Summary: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

Top Publications

  1. Young C, Aquilante J, Solomon S, Colby L, Kawinzi M, Uy N, et al. Improving fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income customers at farmers markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E166 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. ..
  2. Ni Mhurchu C, Eyles H, Schilling C, Yang Q, Kaye Blake W, Genc M, et al. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75934 pubmed publisher
    ..Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and M?ori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. ..
  3. Lee A, Mhurchu C, Sacks G, Swinburn B, Snowdon W, Vandevijvere S, et al. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally. Obes Rev. 2013;14 Suppl 1:82-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. ..
  4. Jebb S, Ahern A, Olson A, Aston L, Holzapfel C, Stoll J, et al. Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378:1485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight Watchers International, through a grant to the UK Medical Research Council. ..
  5. Han E, Powell L, Zenk S, Rimkus L, Ohri Vachaspati P, Chaloupka F. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:46 pubmed publisher
  6. George D, Kraschnewski J, Rovniak L. Public health potential of farmers' markets on medical center campuses: a case study from Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:2226-32 pubmed publisher
  7. Mangham L, Cundill B, Achonduh O, Ambebila J, Lele A, Metoh T, et al. Malaria prevalence and treatment of febrile patients at health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:330-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Bryden A, Roberts B, McKee M, Petticrew M. A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol. Health Place. 2012;18:349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to better understand the influence of these factors on alcohol use. ..
  9. Rossow I, Norstrom T. The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities. Addiction. 2012;107:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings were consistent across three different modelling techniques. In Norway, each additional 1-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Gittelsohn J, Rowan M, Gadhoke P. Interventions in small food stores to change the food environment, improve diet, and reduce risk of chronic disease. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:E59 pubmed
    ..Trial impact appeared to be linked to the increased provision of both healthy foods (supply) and health communications designed to increase consumption (demand). ..
  2. Emond J, Madanat H, Ayala G. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15:360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products. ..
  3. Petsoulas C, Allen P, Hughes D, Vincent Jones P, Roberts J. The use of standard contracts in the English National Health Service: a case study analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:185-92 pubmed publisher
  4. Kanavos P, Vandoros S. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries. Health Econ Policy Law. 2011;6:337-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time. ..
  5. Desvaux S, Grosbois V, Pham T, Fenwick S, Tollis S, Pham N, et al. Risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 occurrence at the village and farm levels in the Red River Delta Region in Vietnam. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:492-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, our results provide a better understanding of local transmission mechanisms of HPAI H5N1 in one province of the Red River Delta region in Vietnam and highlight the need to reduce at-risk trading and production practices. ..
  6. Howard P, Muir D. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce II: pharmaceuticals. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:6938-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the non-HPV compounds, 364 pharmaceuticals were identified that were P&B. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B pharmaceuticals that should be considered for further study. ..
  7. Caraiani P. Evidence of multifractality from emerging European stock markets. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40693 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no direct link has been found between the crisis and the multifractal spectrum, the crisis was found to influence the overall shape as quantified through the norm of the multifractal spectrum. ..
  8. Holden C, Hawkins B, McCambridge J. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:483 pubmed publisher
    ..Health policymakers may benefit from an awareness of the multiplicity of interests within the industry and the ways that these may shape collective lobbying positions. ..
  9. Thow A, Heywood P, Schultz J, Quested C, Jan S, Colagiuri S. Trade and the nutrition transition: strengthening policy for health in the Pacific. Ecol Food Nutr. 2011;50:18-42 pubmed publisher
  10. Howard P, Muir D. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce. III: byproducts, impurities, and transformation products. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:5259-66 pubmed publisher
  11. Barajas E, McKee P, Hannan P, Nelson T, Jones Webb R. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46:1234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ..
  12. Anderson P, Amaral Sabadini M, Baumberg B, Jarl J, Stuckler D. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol. J Health Commun. 2011;16 Suppl 2:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking. ..
  13. Waterlander W, de Boer M, Schuit A, Seidell J, Steenhuis I. Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:886-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing fruit and vegetable (F&V) prices is a frequently considered policy to improve dietary habits in the context of health promotion. However, evidence on the effectiveness of this intervention is limited...
  14. Ahern M, Brown C, Dukas S. A national study of the association between food environments and county-level health outcomes. J Rural Health. 2011;27:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The food access/availability environment is an important determinant of health outcomes in metro and non-metro areas. Future research should focus on more refined specifications that capture variability across non-metro settings. ..
  15. Gebauer H, Laska M. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement. J Urban Health. 2011;88:616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment. ..
