excitatory amino acids


Summary: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.

Top Publications

  1. Shimamoto K, Lebrun B, Yasuda Kamatani Y, Sakaitani M, Shigeri Y, Yumoto N, et al. DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate, a potent blocker of excitatory amino acid transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1998;53:195-201 pubmed
  2. Ebner K, Bosch O, Krömer S, Singewald N, Neumann I. Release of oxytocin in the rat central amygdala modulates stress-coping behavior and the release of excitatory amino acids. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:223-30 pubmed
    ..of the OXT receptor antagonist caused a significant increase in the stress-induced release of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate, whereas the basal release of these amino acids remained unchanged...
  3. Ritz M, Schmidt P, Mendelowitsch A. Acute effects of 17beta-estradiol on the extracellular concentration of excitatory amino acids and energy metabolites during transient cerebral ischemia in male rats. Brain Res. 2004;1022:157-63 pubmed
  4. Abdullaev I, Rudkouskaya A, Schools G, Kimelberg H, Mongin A. Pharmacological comparison of swelling-activated excitatory amino acid release and Cl- currents in cultured rat astrocytes. J Physiol. 2006;572:677-89 pubmed
    ..VRACs) are chloride channels which are permeable to a variety of small organic anions, including the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate and aspartate...
  5. Mutolo D, Bongianni F, Fontana G, Pantaleo T. The role of excitatory amino acids and substance P in the mediation of the cough reflex within the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit. Brain Res Bull. 2007;74:284-93 pubmed
    ..They also may provide hints for further studies on centrally acting antitussive drugs. ..
  6. Raol Y, Lynch D, Brooks Kayal A. Role of excitatory amino acids in developmental epilepsies. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7:254-60 pubmed
  7. Pinilla L, Barreiro M, Tena Sempere M, Aguilar E. Role of ghrelin in the control of growth hormone secretion in prepubertal rats: interactions with excitatory amino acids. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;77:83-90 pubmed
    ..the interactions between ghrelin and other relevant signals in the control of GH secretion, such as excitatory amino acids (EAAs), nitric oxide (NO) and serotonin, were assessed...
  8. Mutolo D, Bongianni F, Cinelli E, Pantaleo T. Role of excitatory amino acids in the mediation of tracheobronchial cough induced by citric acid inhalation in the rabbit. Brain Res Bull. 2009;80:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Present data also corroborate the notion that the cVRG is involved in the generation of the whole cough motor pattern, but seems to represent merely an expiratory output system for sneezing. ..
  9. Ganguly P, Maddaford T, Edel A, O K, Smeda J, Pierce G. Increased homocysteine-induced release of excitatory amino acids in the striatum of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Brain Res. 2008;1226:192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since excitatory amino acids are important in inducing brain damage, we examined the effect of homocysteine on the release of various ..

