Summary: The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.

Top Publications

  1. Sharp L. The commodification of the body and its parts. Annu Rev Anthropol. 2000;29:287-328 pubmed
    The human body--and its parts--has long been a target for commodification within myriad cultural settings...
  2. Barilan Y. Bodyworlds and the ethics of using human remains: a preliminary discussion. Bioethics. 2006;20:233-47 pubmed
    ..In the case of live donations, Bodyworlds has a duty to participate in the medical care of needy donors. However, secrecy with regard to the source of cadavers seems to be the most troublesome aspect of Bodyworlds. ..
  3. Wilkinson S. Commodification arguments for the legal prohibition of organ sale. Health Care Anal. 2000;8:189-201 pubmed
    ..This paper critically assesses one type of argument for this, and similar, legal prohibitions: commodification arguments. Firstly, the term 'commodification' is analysed...
  4. Dickenson D. Commodification of human tissue: implications for feminist and development ethics. Dev World Bioeth. 2002;2:55-63 pubmed
    One effect of late capitalism--the commodification of practically everything--is to knock down the Chinese walls between the natural and productive realms, to use a Marxist framework...
  5. Gammeltoft T, Nguyen H. The commodification of obstetric ultrasound scanning in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15:163-71 pubmed
    ..There is an urgent need in Viet Nam for policy and practice guidelines on the appropriate use of ultrasonography in pregnancy and how best to combine it with essential antenatal care, and information dissemination to women. ..
  6. Timmermans S, Almeling R. Objectification, standardization, and commodification in health care: a conceptual readjustment. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:21-7 pubmed publisher
    Historically, medical sociologists have used the interrelated concepts of objectification, commodification, and standardization to point to the pathologies of modern medicine, such as the depersonalization of care and the effects of ..
  7. de Castro L. Commodification and exploitation: arguments in favour of compensated organ donation. J Med Ethics. 2003;29:142-6 pubmed
    ..against giving compensation stand on weak rational grounds: (1) the charge that compensation fosters "commodification" has neither been specific enough to account for different types of monetary transactions nor ..
  8. Everett M. The social life of genes: privacy, property and the new genetics. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56:53-65 pubmed
    ..The anthropological critique of the commodification of the body, and the concept of 'embodiment' are useful in analyzing the debate over DNA as property.
  9. Austin Z, Gregory P. Professional students' perceptions of the value, role, and impact of science in clinical education. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;82:615-20 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the scientific underpinning of each health profession is a point of pride, a reason these roles exist in the first place and are accorded the prestige of being called a "profession". ..

More Information


  1. Loftis J. Germ-line enhancement of humans and non-humans. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2005;15:57-76 pubmed
  2. Upshur R, Lavery J, Tindana P. Taking tissue seriously means taking communities seriously. BMC Med Ethics. 2007;8:11 pubmed
    ..Greater attention to community engagement is required to understand the diverse issues associated with tissue exportation. ..
  3. Fitzgerald J. Geneticizing disability: the Human Genome Project and the commodification of self. Issues Law Med. 1998;14:147-63 pubmed
    ..She concludes that the Human Genome Project needs to be reframed within a broadened ethical framework of inclusion. ..
  4. Shannon T. The kindness of strangers: organ transplantation in a capitalist age. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2001;11:285-303 pubmed
    ..raised by the historical study in Richard Titmuss's The Gift Relationship, the paper examines how and in what ways the possible commodification of organs will affect our society and the impacts this may have on the supply of organs.
  5. Lewis S. Weapons of mass seduction. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2004;9:129-30 pubmed
  6. Kawai K, Osako M, Matsui S, Dong N. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis. Waste Manag Res. 2012;30:681-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Hall T. Bargaining with Hippocrates: managed care and the doctor-patient relationship. S C Law Rev. 2003;54:689-740 pubmed
  8. Cutcliffe J, Yarbrough S. Globalization, commodification and mass transplant of nurses: Part 1. Br J Nurs. 2007;16:926-30 pubmed
    ..It then draws attention to other similar examples of the commodification of women and highlights the impacts of the loss of this labour force on the 'exporting' countries...
