elevators and escalators


Summary: Mechanical ascending and descending devices which convey objects and/or people.

Top Publications

  1. Eves F, Webb O, Mutrie N. A workplace intervention to promote stair climbing: greater effects in the overweight. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:2210-6 pubmed
    ..The relatively weak effect of workplace interventions compared with results for public access staircases may reflect uncontrolled effects such as the immediate availability of the elevator for the traveler. ..
  2. Munck Fairwood R. Depth perception of interfering periodic patterns: a possible contribution to disorientation on escalators. Perception. 1992;21:747-52 pubmed
    ..The possible contribution of this illusion to disorientation on escalators, due to misjudgment of depth, is compared with another recently reported factor which is due to stereoscopic miscorrespondence of periodic targets. ..
  3. Eves F, Masters R. An uphill struggle: effects of a point-of-choice stair climbing intervention in a non-English speaking population. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1286-90 pubmed
    ..It would be unwise to assume that lifestyle physical activity interventions have universal application. The contexts in which the behaviours occur, e.g. climate, may act as a barrier to successful behaviour change. ..
  4. Cohn T, Lasley D. Wallpaper illusion: cause of disorientation and falls on escalators. Perception. 1990;19:573-80 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented favoring the view that disorientation experienced by escalator riders is caused by this illusion. Possibly some of the estimated 60,000 escalator falls occurring in the United States each year are linked to it. ..
  5. Eves F. All choices are not equal; effects of context on point-of-choice prompts for stair climbing. Obes Rev. 2008;9:83-4; author reply 85-6 pubmed
  6. Reynolds R, Bronstein A. The broken escalator phenomenon. Aftereffect of walking onto a moving platform. Exp Brain Res. 2003;151:301-8 pubmed
    ..The relative ease with which the aftereffect was induced suggests that locomotor adaptation may be more impervious to cognitive control than other types of motor learning. ..
  7. Nocon M, Müller Riemenschneider F, Nitzschke K, Willich S. Review Article: Increasing physical activity with point-of-choice prompts--a systematic review. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38:633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In elevator settings, point-of-choice prompts seem less effective. The long-term efficacy and the most efficient message format have yet to be determined in methodologically rigorous studies. ..
  8. Bungum T, Meacham M, Truax N. The effects of signage and the physical environment on stair usage. J Phys Act Health. 2007;4:237-44 pubmed
    ..Motivational signs and characteristics of built environments are associated with increased stair usage. ..
  9. Soler R, Leeks K, Buchanan L, Brownson R, Heath G, Hopkins D. Point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use. A systematic review update. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:S292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these approaches was the use of signs placed by elevators and escalators to encourage stair use. This approach was found to be effective based on sufficient evidence...

More Information


  1. Kerr J, Eves F, Carroll D. Six-month observational study of prompted stair climbing. Prev Med. 2001;33:422-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that stair-riser banners can elicit a sustained increase in stair use and, even when the banners were withdrawn, overall stair use remained higher than at baseline. ..
  2. Lewis A, Eves F. Specific effects of a calorie-based intervention on stair climbing in overweight commuters. Ann Behav Med. 2011;42:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The specificity of the effect confirms the appeal of this lifestyle activity for the overweight. The discussion focuses on how intentions to control weight may be converted into behaviour. ..
  3. Lee K, Perry A, Wolf S, Agarwal R, Rosenblum R, Fischer S, et al. Promoting routine stair use: evaluating the impact of a stair prompt across buildings. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..3% (p<0.001) increase in stair climbing at the health clinic. Findings suggest that the prompt was effective in increasing physical activity in diverse settings, and increases were maintained at 9 months. ..
  4. Shah S, O Byrne M, Wilson M, Wilson T. Research of a Holiday kind: elevators or stairs?. CMAJ. 2011;183:E1353-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. ..
