hospital design and construction


Summary: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.

Top Publications

  1. Floyd A. Challenging designs of neonatal intensive care units. Crit Care Nurse. 2005;25:59-66 pubmed
  2. Detsky M, Etchells E. Single-patient rooms for safe patient-centered hospitals. JAMA. 2008;300:954-6 pubmed publisher
  3. Adams N, Johnson D, Lynch R. The effect of pressure differential and care provider movement on airborne infectious isolation room containment effectiveness. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Provider traffic adversely affected containment. Containment improved with an increasing pressure differential. The anteroom plays an important role in limiting net particle escape, especially during provider movement through the space. ..
  4. Teltsch D, Hanley J, Loo V, Goldberg P, Gursahaney A, Buckeridge D. Infection acquisition following intensive care unit room privatization. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:32-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversion to single rooms can substantially reduce the rate at which patients acquire infectious organisms while in the ICU. ..
  5. Harvey M. Critical-care-unit bedside design and furnishing: impact on nosocomial infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998;19:597-601 pubmed
  6. Hayden C, Earnest G, Jensen P. Development of an empirical model to aid in designing airborne infection isolation rooms. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:198-207 pubmed
    ..The NIOSH model is an effective, cost-cutting tool that can be used by HVAC engineers and designers to estimate leakage area and select an appropriate DeltaQ in AIIRs to reduce the airborne transmission of disease. ..
  7. Sehulster L, Chinn R. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52:1-42 pubmed
    ..The report also suggests a series of performance measurements as a means to evaluate infection-control efforts. ..
  8. Noskin G, Peterson L. Engineering infection control through facility design. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:354-7 pubmed
    ..We describe historical landmarks about hospital design, modern facility design, and specific designs to prevent acquisition and spread of infections such as tuberculosis and aspergillosis. ..
  9. Rice N, Streifel A, Vesley D. An evaluation of hospital special-ventilation-room pressures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22:19-23 pubmed
    ..To maintain consistent pressure levels, creating an airtight seal and continuous pressure monitoring may be necessary. ..