  16. Gustafson A, Lewis S, Wilson C, Jilcott Pitts S. Validation of food store environment secondary data source and the role of neighborhood deprivation in Appalachia, Kentucky. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:688 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with having certain store types that may promote less healthy food options. ..
  17. Holmes A, Estabrooks P, Davis G, Serrano E. Effect of a grocery store intervention on sales of nutritious foods to youth and their families. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112:897-901 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) of the patrons interviewed noticed the Healthy Kids kiosk, with about one quarter (28.7%) indicating that they purchased at least one item. Fifty-eight percent reported that the kiosk encouraged them to buy healthier foods. ..
  18. Waterlander W, Steenhuis I, de Boer M, Schuit A, Seidell J. Introducing taxes, subsidies or both: the effects of various food pricing strategies in a web-based supermarket randomized trial. Prev Med. 2012;54:323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Price increases up to 25% on unhealthier products do not significantly affect food purchases. Future studies are important to validate these results in real supermarkets and across different countries. ..
  19. Dalin C, Konar M, Hanasaki N, Rinaldo A, Rodriguez Iturbe I. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5989-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use. ..
  20. Harrison M, Lee A, Findlay M, Nicholls R, Leonard D, Martin C. The increasing cost of healthy food. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010;34:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an urgent need to nationally monitor, but also sustainably address the factors affecting the price of healthy foods, particularly for vulnerable groups who suffer a disproportionate burden of poor health. ..
  21. DiFranza J. Which interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors can be expected to reduce smoking?. Tob Control. 2012;21:436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..All enforcement programmes that disrupted the sale of tobacco to minors reduced smoking among youth. Government officials can expect that enforcement programmes that disrupt the sale of tobacco to minors will reduce adolescent smoking. ..
  22. O Connell M, Buchwald D, Duncan G. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111:1375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. ..
  23. Fournié G, Guitian J, Desvaux S, Cuong V, Dung D, Pfeiffer D, et al. Interventions for avian influenza A (H5N1) risk management in live bird market networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This would not require prior knowledge of the force of infection, for which laboratory-confirmed surveillance would be necessary. These findings are of particular relevance for policy development in resource-scarce settings. ..
  24. Jilcott Pitts S, Wu Q, McGuirt J, Crawford T, Keyserling T, Ammerman A. Associations between access to farmers' markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:1944-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A...
  25. Sacks G, Tikellis K, Millar L, Swinburn B. Impact of 'traffic-light' nutrition information on online food purchases in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011;35:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to examine the impact of providing TLNI in different contexts, for a longer duration and on more products, with and without complementary awareness and information campaigns. ..
  26. Fleischhacker S, Rodriguez D, Evenson K, Henley A, Gizlice Z, Soto D, et al. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian communities in North Carolina. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:137 pubmed publisher
    ..More attention is needed to improve the validity of existing data sources, especially for rural local food environments. ..
  27. Kerr J, Frank L, Sallis J, Saelens B, Glanz K, Chapman J. Predictors of trips to food destinations. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies should assess the food environment around work, school or other frequently visited destinations, as well as along frequently traveled routes. ..
  28. Wafula F, Molyneux C, Mackintosh M, Goodman C. Protecting the public or setting the bar too high? Understanding the causes and consequences of regulatory actions of front-line regulators and specialized drug shop operators in Kenya. Soc Sci Med. 2013;97:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, regulatory organizations need to devise incentives that better link the level of effort to rewards such as professional advancement of regulatory staff. ..
  29. Bader P, Boisclair D, Ferrence R. Effects of tobacco taxation and pricing on smoking behavior in high risk populations: a knowledge synthesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4118-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success. ..
  30. Vitali S, Glattfelder J, Battiston S. The network of global corporate control. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25995 pubmed publisher
    ..This core can be seen as an economic "super-entity" that raises new important issues both for researchers and policy makers. ..
  31. Travis D, Watson R, Tauer A. The spread of pathogens through trade in wildlife. Rev Sci Tech. 2011;30:219-39 pubmed
    ..Finally, they highlight existing recommendations and offer solutions for a collaborative way forward. ..
  32. Leone A, Rigby S, Betterley C, Park S, Kurtz H, Johnson M, et al. Store type and demographic influence on the availability and price of healthful foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011;8:A140 pubmed
  33. Mackey T, Liang B. The global counterfeit drug trade: patient safety and public health risks. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:4571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we propose a global policy framework utilizing public-private partnership models with centralized surveillance reporting that would enable cooperation and coordination to combat this global health crisis. ..
