floors and floorcoverings


Summary: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.

Top Publications

  1. Courtney T, Verma S, Huang Y, Chang W, Li K, Filiaggi A. Factors associated with worker slipping in limited-service restaurants. Inj Prev. 2010;16:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that effective intervention strategies to reduce the risk of slips and falls in restaurant workers could include increasing COF and improving housekeeping practices. ..
  2. Kilbride A, Gillman C, Ossent P, Green L. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors for capped hock and the associations with bursitis in weaner, grower and finisher pigs from 93 commercial farms in England. Prev Vet Med. 2008;83:272-84 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the aetiology of capped hock and bursitis might differ...
  3. Chang W, Huang Y, Way Li K, Filiaggi A, Courtney T. Assessing slipperiness in fast-food restaurants in the USA using friction variation, friction level and perception rating. Appl Ergon. 2008;39:359-67 pubmed
    ..80). Despite a slightly lower correlation with perception rating than the friction variation, the mean friction coefficient of an area is still a reasonably good indicator of slipperiness. ..
  4. Järnström H, Saarela K, Kalliokoski P, Pasanen A. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures. Environ Int. 2008;34:420-7 pubmed
  5. Simjee S, McDermott P, White D, Hofacre C, Berghaus R, Carter P, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of antimicrobial-resistance genes among Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates recovered from poultry litter. Avian Dis. 2007;51:884-92 pubmed
  6. Colt J, Gunier R, Metayer C, Nishioka M, Bell E, Reynolds P, et al. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children. Environ Health. 2008;7:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The household vacuum cleaner method appears to be a reasonable alternative to the HVS3 for detecting, ranking, and quantifying the concentrations of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust. ..
  7. Chang W, Li K, Filiaggi A, Huang Y, Courtney T. Friction variation in common working areas of fast-food restaurants in the USA. Ergonomics. 2008;51:1998-2012 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of potential friction variations in field environments helps identify potential issues for interventions. This field study investigated friction variations in fast-food restaurants in the USA. ..
  8. Verma S, Lombardi D, Chang W, Courtney T, Huang Y, Brennan M, et al. Rushing, distraction, walking on contaminated floors and risk of slipping in limited-service restaurants: a case--crossover study. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68:575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable characteristics, such as slip-resistant shoes, reduced the effects of transient exposures. ..
  9. Larsson M, Hagerhed Engman L, Kolarik B, James P, Lundin F, Janson S, et al. PVC--as flooring material--and its association with incident asthma in a Swedish child cohort study. Indoor Air. 2010;20:494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..This emphasizes the need for prospective studies that focus on the importance of prenatal and neonatal exposure to phthalates in the development of asthma and allergy in children. ..

More Information


  1. Herberth G, Gubelt R, Röder S, Kramer U, Schins R, Diez U, et al. Increase of inflammatory markers after indoor renovation activities: the LISA birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2009;20:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data shows that IL-8 and MCP-1 may be suitable markers for monitoring inflammatory reactions in relation with renovation activities. Among renovation activities floor covering seems to induce the strongest inflammatory reactions. ..
  2. Dhanarani T, Shankar C, Park J, Dexilin M, Kumar R, Thamaraiselvi K. Study on acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance determinants in poultry litter. Poult Sci. 2009;88:1381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the mechanism and magnitude of resistance gene transfer may provide a strategy to reduce the potential for dissemination of these genes. ..
  3. Verma S, Chang W, Courtney T, Lombardi D, Huang Y, Brennan M, et al. A prospective study of floor surface, shoes, floor cleaning and slipping in US limited-service restaurant workers. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide support for the use of slip-resistant shoes and measures to increase COF as preventive interventions to reduce slips, falls and injuries. ..
  4. Xu Y, Hubal E, Clausen P, Little J. Predicting residential exposure to phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring: a mechanistic analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:2374-80 pubmed
  5. Spertini F, Berney M, Foradini F, Roulet C. Major mite allergen Der f 1 concentration is reduced in buildings with improved energy performance. Allergy. 2010;65:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that controlled mechanical ventilation present in all audited LEB may favour lower air humidity and hence lower mite growth and allergen concentration, while preserving optimal perceived comfort. ..
  6. Rushen J, Haley D, de Passillé A. Effect of softer flooring in tie stalls on resting behavior and leg injuries of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:3647-51 pubmed
    ..The decreased incidence of swelling of the carpus joint for cows on soft rubber mats may have important long-term effects in preventing a variety of leg problems. ..
  7. Paufler P, Gebel T, Dunkelberg H. Quantification of house dust mite allergens in ambient air. Rev Environ Health. 2001;16:65-80 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the analysis of airborne house dust mites in both undisturbed and disturbed ambient air. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling strategies are outlined. ..