  5. Hirschi M, Johnson Z, Lee S. Visualizing multistep elevator-like transitions of a nucleoside transporter. Nature. 2017;545:66-70 pubmed publisher
  6. Lam T, Zhu C, Jiang C. Lymphocyte DNA damage in elevator manufacturing workers in Guangzhou, China. Mutat Res. 2002;515:147-57 pubmed
    ..The presence of excess DNA damage under low level of occupational exposure to benzene or other solvents suggest that the current allowance concentrations may not be safe to prevent genotoxicity. ..
  7. Balmer D. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability. Assist Technol. 2010;22:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums. ..
  8. Hurst K, Litwak K. Accelerative forces associated with routine inhouse transportation of rodent cages. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012;51:544-7 pubmed
    ..These data document that small rodents typically are exposed to considerable motion during transportation. The resulting physical and physiologic effects could affect study outcomes. ..
  9. O Neil J, Steele G, Huisingh C, Smith G. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007;46:619-25 pubmed
    ..Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury. ..
  10. Andersen R, Bauman A, Franckowiak S, Reilley S, Marshall A. Prompting health professionals to be activity role models--motivating stair use at the 2001 ACSM scientific meeting. J Phys Act Health. 2008;5:607-18 pubmed
    ..Relatively few conference attendees were persuaded to model stair-use behavior. Health professionals should be encouraged to be "active living" role models. ..
  11. Eren B, Turkmen N, Dokgoz H. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study. Soud Lek. 2012;57:64-5 pubmed
    ..We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy. ..
  12. Händel M, Iversen M, Jensen E, Frederiksen P, Heitmann B. [The effect of a health-promoting poster on the choice of whether to take the stairs or the escalator in two S-train stations in Copenhagen]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005;167:1160-3 pubmed
  13. Puig Ribera A, Eves F. Promoting stair climbing in Barcelona: similarities and differences with interventions in English-speaking populations. Eur J Public Health. 2010;20:100-2 pubmed publisher
    ..22; 95% CIs = 1.01-1.48). These preliminary data suggest stair climbing interventions, effective in the UK, may prove successful in Catalonia and Spain. Baseline differences, however, outline the magnitude of the task. ..
  14. Sloan R, Haaland B, Leung C, Müller Riemenschneider F. The use of point-of-decision prompts to increase stair climbing in Singapore. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans. ..
  15. Howland J, Bibi S, English J, Dyer S, Peterson E. Older adult falls at a metropolitan airport: 2009-2010. J Safety Res. 2012;43:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Diverting at-risk passengers to elevators could significantly reduce the overall falls. Interventions targeting escalator falls have the greatest promise for reducing falls at this airport. ..
  16. Eves F, Webb O, Griffin C, Chambers J. A multi-component stair climbing promotional campaign targeting calorific expenditure for worksites; a quasi-experimental study testing effects on behaviour, attitude and intention. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:423 pubmed publisher
    ..Multi-component campaigns that target attitudes and intentions may substantially increase stair climbing at work. ..
  17. Nicoll G. Spatial measures associated with stair use. Am J Health Promot. 2007;21:346-52 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the spatial qualities that optimize the convenience and legibility of stairs may have the most influence on stair use in buildings. ..
  18. Olander E, Eves F. Effectiveness and cost of two stair-climbing interventions-less is more. Am J Health Promot. 2011;25:231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% of targeted employees visited the stand. In contrast, the point-of-choice prompts were potentially visible to all employees using the buildings and hence better for disseminating the stair climbing message to the target audience. ..
  19. Moore E, Richter B, Patton C, Lear S. Mapping stairwell accessibility in Vancouver's downtown core. Can J Public Health. 2006;97:118-20 pubmed
    ..For the work environment to be conducive to increased physical activity, building policy will need to consider the implications of design on activity patterns. ..
  20. Simoneau M, Teasdale N, Bourdin C, Bard C, Fleury M, Nougier V. Aging and postural control: postural perturbations caused by changing the visual anchor. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:235-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, when combined with a cognitive load or lower lighting intensity inside the elevator cage, the negative effects on the postural stability of older persons are exacerbated. ..