  34. Ford P, Dzewaltowski D. Neighborhood deprivation, supermarket availability, and BMI in low-income women: a multilevel analysis. J Community Health. 2011;36:785-96 pubmed publisher
  35. Smith K, Anthony S, Switzer W, Epstein J, Seimon T, Jia H, et al. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29505 pubmed publisher
  36. Howell F. The Irish tobacco industry position on price increases on tobacco products. Tob Control. 2012;21:514-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important that tobacco control advocates have access to such data and underscores the importance of strong guidelines for Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. ..
  37. Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, Denley J, Adab P, Deeks J, et al. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;343:d6500 pubmed publisher
    ..Commercially provided weight management services are more effective and cheaper than primary care based services led by specially trained staff, which are ineffective. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25072883. ..
  38. Smith D, Hyland A, Rivard C, Bednarczyk E, Brody P, Marshall J. Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:413 pubmed publisher
    ..These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice. ..
  39. Woodward A, Henley P, Wilson D. Banning tobacco sales in Massachusetts' pharmacies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012;31:145-8 pubmed
    ..By May 2012, a full 27 Massachusetts municipalities had banned the sale of tobacco products in health care institutions, including pharmacies. These bans covered 30% of the state's population...
  40. Eyles H, Ni Mhurchu C, Nghiem N, Blakely T. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001353 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research into possible compensatory purchasing and population health outcomes is needed. ..
  41. Ball K, McNaughton S, Mhurchu C, Andrianopoulos N, Inglis V, McNeilly B, et al. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:715 pubmed publisher
    ..It will be among the first internationally to examine the effects of two promising approaches - skill-building and price reductions - on diet amongst women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN39432901. ..
  42. Green R, Cornelsen L, Dangour A, Turner R, Shankar B, Mazzocchi M, et al. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression. BMJ. 2013;346:f3703 pubmed publisher
    ..This has important implications for national responses to increases in food prices and for the definition of policies designed to reduce the global burden of undernutrition. ..
  43. Appelhans B, Milliron B, Woolf K, Johnson T, Pagoto S, Schneider K, et al. Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. ..
  44. Chaloupka F, Yurekli A, Fong G. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy. Tob Control. 2012;21:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated. ..
  45. Henriksen L, Schleicher N, Dauphinee A, Fortmann S. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes. ..
  46. Powell L, Han E, Zenk S, Khan T, Quinn C, Gibbs K, et al. Field validation of secondary commercial data sources on the retail food outlet environment in the U.S. Health Place. 2011;17:1122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also found that agreement levels for some outlet types differed by tract characteristics. Commercial databases must be used with caution as substitutes for on the ground data collection. ..
  47. Mur L, Martínez López B, Martínez Avilés M, Costard S, Wieland B, Pfeiffer D, et al. Quantitative risk assessment for the introduction of African swine fever virus into the European Union by legal import of live pigs. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods and results presented here may be useful for informing risk-based surveillance and control programmes and, ultimately, for prevention and control of potential ASFV incursions into the EU...
  48. Parker R, McCaffree K, Skiles D. The impact of retail practices on violence: the case of single serve alcohol beverage containers. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011;30:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a much more grounded and specific justification for enacting such policy changes and once again shows the utility of alcohol policy for the reduction of crime and violence. ..
  49. Meier P, Meng Y, Holmes J, Baumberg B, Purshouse R, Hill McManus D, et al. Adjusting for unrecorded consumption in survey and per capita sales data: quantification of impact on gender- and age-specific alcohol-attributable fractions for oral and pharyngeal cancers in Great Britain. Alcohol Alcohol. 2013;48:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These revisions lead to markedly higher estimated levels of alcohol-attributable harm. ..
  50. O Connell K, Gatakaa H, Poyer S, Njogu J, Evance I, Munroe E, et al. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries. Malar J. 2011;10:326 pubmed publisher
    ..The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria. ..
  51. Reboussin B, Song E, Wolfson M. The impact of alcohol outlet density on the geographic clustering of underage drinking behaviors within census tracts. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1541-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Frick R, Klein E, Ferketich A, Wewers M. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations. J Community Health. 2012;37:963-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods. ..
  53. Walsh J, Percival A, Tapscott B, Turner P. On-farm euthanasia practices and attitudes of commercial meat rabbit producers. Vet Rec. 2017;181:292 pubmed publisher
    ..Responses to additional questions on training and awareness of euthanasia resources indicated that veterinarians are not part of on-farm euthanasia planning for meat rabbits. ..