  9. Havighurst C. Starr on the corporatization and commodification of health care: the sequel. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2004;29:947-67; discussion 1005-19 pubmed
  10. Taylor R. Human property: threat or saviour?. E Law. 2002;9:E4 pubmed
  11. Tarantino D, Smith D. Bariatric surgery: assessing opportunities for value innovation. Surg Innov. 2005;12:91-9 pubmed
    ..As the market for bariatric surgery becomes increasingly overcrowded, profitable growth is not sustainable without developing a clear differential advantage in the market. Value innovation allows you to develop that advantage. ..
  12. Fins J. Commercialism in the clinic: finding balance in medical professionalism. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:425-32; discussion 439-42 pubmed
  13. Coveney C, Nerlich B, Martin P. Modafinil in the media: metaphors, medicalisation and the body. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads us to conclude that conceptually, the acceptability of 'enhancement' is strongly tied to context of use and intricately related to medical social control. ..
  14. Crigger N. Towards understanding the nature of conflict of interest and its application to the discipline of nursing. Nurs Philos. 2009;10:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving nurses' and professional organizations' awareness of COI and sharpening our ability to respond appropriately when COI arise can reduce potential harm and promote trust in those whom we serve. ..
  15. Gross A. Is there a human right to private health care?. J Law Med Ethics. 2013;41:138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other ..
  16. Gerrand N. The misuse of Kant in the debate about a market for human body parts. J Appl Philos. 1999;16:59-67 pubmed
  17. Darnovsky M. Revisiting sex selection: the growing popularity of new sex selection methods revives an old debate. Genewatch. 2004;17:3-6 pubmed
  18. Steinbock B. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy. Mt Sinai J Med. 2004;71:255-65 pubmed
    ..After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically ..
  19. Etzioni A. Organ donation: a communitarian approach. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2003;13:1-18 pubmed
    ..Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first...
  20. Alvare H. The case for regulating collaborative reproduction: a children's rights perspective. Harvard J Legis. 2003;40:1-63 pubmed
    ..The Article concludes by offering several possible regulatory responses to the problems posed by collaborative reproduction. ..
  21. Wilkinson M, Moore A. Inducements revisited. Bioethics. 1999;13:114-30 pubmed
  22. Georges J. Evidence of the unspeakable: biopower, compassion, and nursing. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2011;34:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative strategies for resisting the Unspeakable and promoting compassion as an essential element of effective nursing practice are proposed. ..
  23. Antia N. Medical education primarily a subject of the humanities. Natl Med J India. 2006;19:296-7 pubmed
  24. Evans D. Academic freedom and global health. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenomena, the privatisation, commercialisation and instrumentalisation of knowledge are identified and examined in this paper in relation to human rights and international morality. ..
  25. Brownsword R. Bioethics today, bioethics tomorrow: stem cell research and the "dignitarian alliance". Notre Dame J Law Ethics Public Policy. 2003;17:15-51 pubmed
  26. Chollet D. Insuring the uninsured: finding the road to success. Front Health Serv Manage. 2005;21:17-27 pubmed
    ..The article reaches no conclusion about which strategy might be a wiser course of action. However, it does take measure of the likely effects of each strategy where early experience or objective analysis is available. ..
  27. Smith K, Wood B, Woods J. Aligning philosophy with practice. Hosp Q. 2003;6:8-9 pubmed
  28. Sweeney K. The technical child: in vitro fertilization and the personal subject. Linacre Q. 2003;70:127-42 pubmed
  29. Cohen C. Public policy and the sale of human organs. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2002;12:47-64 pubmed
    ..A system of organ donation, in contrast, conveys our respect for persons and honors our common humanity. ..
  30. Gunderman R. Commodity or profession?. J Am Coll Radiol. 2008;5:540-3 pubmed publisher
  31. Madduri S. Doctor with attitude. The doctor was in, but I wish he wasn't. Mo Med. 2006;103:595-6 pubmed
  32. Fitzpatrick W. Surplus embryos, nonreproductive cloning, and the intend/foresee distinction. Hastings Cent Rep. 2003;33:29-36 pubmed
    ..To create an embryo intending all along to destroy it is worse. But in the end, it isn't so much worse that we should ban all nonreproductive cloning. ..
