kynurenine

Summary

Summary: A metabolite of the essential amino acid tryptophan metabolized via the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway.

Top Publications

  1. Ehrenshaft M, Silva S, Perdivara I, Bilski P, Sik R, Chignell C, et al. Immunological detection of N-formylkynurenine in oxidized proteins. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..frequently lead to cleavage of the indole ring, modifying tryptophan residues into N-formylkynurenine (NFK) and kynurenine. Tryptophan modification has been detected in physiologically important proteins and has been associated with a ..
  2. Myint A, Schwarz M, Muller N. The role of the kynurenine metabolism in major depression. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..While both pro-inflammatory mediators and ROS could activate the tryptophan breakdown and kynurenine pathway with a shift toward the neurotoxic arm, chronic hypercortisolism could also enhance tryptophan breakdown ..
  3. Todorovski T, Fedorova M, Hennig L, Hoffmann R. Synthesis of peptides containing 5-hydroxytryptophan, oxindolylalanine, N-formylkynurenine and kynurenine. J Pept Sci. 2011;17:256-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such synthetic peptides should prove useful in future studies to distinguish isobaric oxidation products of tryptophan. ..
  4. Midttun O, Ulvik A, Ringdal Pedersen E, Ebbing M, Bleie O, Schartum Hansen H, et al. Low plasma vitamin B-6 status affects metabolism through the kynurenine pathway in cardiovascular patients with systemic inflammation. J Nutr. 2011;141:611-7 pubmed publisher
    ..for suspected coronary heart disease, we investigated if plasma concentrations of any metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, which depend on PLP as cofactor, may serve as metabolic marker(s) of vitamin B-6 status...
  5. Knoten C, Hudson L, Coleman J, Farrow J, Pesci E. KynR, a Lrp/AsnC-type transcriptional regulator, directly controls the kynurenine pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..P. aeruginosa is part of a small group of bacteria that use the kynurenine pathway to catabolize tryptophan...
  6. Fazio F, Lionetto L, Molinaro G, Bertrand H, Acher F, Ngomba R, et al. Cinnabarinic acid, an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, activates type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:643-56 pubmed publisher
    Cinnabarinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway that meets the structural requirements to interact with glutamate receptors...
  7. Möller M, du Preez J, Harvey B. Development and validation of a single analytical method for the determination of tryptophan, and its kynurenine metabolites in rat plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012;898:121-9 pubmed publisher
    It is highly beneficial to monitor the activity of the kynurenine pathway in a large series of samples with high accuracy and reliability in a single experimental protocol...
  8. Stone T, Stoy N, Darlington L. An expanding range of targets for kynurenine metabolites of tryptophan. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34:136-43 pubmed publisher
    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism accounts for most of the tryptophan that is not committed to protein synthesis and includes compounds active in the nervous and immune systems...
  9. Han Q, Robinson H, Cai T, Tagle D, Li J. Biochemical and structural properties of mouse kynurenine aminotransferase III. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:784-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory ..