  8. Gupta S, Earley B, Crowe M. Pituitary, adrenal, immune and performance responses of mature Holstein x Friesian bulls housed on slatted floors at various space allowances. Vet J. 2007;173:594-604 pubmed
    ..Housing bulls at 1.2m(2) space allowance had a detrimental effect on their growth and was associated with an acute rise in plasma cortisol concentration (on day 3) compared with those having space allowances of 2.7 and 4.2m(2)/bull. ..
  9. Colt J, Severson R, Lubin J, Rothman N, Camann D, Davis S, et al. Organochlorines in carpet dust and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology. 2005;16:516-25 pubmed
    ..02). Our findings suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with exposure to PCBs, with evidence of greater effects for PCB 180. There is also some evidence of an association with DDE. ..
  10. Cham R, Redfern M. Lower extremity corrective reactions to slip events. J Biomech. 2001;34:1439-45 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that humans generate corrective reactions to slips that are different than previously reported responses to standing perturbations translating the supporting surface. ..
  11. Gronqvist R, Chang W, Courtney T, Leamon T, Redfern M, Strandberg L. Measurement of slipperiness: fundamental concepts and definitions. Ergonomics. 2001;44:1102-17 pubmed
  12. Wilke O, Jann O, Brödner D. VOC- and SVOC-emissions from adhesives, floor coverings and complete floor structures. Indoor Air. 2004;14 Suppl 8:98-107 pubmed
    ..With the knowledge of this "emission potential" it is possible to estimate also the release of SVOCs into the (indoor) environment. ..
  13. Mihrshahi S, Marks G, Vanlaar C, Tovey E, Peat J. Predictors of high house dust mite allergen concentrations in residential homes in Sydney. Allergy. 2002;57:137-42 pubmed
    ..Alternatives such as the use of house dust mite impermeable mattress encasings on older mattresses may also be effective in reducing exposure. ..
  14. Gronqvist R, Hirvonen M, Rajamäki E, Matz S. The validity and reliability of a portable slip meter for determining floor slipperiness during simulated heel strike. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:211-25 pubmed
    ..30-0.35. Transitional friction measurement was found to be a valid and reliable indicator for slip resistance. A more accurate control of the normal force during testing is needed for actual field use of the test method. ..
  15. Wickens K, Douwes J, Siebers R, Fitzharris P, Wouters I, Doekes G, et al. Determinants of endotoxin levels in carpets in New Zealand homes. Indoor Air. 2003;13:128-35 pubmed
    ..4-1.6). Lower endotoxin was associated with floor insulation (GMR: 0.4-0.8), and north-facing living rooms (GMR: 0.4-0.8). This study has identified home characteristics that could be modified to reduce endotoxin exposure. ..
  16. Obendorf S, Lemley A, Hedge A, Kline A, Tan K, Dokuchayeva T. Distribution of pesticide residues within homes in central New York State. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;50:31-44 pubmed
    ..High residues in winter are evidence that closure of households in winter that reduces ventilation results in redistribution of pesticides within households. ..
  17. Vojta P, Randels S, Stout J, Muilenberg M, Burge H, Lynn H, et al. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:815-9 pubmed
    ..005). Based on these data, we conclude that physical interventions offer practical, effective means of reducing house dust mite allergen levels in low-income, urban home environments. ..
  18. Gronqvist R, Abeysekera J, Gard G, Hsiang S, Leamon T, Newman D, et al. Human-centred approaches in slipperiness measurement. Ergonomics. 2001;44:1167-99 pubmed
    ..Third, they are used as practical tools for evaluating and monitoring slip resistance properties of footwear, anti-skid devices and floor surfaces. ..
  19. Cham R, Redfern M. Changes in gait when anticipating slippery floors. Gait Posture. 2002;15:159-71 pubmed
    ..Insights are also gained into the adaptations that are used to reduce the potential of slips/falls. ..
  20. Pang Y, MacIntosh D, Camann D, Ryan P. Analysis of aggregate exposure to chlorpyrifos in the NHEXAS-Maryland investigation. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:235-40 pubmed
    ..03) had moderate to weak reliability. Exposure to chlorpyrifos through those media and in aggregate based on direct measurements reported in this study can be used to understand better the accuracy of pesticide safety assessments. ..
  21. Colt J, Lubin J, Camann D, Davis S, Cerhan J, Severson R, et al. Comparison of pesticide levels in carpet dust and self-reported pest treatment practices in four US sites. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2004;14:74-83 pubmed
    ..Dust sampling provides an objective measure of specific compounds to which a person may have been exposed through personal use of a pesticide or by drift-in or track-in from outside, and avoids recall bias. ..