  21. Odom E. God's hospitality: going up!. J Pastoral Care Counsel. 2005;59:133-4 pubmed
  22. Cappa P. Outfitting your hospital for the new wave of robots. J Healthc Mater Manage. 1994;12:33-4, 37-8 pubmed
    ..The robots are programmed to pick up or deliver supplies to nursing stations or other departments, and determine the best route. Purchase and rental options exist at a substantial savings over human labor. ..
  23. Lanningham Foster L, Nysse L, Levine J. Labor saved, calories lost: the energetic impact of domestic labor-saving devices. Obes Res. 2003;11:1178-81 pubmed
    ..Efforts focused on reversing sedentariness have the potential to impact obesity. ..
  24. Kohr R. Elevator surfing: a deadly new form of joyriding. J Forensic Sci. 1992;37:640-5 pubmed
    ..This practice is called "elevator surfing," and an illustrative case is presented, which is believed to be the first such report in the medical literature. ..
  25. Wang H, Candiotti J, Shino M, Chung C, Grindle G, Ding D, et al. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013;36:333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. ..
  26. Schumacher J, Utley J, Sutton L, Horton T, Hamer T, You Z, et al. Boosting workplace stair utilization: a study of incremental reinforcement. Rehabil Psychol. 2013;58:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this study demonstrates that a physical activity among employees at the worksite can be increased with minimal relative cost. ..
  27. Murphy J, Moore F. Escalator injuries. Injury. 1992;23:336-8 pubmed
    ..Discouraging the practice of walking on one side of the escalator might help to minimize injuries. ..
  28. Platt S, Fine J, Foltin G. Escalator-related injuries in children. Pediatrics. 1997;100:E2 pubmed
    ..Public and parent education directed toward escalator safety issues may help to reduce escalator-related injuries in children. ..
  29. Kirkby K, Daniels B, Harcourt L, Romano A. Behavioral analysis of computer-administered vicarious exposure in agoraphobic subjects: the effect of personality on in-session treatment process. Compr Psychiatry. 1999;40:386-90 pubmed
    ..Subjects demonstrate learning of exposure strategies across treatment sessions. Interindividual differences in behavior correlate with a number of pretreatment subject personality characteristics. ..
  30. Li Y, Lv J, Li L. [Evaluation on the effect of Point of Decision Prompt to increase the use of stairs]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2011;32:248-51 pubmed
    ..78, 95%CI: 1.28 - 6.06, deff = 1.38) were more inclined to increase the stair-use. PDP could effectively increase the frequency of stair-use in the Chinese university dormitory buildings. ..
  31. Lateef F, Anantharaman V. Delays in the EMS response to and the evacuation of patients in high-rise buildings in Singapore. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2000;4:327-32 pubmed
    ..Modification to buildings and increasing public awareness and education have been suggested to help minimize these delays. ..
  32. Steele G, O Neil J, Huisingh C, Smith G. Elevator-related injuries to older adults in the United States, 1990 to 2006. J Trauma. 2010;68:188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Older adults should use caution when stepping on or off an elevator. Awareness of the risk and the circumstances leading to falls allows for better direction of intervention strategies. ..
  33. Vigod S, Bell C, Bohnen J. Privacy of patients' information in hospital lifts: observational study. BMJ. 2003;327:1024-5 pubmed
  34. Weinberger L, Seraly M, Zirwas M. Palmar dermatitis due to a rubber escalator railing. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:59-60 pubmed
  35. Blanco A, Michalski J. Dose escalation in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2003;13:87-97 pubmed
    ..A confirmatory trial within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group is underway to determine if dose escalation will improve overall survival in men without compromising quality of life. ..
  36. Pahwa P, McDuffie H, Dosman J. Longitudinal changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Canadian grain elevator workers. Chest. 2006;129:1605-13 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that grain dust control was effective in reducing the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among grain workers in all smoking and exposure categories. ..
  37. Bill D, Weddell J. Dental office access for patients with disabling conditions. Spec Care Dentist. 1986;6:246-52 pubmed
    ..The American Dental Association and constituent state associations can further accomplish this by setting accessibility guidelines for the dental environment. ..
  38. Baygin M, Karakose M. Immunity-based optimal estimation approach for a new real time group elevator dynamic control application for energy and time saving. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:805343 pubmed publisher
    ..With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods. ..