  33. Thambisetty S. Patents and human genome research in developing countries: problems and proposals. J World Intellect Prop. 2002;5:685-723 pubmed
  34. Nahman M. Reverse traffic: intersecting inequalities in human egg donation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper documents reverse traffic reproduction, which maintains, rather than addresses, inequalities. ..
  35. Wendo C. African women denounce bride price. Campaigners claim payment for wives damages sexual health and contributes to AIDS spread. Lancet. 2004;363:716 pubmed
  36. Munyon J. Protectionism and freedom of contract: the erosion of female autonomy in surrogacy decisions. Suffolk Univ Law Rev. 2003;36:717-44 pubmed
  37. Plummer K. Ending parents' unlimited power to choose: legislation is necessary to prohibit parents' selection of their children's sex and characteristics. St Louis Univ Law J. 2003;47:517-60 pubmed
  38. Zodrow J. The commodification of human body parts: regulating the tissue bank industry. Southwest Univ Law Rev. 2003;32:407-49 pubmed
  39. SLAUGHTER S, Rhoades G. The social construction of copyright ethics and values. Sci Eng Ethics. 2010;16:263-93 pubmed publisher
  40. Loewy E. Curiosity, imagination, compassion, science and ethics: do curiosity and imagination serve a central function?. Health Care Anal. 1998;6:286-94 pubmed
    ..I shall argue that the role of curiosity and imagination for both science and ethics is so important that nurturing them can be seen as an ethical obligation and suppressing them as ethically problematic. ..
  41. Pfeiffer J. Commodity fetichismo, the Holy Spirit, and the turn to Pentecostal and African Independent Churches in Central Mozambique. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2005;29:255-83 pubmed
    ..One vital source of church popularity derives from pastors' efforts to tap the already considerable community anxiety over rising healer fees and their socially divisive treatments in an insecure environment. ..
  42. Fletcher R. Legal forms and reproductive norms. Soc Leg Stud. 2003;12:217-41 pubmed
    ..When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. ..
  43. Soloveichik M. Orthodoxy and the public square: symposium. Tradition. 2004;38:11-8 pubmed
  44. Williams C, Alderson P, Farsides B. Conflicting perceptions of the fetus: person, patient, 'nobody', commodity?. New Genet Soc. 2001;20:225-38 pubmed
    ..This paper illustrates how sensitive health-care staff will need to be if they are indeed to respond to, rather than shape, women's constructions of their fetus. ..
  45. Charlton B. Health vs. disease: a commentary on 'The rationale of value-laden medicine' (Kottow 2002; Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8, 77-84). J Eval Clin Pract. 2003;9:89-91 pubmed
  46. Rampton S, Stauber J. Research funding, conflicts of interest, and the meta-methodology of public relations. Public Health Rep. 2002;117:331-9 pubmed
  47. Aiello A, King N, Foxman B. Ethical conflicts in public health research and practice: antimicrobial resistance and the ethics of drug development. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1910-4 pubmed
  48. Cahill L. Genetics, commodification, and social justice in the globalization era. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2001;11:221-38 pubmed
    ..The mode of argument called for on this issue is more pragmatic than logical, emphasizing persuasion based on evidence about the reality and effects of control of genetic research by profit-driven biotech companies. ..
  49. Dickenson D. Property and women's alienation from their own reproductive labour. Bioethics. 2001;15:205-17 pubmed
  50. Rivkin Fish M. Learning the moral economy of commodified health care: "community education," failed consumers, and the shaping of ethical clinician-citizens. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2011;35:183-208 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach involves shining a critical light on America's commodified health care system as an arena based in relations of power and inequality. ..
  51. Mitchell C. The wisdom of Costa Rica. Ethics Med. 2005;21:3-4 pubmed
  52. Widdows H. Persons and their parts: new reproductive technologies and risks of commodification. Health Care Anal. 2009;17:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..outlines the possibilities afforded by NRTs and their commodificatory tendencies; second, it explores the commodification debate using the somewhat parallel example of commodification of organs; and third, in light of these debates ..
  53. Farrell A. Is the gift still good? Examining the politics and regulation of blood safety in the European Union. Med Law Rev. 2006;14:155-79 pubmed