  22. Jaakkola J, Parise H, Kislitsin V, Lebedeva N, Spengler J. Asthma, wheezing, and allergies in Russian schoolchildren in relation to new surface materials in the home. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:560-2 pubmed
    ..These findings warrant further attention to the type of materials used in interior design. ..
  23. Simpson A, Lamb S, Roberts P, Gardner T, Evans J. Does the type of flooring affect the risk of hip fracture?. Age Ageing. 2004;33:242-6 pubmed
    ..In designing safer environments for older people, the type of floor should be chosen to minimise the risk of fracture. This may result in a major reduction in fractures in the elderly. ..
  24. Clausen P, Hansen V, Gunnarsen L, Afshari A, Wolkoff P. Emission of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC flooring into air and uptake in dust: emission and sorption experiments in FLEC and CLIMPAQ. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:2531-7 pubmed
    ..About one-half of the emitted DEHP was deposited on the internal surfaces of both the FLEC and the CLIMPAQ. ..
  25. Lubin J, Colt J, Camann D, Davis S, Cerhan J, Severson R, et al. Epidemiologic evaluation of measurement data in the presence of detection limits. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1691-6 pubmed
    ..We illustrate various approaches using measurements of pesticide residues in carpet dust in control subjects from a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ..
  26. Jensen L, Friche C. Effects of training to implement new tools and working methods to reduce knee load in floor layers. Appl Ergon. 2007;38:655-65 pubmed
    ..The musculoskeletal complaints did not increase from any other region and the quality and the productivity of the work were not decreased. This indicates that within a 3-months perspective the implementation strategy succeeded. ..
  27. Zurbrigg K. Sow shoulder lesions: risk factors and treatment effects on an Ontario farm. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:2509-14 pubmed
    ..The low cost per mat (less than 0.90 dollars factoring in repeated use) makes it an economical and effective treatment. ..
  28. Chatzis C, Alexopoulos E, Linos A. Indoor and outdoor personal exposure to benzene in Athens, Greece. Sci Total Environ. 2005;349:72-80 pubmed
    ..Policy makers have to take in account these differences in establishing guidelines for ambient benzene exposure. ..
  29. Kim S. Environment-friendly adhesives for surface bonding of wood-based flooring using natural tannin to reduce formaldehyde and TVOC emission. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:744-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mg/L) and E(0) grade (below 0.5 mg/L) with UV coating. VOC emission results by FLEC and VOC analyzer were different with the formaldehyde emission results. TVOC emission was slightly increased as adding PVAc. ..
  30. Kaiser M, Kristensen C, Bækbo P, Alban L. Treatment of shoulder ulcers in sows - rubber mats and zinc ointment compared to chlortetracycline spray. Acta Vet Scand. 2013;55:12 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recommended to place a rubber mat in the farrowing crate at the first sign of shoulder ulcers. ..
  31. Carlstedt F, Jönsson B, Bornehag C. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants. Indoor Air. 2013;23:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children. ..
  32. Lin Y, Chen C, Cho M. Influence of shoe/floor conditions on lower leg circumference and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing. Appl Ergon. 2012;43:965-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, prolonged standing for even 1 h without rest showed negative effects and should be avoided when possible. ..
  33. Miles D, Brooks J, Sistani K. Spatial contrasts of seasonal and intraflock broiler litter trace gas emissions, physical and chemical properties. J Environ Qual. 2011;40:176-87 pubmed
    ..The extremes are undesirable with more friable litter prone to greater gas evolution and more compacted litter providing a slippery, disease-sustaining surface. ..
  34. Li H, Lin C, COLLIER S, Brown W, White Hansen S. Assessment of frequent litter amendment application on ammonia emission from broilers operations. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2013;63:442-52 pubmed
    ..The results of this study also contribute to the baseline data for improving the national air emissions inventory for livestock and poultry production facilities. ..
  35. Okamoto Mizuno K, Mizuno K, Tanabe M, Niwano K. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap. Appl Ergon. 2016;54:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature. ..
  36. Shakespeare A. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2009;80:247-53 pubmed
    ..Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates. ..
  37. Jensen L, Rytter S, Bonde J. Exposure assessment of kneeling work activities among floor layers. Appl Ergon. 2010;41:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..5 Newton (SD 0.3) times body weight in the crawling work position. The study highlights the need for prevention by minimizing the amount of kneeling work positions among floor layers. ..
  38. Alvarado Esquivel C, Torres Castorena A, Liesenfeld O, García López C, Estrada Martínez S, Sifuentes Alvarez A, et al. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico. J Parasitol. 2009;95:271-4 pubmed publisher
    ..6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico. ..
