should consider these factors. ..
  39. Knowles S, Sturrock H, Turner H, Whitton J, Gower C, Jemu S, et al. Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005599 pubmed publisher
  40. Dieye Y, Storey H, Barrett K, Gerth Guyette E, Di Giorgio L, Golden A, et al. Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005884 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools...
  41. Lexomboon D, Karlsson P, Adolfsson J, Ekbom A, Naimi Akbar A, Bahmanyar S, et al. Consumption and direct costs of dental care for patients with head and neck cancer: A 16-year cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182877 pubmed publisher
    ..Swedish national health insurance protects patients with H&N cancer from high dental expenditures. Further studies on the cost-effectiveness of preventive dental care for patients are needed. ..
  42. Dobson A, El Gamil A, Shimer M, Davanzo J. Economic Value of Prosthetic Services Among Medicare Beneficiaries: A Claims-Based Retrospective Cohort Study. Mil Med. 2016;181:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Receiving physical therapy is associated with fewer hospitalizations and emergency room visits, and less facility-based care (p < 0.05), essentially offsetting the cost of the prosthetic over a 12-month time frame. ..
  43. Chen L, Epstein A, Orav E, Filice C, Samson L, Joynt Maddox K. Association of Practice-Level Social and Medical Risk With Performance in the Medicare Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier Program. JAMA. 2017;318:453-461 pubmed publisher
  44. van de Vrie R, van Meurs H, Rutten M, Naaktgeboren C, Opmeer B, Gaarenstroom K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of laparoscopy as diagnostic tool before primary cytoreductive surgery in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2017;146:449-456 pubmed publisher
    ..with suspected advanced stage ovarian cancer, a diagnostic laparoscopy reduced the number of futile laparotomies, without increasing total direct medical health care costs, or adversely affecting complications or quality of life.
  45. Berber E, Bernet V, Fahey T, Kebebew E, Shaha A, Stack B, et al. American Thyroid Association Statement on Remote-Access Thyroid Surgery. Thyroid. 2016;26:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These approaches require an additional level of expertise, and therefore should be done by surgeons performing a high volume of thyroid and robotic surgery. ..
  46. van Giessen A, Boonman de Winter L, Rutten F, Cramer M, Landman M, Liem A, et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening strategies to detect heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:48 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity of such a strategy makes it feasible for implementation in existing primary care diabetes management programs. ..
  47. Hawkins R, Downs E, Johnston L, Mehaffey J, Fonner C, Ghanta R, et al. Impact of Transcatheter Technology on Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement Volume, Outcomes, and Cost. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103:1815-1823 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcomes for SAVR continue to improve, potentially due to availability of transcatheter options for high-risk patients. Despite rising costs for SAVR, open approaches still provide a significant cost advantage over TAVR. ..
  48. Skinner H, Coffey R, Jones J, Heslin K, Moy E. The effects of multiple chronic conditions on hospitalization costs and utilization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the United States: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:77 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of MCCs increased inpatient costs for ambulatory care sensitive conditions via longer hospital stays. ..
  49. Teng A, Kvizhinadze G, Nair N, McLeod M, Wilson N, Blakely T. A screening program to test and treat for Helicobacter pylori infection: Cost-utility analysis by age, sex and ethnicity. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:156 pubmed publisher
  50. Upadhyay D, Ibrahim M, Mishra P, Alurkar V, Ansari M. Does pharmacist-supervised intervention through pharmaceutical care program influence direct healthcare cost burden of newly diagnosed diabetics in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal: a non-clinical randomised controlled trial approach. Daru. 2016;24:6 pubmed publisher
  51. Rohr U, Binder C, Dieterle T, Giusti F, Messina C, Toerien E, et al. The Value of In Vitro Diagnostic Testing in Medical Practice: A Status Report. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149856 pubmed publisher
    ..New markers should deliver actionable and medically relevant information, to guide decision-making and foster improved patient outcomes. ..
  52. Mina A. [Communication in health care - legal aspects]. Orv Hetil. 2016;157:675-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations. ..
  53. Gordon L, Elliott T, Wright C, Deghaye N, Visser W. Modelling the healthcare costs of skin cancer in South Africa. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:113 pubmed publisher