More Information


  1. Dettenkofer M, Seegers S, Antes G, Motschall E, Schumacher M, Daschner F. Does the architecture of hospital facilities influence nosocomial infection rates? A systematic review. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25:21-5 pubmed
    To review the evidence regarding the effects of interventions to improve hospital design and construction on the occurrence of nosocomial infections...
  2. Gray L, Philbin M. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit on auditory attention and distraction. Clin Perinatol. 2004;31:243-60, vi pubmed
    ..One recommendation for future research is to include measures of background acoustic predictability as independent variables or covariates in developmental studies. ..
  3. Escombe A, Oeser C, Gilman R, Navincopa M, Ticona E, Pan W, et al. Natural ventilation for the prevention of airborne contagion. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e68 pubmed
    ..In settings where respiratory isolation is difficult and climate permits, windows and doors should be opened to reduce the risk of airborne contagion. ..
  4. White R. Individual rooms in the NICU - an evolving concept. J Perinatol. 2003;23 Suppl 1:S22-4 pubmed
    ..These problems are not insurmountable, however, and use of individual rooms for at least some patients is feasible and probably desirable if certain considerations are addressed in the planning and design process. ..
  5. Grünewald T. [Structural requirements for the management of patients with highly contagious life-threatening infectious diseases: update 2015]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2015;58:662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The German concept, therefore, has a pioneering role. This update is intended to improve professional patient care and also minimize the risk of disease spread and transmission. ..
  6. Carnell K. Holistic approach for multi-use settings. Health Estate. 2012;66:80-2 pubmed
    ..Kirsty Carnell, marketing manager for Martek Contracts, explores. ..
  7. Finer N, Rich W, Halamek L, Leone T. The delivery room of the future: the fetal and neonatal resuscitation and transition suite. Clin Perinatol. 2012;39:931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Human factors analysis will play an important role in the design and testing of the improvements for safe, effective, and efficient resuscitation of the newborn. ..
  8. Mikesell L, Bromley E. Patient centered, nurse averse? Nurses' care experiences in a 21st-century hospital. Qual Health Res. 2012;22:1659-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the adoption of some versions of patient centeredness might obscure substantial and substantive nursing work and might undermine nurses' concepts of caregiving. ..
  9. Guenther R, Hall A. Healthy buildings: impact on nurses and nursing practice. Online J Issues Nurs. 2007;12:2 pubmed
    ..The article will conclude by sharing a variety of resources nurses can use to create healing environments in health care settings. ..
  10. Bernhardt H. ["A magical atmosphere was our vision when we founded the institution". The sanatorium "Schloss Tegel" in statu nascendi (1904-1907)]. Luzif Amor. 2011;24:59-65 pubmed
    ..His approach to therapy, his ideas about interior design as well as landscape gardening were of significant influence on the sanatorium in which Ernst Simmel opened his psychoanalytical clinic in 1927. ..
  11. Van Rompay T, Tanja Dijkstra K. Directions in healthcare research: pointers from retailing and services marketing. HERD. 2010;3:87-100 pubmed
  12. Eagle A. Finishing touches. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:34-7 pubmed
  13. Robeznieks A. A hospital on the march. U.S. Army uproots and upgrades its South Korean medical operations. Mod Healthc. 2008;38:32 pubmed
  14. Elf M, Engström M, Wijk H. Development of the Content and Quality in Briefs Instrument (CQB-I). HERD. 2012;5:74-88 pubmed
    ..78 - 1.0 and S - CVI = 0.98). Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (Spearman's correlation = 0.62) and stability was considered high for both raters (83% and 88%, respectively). ..
  15. Lam K. Adopting better paths to major schemes. Health Estate. 2008;62:27-33 pubmed
    ..In recent decades, the construction industry has developed a range of procurement strategies to overcome perceived problems of inefficiency in the hospital building process. ..
  16. Stichler J, Ecoff L. Joint optimization: Merging a new culture with a new physical environment. J Nurs Adm. 2009;39:156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors discuss the concept of joint optimization of merging organizational culture with a new hospital facility. ..
  17. Parsons M. Nicholas Barbon (1637-98): FRCP, property developer. J Med Biogr. 2012;20:62-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Nicholas Barbon, a refugee from the Restoration, studied medicine on the Continent. But he also acquired an interest in building and commerce, and it was in these fields that he was to make his reputation. ..
  18. Gerber P. [Problems of modernization of historic hospitals]. Hist Hosp. 2010;27:259-69 pubmed
    ..The work presented is one phase of a larger study intending to develop model solutions for the optimization of design processes in the modernization of a historic hospital. ..
  19. Howell L. The Garbose Family Special Delivery Unit: a new paradigm for maternal-fetal and neonatal care. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013;22:3-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Sherman Bien S, Malcarne V, Roesch S, Varni J, Katz E. Quantifying the relationship among hospital design, satisfaction, and psychosocial functioning in a pediatric hematology-oncology inpatient unit. HERD. 2011;4:34-59 pubmed
    ..For parents, results support the mediational hypothesis, highlighting the importance that perceived built environment satisfaction plays in psychosocial functioning and healthcare satisfaction. ..
  21. Xu P, Fisher N, Miller S. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the design of hospital ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems for inactivating airborne mycobacteria. Photochem Photobiol. 2013;89:792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most effective application was the one in which the room air-exchange rate was very low. CFD modeling can be useful for assessing whether hospital UVGI installations and ventilation systems are effective for infection control. ..
  22. Eren A, Kustimur S, Kalkanci A, Unverdi S, Aktas F, Sucak G. [Investigation of the effect of constructions in hospital environment on the crucial units for immunocompromised patients and the development of opportunistic mold infections]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:83-93 pubmed
  23. Christiansen C. Embracing change. HERD. 2009;3:15-27 pubmed
    ..Although these changes can be somewhat uncomfortable, they foster learning, collaboration, and ultimately, benefits for all who participate in the process. ..
  24. Price I, Pinder J, Wyton P. Operationalizing lean health assets. HERD. 2010;3:13-29 pubmed
    ..Despite a growing interest in Lean approaches in healthcare, the philosophy has not yet been extended to the estate. This study demonstrates that alternative benchmarks are possible. ..