  39. Bowers B, Lloyd J, Lee W, Powell Cope G, Baptiste A. Biomechanical evaluation of injury severity associated with patient falls from bed. Rehabil Nurs. 2008;33:253-9 pubmed
    ..Floor mats and height-adjustable beds positioned to the lowest height should be used to decrease the risk of injury associated with falling from bed. ..
  40. Maikala R, Dempsey P, Ciriello V, O Brien N. Dynamic pushing on three frictional surfaces: maximum acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle metabolic responses in healthy men. Ergonomics. 2009;52:735-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings of significant force- and physiological-related differences in treadmill vs. high inertia pushcart clearly demonstrate that pushing experiments are essential to evaluate functional abilities of the workers. ..
  41. Baurhoo B, Ferket P, Zhao X. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers. Poult Sci. 2009;88:2262-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, under conditions of this study, MOS conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving its morphological development and microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage. ..
  42. Müller C, Sterzing T, Lange J, Milani T. Comprehensive evaluation of player-surface interaction on artificial soccer turf. Sports Biomech. 2010;9:193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Unsuited stud configurations for playing on artificial turf are characterized by less plain distributed and pronounced studs. ..
  43. Fujiwara K, Kiyota N, Maeda K. Contingent negative variation and activation of postural preparation before postural perturbation by backward floor translation at different initial standing positions. Neurosci Lett. 2011;490:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..78) and continuous EMG increase (r=0.71). These findings suggest that as balance difficulty increases, attentional allocation to sensory information and/or postural preparation starts earlier just before the perturbation. ..
  44. Waninger K, Rooney T, Miller J, Berberian J, Fujimoto A, Buttaro B. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus survival on artificial turf substrates. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Outdoor environmental conditions may affect these findings. ..
  45. Pedersen L, Malmkvist J, Kammersgaard T, Jørgensen E. Avoiding hypothermia in neonatal pigs: effect of duration of floor heating at different room temperatures. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing the room temperature to 25°C reduced hypothermia and the risk of pigs dying before colostrum intake. ..
  46. Fregonesi J, Veira D, von Keyserlingk M, Weary D. Effects of bedding quality on lying behavior of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5468-72 pubmed
    ..0.9 +/- 0.3 h/ d in stalls with wet bedding. In conclusion, dairy cows show a clear preference for a dry lying surface, and they spend much more time standing outside the stall when only wet bedding is available. ..
  47. Calderón Díaz J, Fahey A, Kilbride A, Green L, Boyle L. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3940-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, even though rubber slat mats were associated with an increased risk of CL, they improved the welfare of group housed sows by reducing the risk of lameness and limb lesions. ..
  48. Lim Y, Kim H, Lee C, Shin D, Chang Y, Yang J. Exposure assessment and health risk of poly-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in the indoor environment of elementary school students in Korea. Sci Total Environ. 2014;470-471:1376-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution rates of PBDE risk were 77% and 15% via dust ingestion at home and at elementary school, respectively; thus, intake of floor dust was determined to be the primary route of exposure. ..
  49. Kristenson K, Bjørneboe J, Waldén M, Ekstrand J, Andersen T, Hägglund M. No association between surface shifts and time-loss overuse injury risk in male professional football. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19:218-221 pubmed publisher
    ..40-0.89). This study showed no association between surface shifts or playing matches on an unaccustomed surface and time-loss injury risk in professional football, suggesting that clubs and players can cope with such surface transitions. ..
  50. Nanni Costa L, Tassone F, Righetti R, Melotti L, Comellini M. Effect of farm floor type on the behaviour of heavy pigs during pre-slaughter handling. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31 Suppl 1:397-9 pubmed
  51. Ferguson A, Bursac Z, Coleman S, Johnson W. Comparisons of computer-controlled chamber measurements for soil-skin adherence from aluminum and carpet surfaces. Environ Res. 2009;109:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). This data set can be used to improve estimates of dermal exposure to contaminants found in soils and dust present in indoor environments. ..
  52. Noorbala M. Skin lesions in carpet hand-weavers. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:5 pubmed
    ..The repetitive trauma to hands in this occupation produces typical nodules and plaques. The skin lesions from 150 carpet weavers are reported. The characteristic carpet nodule is clinically and histologically described. ..
  53. Sun Y, Sundell J, Zhang Y. Validity of building characteristics and dorm dampness obtained in a self-administrated questionnaire. Sci Total Environ. 2007;387:276-82 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that questionnaire surveys give valid data regarding most technical characteristics. With regard to moisture damages, occupants reports seem more relevant than inspector reports, in a study of health. ..