  39. Houweling S, Stoopendaal J, Kleefstra N, Meyboom de Jong B, Bilo H. [Use of stairs in a hospital increased by a sign near the stairs or the elevator]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:2900-3 pubmed
    ..4% during the second intervention. Signs in a diabetes outpatient clinic that either encouraged the use of the stairs or discouraged the use of the elevator increased the patients' use of the stairs. ..
  40. Morrison L, Angelini M, Vermeulen M, Schwartz B. Measuring the EMS patient access time interval and the impact of responding to high-rise buildings. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005;9:14-8 pubmed
    ..A number of barriers appear to contribute to delayed paramedic access. ..
  41. Rivano Fischer D. Wheelchair accessibility of public buildings in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Disabil Rehabil. 2004;26:1150-7 pubmed
    ..This study could be seen as an example of what happens when the modern urban environment evolves in a non regulated context, lacking legislation protecting and ensuring the accessibility for the wheelchair bound member of society. ..
  42. McCann M. Deaths in construction related to personnel lifts, 1992-1999. J Safety Res. 2003;34:507-14 pubmed
    ..Precautions are also needed to prevent contact with overhead power lines. The increasing popularity of boom-supported lifts and scissor lifts, both in construction and other industries, make their safety an important issue. ..
  43. Lewis A, Eves F. Prompt before the choice is made: effects of a stair-climbing intervention in university buildings. Br J Health Psychol. 2012;17:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Visibility of a prompt at the time behavioural choice is made appears necessary to change actual behaviour. ..
  44. Verma S, Agarwal B. Accidental hanging with delayed death in a lift. Med Sci Law. 1999;39:342-4 pubmed
    ..An adult male who was helping passengers trapped in the lift of an outpatient department at a teaching hospital was accidentally hanged. He survived for 39 days. This case highlights a rare but serious hazard in the use of lifts. ..
  45. Turner Stokes L, Turner Stokes T, Schon K, Turner Stokes H, Dayal S, Brier S. Charter for disabled people using hospitals: a completed access audit cycle. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 2000;34:185-9 pubmed
  46. Neitzel R, Seixas N, Ren K. A review of crane safety in the construction industry. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16:1106-17 pubmed
    ..Recommendations for improved crane injury prevention and future crane safety research are given. ..
  47. Lim K, Tey I, Lokino E, Yap R, Tawng D. Escalators, rubber clogs, and severe foot injuries in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010;30:414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Injuries sustained can be significant and permanent. The potential dangers of escalators and rubber clogs must not be underestimated. Level IV, Case Series. ..
  48. Kwak L, Kremers S, van Baak M, Brug J. A poster-based intervention to promote stair use in blue- and white-collar worksites. Prev Med. 2007;45:177-81 pubmed
    ..Stair use can be positively influenced in both blue- and white-collar workers by a short-term low-cost intervention using prompts on posters. ..
  49. Bassett D, Browning R, Conger S, Wolff D, Flynn J. Architectural design and physical activity: an observational study of staircase and elevator use in different buildings. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10:556-62 pubmed
    ..001). The results of the current study suggest that if buildings are constructed with centrally located, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing staircases, a greater percentage of people will choose to take the stairs. ..
  50. Bresnitz E, Gilman M, Gracely E, Airoldi J, Vogel E, Gefter W. Asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities in elevator construction workers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;147:1341-4 pubmed
    ..18 +/- 3.95) and those without (27.7 +/- 3.86) was not statistically significant (p = 0.135). We conclude that elevator construction workers have an increased risk for the development of asbestos-related pleural disease. ..
  51. Uswatte G. Promoting physical activity: fertile ground for rehabilitation psychology. Rehabil Psychol. 2013;58:87-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Sabayan B, Zolghadrasli A, Mahmoudian N. Could taking an up-elevator on the way to the delivery room be a potential novel therapy for dystocia?. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68:227 pubmed
  53. Jacobsen C, Schön C, Kneubuehl B, Thali M, Aghayev E. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene. ..