More Information

Publications32

  1. Schwarcz R, Bruno J, Muchowski P, Wu H. Kynurenines in the mammalian brain: when physiology meets pathology. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthesis of these metabolites is regulated by an enzymatic cascade, known as the kynurenine pathway, that is tightly controlled by the immune system...
  2. Martinez P, Tsai A, Muzoora C, Kembabazi A, Weiser S, Huang Y, et al. Reversal of the Kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism may improve depression in ART-treated HIV-infected Ugandans. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;65:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the extent to which ART-mediated suppression of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism (via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 and potentially other sources) may correlate ..
  3. He W, Brumos J, Li H, Ji Y, Ke M, Gong X, et al. A small-molecule screen identifies L-kynurenine as a competitive inhibitor of TAA1/TAR activity in ethylene-directed auxin biosynthesis and root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3944-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a chemical biology approach, we identified a small molecule, l-kynurenine (Kyn), which effectively inhibited ethylene responses in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues...
  4. Hughes M, Carballedo A, McLoughlin D, Amico F, Harkin A, Frodl T, et al. Tryptophan depletion in depressed patients occurs independent of kynurenine pathway activation. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:979-87 pubmed publisher
    The kynurenine pathway (KP) and its rate-limiting tryptophan degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression...
  5. Forrest C, Mackay G, Oxford L, Millar K, Darlington L, Higgins M, et al. Kynurenine metabolism predicts cognitive function in patients following cardiac bypass and thoracic surgery. J Neurochem. 2011;119:136-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show increased levels of tryptophan with decreased levels of kynurenine, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid associated with bypass, and a later increase in kynurenic acid...
  6. Efimov I, Basran J, Thackray S, Handa S, Mowat C, Raven E. Structure and reaction mechanism in the heme dioxygenases. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2717-24 pubmed publisher
  7. Jrad Lamine A, Henry Berger J, Gourbeyre P, Damon Soubeyrand C, Lenoir A, Combaret L, et al. Deficient tryptophan catabolism along the kynurenine pathway reveals that the epididymis is in a unique tolerogenic state. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8030-42 pubmed publisher
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway...
  8. Chen Y, Brew B, Guillemin G. Characterization of the kynurenine pathway in NSC-34 cell line: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurochem. 2011;118:816-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a major degradative pathway of tryptophan ultimately leading to the production of NAD(+) and is ..
  9. Nguyen N, Kimura A, Nakahama T, Chinen I, Masuda K, Nohara K, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor negatively regulates dendritic cell immunogenicity via a kynurenine-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression, an immunosuppressive enzyme that catabolizes tryptophan into kynurenine (Kyn) and other metabolites in DC...
  10. Hirai K, Kuroyanagi H, Tatebayashi Y, Hayashi Y, Hirabayashi Takahashi K, Saito K, et al. Dual role of the carboxyl-terminal region of pig liver L-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: mitochondrial-targeting signal and enzymatic activity. J Biochem. 2010;148:639-50 pubmed publisher
    l-kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an NAD(P)H-dependent flavin monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of l-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and is localized as an oligomer in the mitochondrial outer membrane...
  11. Mezrich J, Fechner J, Zhang X, Johnson B, Burlingham W, Bradfield C. An interaction between kynurenine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor can generate regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:3190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we demonstrate that kynurenine, the first breakdown product in the IDO-dependent tryptophan degradation pathway, activates the AHR...
  12. Bonda D, Mailankot M, Stone J, Garrett M, Staniszewska M, Castellani R, et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and 3-hydroxykynurenine modifications are found in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. Redox Rep. 2010;15:161-8 pubmed publisher
    Tryptophan metabolism, through the kynurenine pathway, produces neurotoxic intermediates that are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
  13. Oades R, Dauvermann M, Schimmelmann B, Schwarz M, Myint A. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and glial integrity: S100B, cytokines and kynurenine metabolism--effects of medication. Behav Brain Funct. 2010;6:29 pubmed publisher
    ..glial integrity (S100B) and the influences of 8 cytokines on the metabolism of amino-acids, and of tryptophan/kynurenine to neuroprotective or potentially toxic products that could modulate glial function...
  14. Favre D, Mold J, Hunt P, Kanwar B, Loke P, Seu L, et al. Tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 alters the balance of TH17 to regulatory T cells in HIV disease. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:32ra36 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that induction of IDO may represent a critical initiating event that results in inversion of the T(H)17/T(reg) balance and in the consequent maintenance of a chronic inflammatory state in progressive HIV disease. ..
  15. Varma S, Hegde K. Kynurenine-induced photo oxidative damage to lens in vitro: protective effect of caffeine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;340:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine the feasibility of possible prevention of such damage to the lens initiated by UV activation of kynurenine, a well-known photosensitizer in the human lens...
  16. Laugeray A, Launay J, Callebert J, Surget A, Belzung C, Barone P. Peripheral and cerebral metabolic abnormalities of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway in a murine model of major depression. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210:84-91 pubmed publisher
    Occurring both peripherally and centrally, the kynurenine pathway (KP) - an alternative pathway to 5-HT synthesis from tryptophan (TRP) - could be of particular value to better understand the link between peripheral changes of circulating ..
  17. Desvignes L, Ernst J. Interferon-gamma-responsive nonhematopoietic cells regulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunity. 2009;31:974-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a previously unsuspected role for IFN-gamma responsiveness in nonhematopoietic cells in regulation of immunity to M. tuberculosis and illustrate the role of IDO in the inhibition of Th17 cell responses...
  18. Oxenkrug G. The extended life span of Drosophila melanogaster eye-color (white and vermilion) mutants with impaired formation of kynurenine. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:23-6 pubmed publisher
    Animal and human studies suggest that aging is associated with increased formation of kynurenine (KYN) from tryptophan (TRY)...
  19. Wu H, Pereira E, Bruno J, Pellicciari R, Albuquerque E, Schwarcz R. The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;40:204-10 pubmed publisher
    ..we show here that nanomolar concentrations of KYNA, infused directly or produced in situ from its bioprecursor kynurenine, significantly decrease extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex...
  20. Huttunen R, Syrjanen J, Aittoniemi J, Oja S, Raitala A, Laine J, et al. High activity of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase enzyme predicts disease severity and case fatality in bacteremic patients. Shock. 2010;33:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum concentrations of trp and its metabolite kynurenine (kyn) were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography 1 to 4 days after the positive blood ..