  25. Capone L, Albert N, Bena J, Tang A. Predictors of a fall event in hospitalized patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2012;39:E407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding specific risk factors of falls in an adult oncology population may lead to interventions that reduce fall risk. ..
  26. Robeznieks A. A speed bump for building boom. Survey shows a strong year for healthcare construction in '07, but some signs point to a slowdown on the road ahead. Mod Healthc. 2008;38:24-30 pubmed
  27. Eagle A. Building on a legacy. Team revitalizes classic hospital design. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:12-7 pubmed
  28. Nolin S. Inflationary pressures. Planning for price increases in capital construction projects. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:21-5 pubmed
  29. Nollert G, Wich S. Planning a cardiovascular hybrid operating room: the technical point of view. Heart Surg Forum. 2009;12:E125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This new operating room concept enables new cardiac surgery therapies and will play a vital role for minimally invasive surgery. Careful planning and professional expertise is a key factor for every hybrid room project. ..
  30. Adams A, Theodore D, Goldenberg E, McLaren C, McKeever P. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. ..
  31. Foureur M, Davis D, Fenwick J, Leap N, Iedema R, Forbes I, et al. The relationship between birth unit design and safe, satisfying birth: developing a hypothetical model. Midwifery. 2010;26:520-5 pubmed publisher
  32. Deridder A. [Saint-Jacques de Besançon Hospital]. Hist Sci Med. 2007;41:149-54 pubmed
    ..At last the "Hôtel de Mont martin" initially built for Cardinal Granvelle was joined to the main hospital and became the Maternity Hospital. ..
  33. Gibson C, Nelson K. Obtaining adolescents' views about inpatient facilities using conjoint analysis. Paediatr Nurs. 2009;21:34-7 pubmed
    ..If characteristics of services which are important can be ascertained and if economic considerations are added, the results can show how an optimal service can be provided within a definable resource. ..
  34. Sautour M, Sixt N, Dalle F, L Ollivier C, Calinon C, Fourquenet V, et al. Prospective survey of indoor fungal contamination in hospital during a period of building construction. J Hosp Infect. 2007;67:367-73 pubmed
  35. Litkouhi S. Iranian study highlights youngsters' preferences. Health Estate. 2010;64:64-6 pubmed
  36. Fraisse A, Le Bel S, Mas B, Macrae D. Paediatric cardiac intensive care unit: current setting and organization in 2010. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;103:546-51 pubmed publisher
  37. Wu Z, Robson S, Hollis B. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals. J Healthc Manag. 2013;58:47-62; discussion 62-3 pubmed
  38. Stoudt R. 12 strategies for managing capital projects. Healthc Financ Manage. 2013;67:68-71 pubmed
    ..Base the size of the project on a conservative business plan. Minimize incremental program requirements. Evaluate the cost impact of the building footprint. Consider alternative delivery methods. ..
  39. Palinić N. [Francesco Matiassi's 1908 design of the main city hospital of Rijeka]. Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2010;8:59-82 pubmed
    ..Even though the project was too ambitious and even utopian for a city like Rijeka at the beginning of the 20th century, we cannot but regret that it has not seen the light of day at least in part. ..
  40. Figueiro M, White R. Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design. J Perinatol. 2013;33 Suppl 1:S17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of the lighted environment, implications for the design of newborn intensive care units are also discussed. ..
  41. White R, Smith J, Shepley M. Recommended standards for newborn ICU design, eighth edition. J Perinatol. 2013;33 Suppl 1:S2-16 pubmed publisher
  42. Leonard A, Verster A, Coetzee M. Developing family-friendly signage in a South African paediatric healthcare setting. Curationis. 2014;37:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The participative redesign of signage resulted in a sense of ownership of the signs.The support and involvement of hospital management throughout ensured that the resulting signage received wide acceptance. ..
  43. Wiser S. Flexible spending. Contingencies keep project budgets on track. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:45-8 pubmed
  44. Harris D. Standing tall. Designing to reduce patient falls in the acute care environment. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:21-6 pubmed
  45. Bell P. Striking design suits St Andrews skyline. Health Estate. 2011;65:71-4 pubmed
    ..Paul Bell, director at Ryder Architecture, describes how the St Andrews Community Hospital and Health Centre has been delivered to achieve just that for NHS Fife. ..
  46. Van Heiningen T. [The sanitary situation on board the vessels of the "VOC", at the Cape of Good Hope and in Batavia between 1750 and 1800]. Hist Sci Med. 2007;41:303-13 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the sanitary situation soon worsened again, as a consequence of the impoverishment of the Company. ..
  47. Feiler J, Stichler J. Ergonomics in healthcare facility design, part 2: support areas. J Nurs Adm. 2011;41:97-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Part 1 in this 2-part series focused on ergonomic designs for patient care areas to enhance patient and nurse safety. The focus of part 2 is ergonomic designs for nursing stations and support areas that can prevent worker injury. ..
  48. Sheridan Leos N. Oncology care setting design and planning part II: designing healthcare settings to prevent fungal infections and improve handwashing. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2008;12:521-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Zborowsky T, Hellmich L. Impact of place on people and process: the integration of research on the built environment in the planning and design of critical care areas. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2011;34:268-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will help critical care nurses understand the role the built environment has in creating optimal healing environments. ..
  50. Curl D. Beyond the blueprints. Behav Healthc. 2008;28:42-5 pubmed
  51. McGregor A, Naqvi A, Krehlik T. Mission Bay facility's quest to be greener. Health Estate. 2011;65:23-7 pubmed
  52. Downing J, Marston J, Fleming E. Children's palliative care: considerations for a physical therapeutic environment. J Palliat Care. 2014;30:116-24 pubmed
  53. Crimi P, Valgiusti M, Macrina G, Grieco A, Massone L, Ciucci A, et al. Evaluation of microbial contamination of air in two haematology departments equipped with ventilation systems with different filtration devices. J Prev Med Hyg. 2009;50:33-6 pubmed
    ..However, although in subsequent controls mycetes were absent in both types of equipment, a great difference in the suspended bacterial load was found: Unit B was close to sterility whereas in Unit A a progressive increase was observed. ..