More Information


  1. Kimelberg H. Increased release of excitatory amino acids by the actions of ATP and peroxynitrite on volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in astrocytes. Neurochem Int. 2004;45:511-9 pubmed
    ..exposure to hyposmotic medium (or slower swelling by exposure to high K+ medium) leads to release of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate and aspartate...
  2. Aguilar E, Tena Sempere M, Pinilla L. Role of excitatory amino acids in the control of growth hormone secretion. Endocrine. 2005;28:295-302 pubmed
    b>Excitatory amino acids (EEAs), such as glutamate, are pivotal elements in the hypothalamic circuitry involved in the control of pituitary function...
  3. Marco S, Canudas A, Canals J, Gavalda N, Pérez Navarro E, Alberch J. Excitatory amino acids differentially regulate the expression of GDNF, neurturin, and their receptors in the adult rat striatum. Exp Neurol. 2002;174:243-52 pubmed
    ..These changes in mRNA levels and protein localization of GDNF family components could reflect an endogenous trophic response of striatal cells to different excitotoxic insults. ..
  4. Haskew R, Mongin A, Kimelberg H. Peroxynitrite enhances astrocytic volume-sensitive excitatory amino acid release via a src tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2002;82:903-12 pubmed
    ..This modulation may contribute to EAA-mediated neuronal damage in ischemia and other pathological conditions favoring cell swelling and ONOO- production. ..
  5. Molina P, Abumrad N. Contribution of excitatory amino acids to hypoglycemic counter-regulation. Brain Res. 2001;899:201-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that during hypoglycemia, central excitatory amino acids contribute to the modulation of the glucoregulatory response through activation of NMDA receptors, ..
  6. Carlton S. Peripheral excitatory amino acids. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2001;1:52-6 pubmed
    ..These data provide strong motivation to develop new pharmacological agents that will target peripheral GluRs, offering novel approaches to treatment of pain of peripheral origin. ..
  7. McNearney T, Baethge B, Cao S, Alam R, Lisse J, Westlund K. Excitatory amino acids, TNF-alpha, and chemokine levels in synovial fluids of patients with active arthropathies. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;137:621-7 pubmed
  8. Jean Y, Wen Z, Chang Y, Huang G, Lee H, Hsieh S, et al. Increased concentrations of neuro-excitatory amino acids in rat anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee joint dialysates: a microdialysis study. J Orthop Res. 2005;23:569-75 pubmed
    ..3% or 57 +/- 17.5%, respectively, compared to those in the contralateral sham-operated knee. This increase may contribute to the pathogenesis of early OA. ..
  9. Chen W, Sung C, Jean Y, Su T, Wang H, Ho J, et al. Suppressive effects of intrathecal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on excessive release of excitatory amino acids in the spinal cerebrospinal fluid of rats with cord ischemia: role of glutamate transporters. Neuroscience. 2010;165:1217-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable evidence indicates that the release of excessive amounts of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) plays a critical role in neuron injury induced by ischemic insult...
  10. de Oliveira R, Del Bel E, Guimaraes F. Effects of excitatory amino acids and nitric oxide on flight behavior elicited from the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001;25:679-85 pubmed
    Microinjection of excitatory amino acids (EAA) into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) induces flight reactions while EAA antagonists show anxiolytic effects...
  11. Kennaway D, Moyer R, Voultsios A, Varcoe T. Serotonin, excitatory amino acids and the photic control of melatonin rhythms and SCN c-FOS in the rat. Brain Res. 2001;897:36-43 pubmed
    ..These results provide further evidence that serotonin plays a role in the mediation of light effects on rhythms in the rat. ..
  12. Brouns R, Van Hemelrijck A, Drinkenburg W, Van Dam D, De Surgeloose D, De Deyn P. Excitatory amino acids and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid of acute ischemic stroke patients. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:865-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated excitatory amino acids and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of acute ischemic stroke patients and ..
  13. Zhang T, Yang L, Hu R, Qiao X, Yang X, Liu X. [Effect of electroacupuncture on the contents of excitatory amino acids in cerebral tissue at different time courses in rats with cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2007;32:234-6 pubmed
    To observe changes of contents of excitatory amino acids in focal cerebral ischemic tissue after electroacupuncture (EA) treatment at different time courses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (CI/R) rats so as to provide experimental ..
  14. Alfonso M, Duran R, Arufe M. Effect of excitatory amino acids on serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels in freely moving rats. Horm Res. 2000;54:78-83 pubmed
    ..The excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-Glu, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainic acid (KA) and domoic acid (Dom) were administered ..
  15. Feustel P, Jin Y, Kimelberg H. Volume-regulated anion channels are the predominant contributors to release of excitatory amino acids in the ischemic cortical penumbra. Stroke. 2004;35:1164-8 pubmed
    Release of excitatory amino acids (EAA) is considered a cause of neuronal damage in ischemia...
  16. Sanders J, Ito K, Settimo L, Pentikainen O, Shoji M, Sasaki M, et al. Divergent pharmacological activity of novel marine-derived excitatory amino acids on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;314:1068-78 pubmed
  17. Kuehl Kovarik M, Pouliot W, Halterman G, Handa R, Dudek F, Partin K. Episodic bursting activity and response to excitatory amino acids in acutely dissociated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons genetically targeted with green fluorescent protein. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2313-22 pubmed
  18. O Neal P, Motamedi M, Lin W, Chen J, Cote G. Feasibility study using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative detection of excitatory amino acids. J Biomed Opt. 2003;8:33-9 pubmed
    The release of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) from injured neurons has been associated with secondary injury following head trauma...
  19. Wen Z, Chang Y, Cherng C, Wang J, Tao P, Wong C. Increasing of intrathecal CSF excitatory amino acids concentration following morphine challenge in morphine-tolerant rats. Brain Res. 2004;995:253-9 pubmed
    b>Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) are involved in the development of opioid tolerance...
  20. Haskew Layton R, Rudkouskaya A, Jin Y, Feustel P, Kimelberg H, Mongin A. Two distinct modes of hypoosmotic medium-induced release of excitatory amino acids and taurine in the rat brain in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3543 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the release of the excitatory amino acids differed from the release of taurine in several respects including: (i) kinetic properties, (ii) ..
  21. Ruocco L, Di Pizzo A, Carnevale U, Murolo M, Sadile A, Arra C, et al. Excitatory amino acids in the forebrain of the Naples high-excitability rats: neurochemical and behavioural effects of subchronic D-aspartate and its diethyl ester prodrug. Behav Brain Res. 2009;198:37-44 pubmed publisher
    The excitatory amino acids (EAA) L-glutamate (L-Glu), L-aspartate (L-Asp) and D-aspartate (D-Asp) are thought to play a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator role in neuronal communications...
  22. Friedman L, Segal M. Early exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to excitatory amino acids protects from later excitotoxicity. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010;28:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..following a second exposure to the same chemicals after neurons mature and become highly vulnerable to excitatory amino acids (EAAs)...
  23. Duan S, Anderson C, Keung E, Chen Y, Chen Y, Swanson R. P2X7 receptor-mediated release of excitatory amino acids from astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1320-8 pubmed
    ..Efflux through P2X7 channels is a previously unrecognized route of ligand-stimulated, nonvesicular astrocyte glutamate release. ..
  24. Zhang H, Zhang X, Zhang T, Chen L. Excitatory amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute head injuries. Clin Chem. 2001;47:1458-62 pubmed
    The excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) play a role in the pathogenesis of postischemic and posttraumatic brain insult...
  25. Chen J, Xu W, Jiang H. 17 beta-estradiol protects neurons from ischemic damage and attenuates accumulation of extracellular excitatory amino acids. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:1520-3 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that 17 beta-estradiol may protect neurons against ischemic damage by attenuating the ischemia-induced increase in extracellular excitatory amino acids.
  26. Jezova D. Control of ACTH secretion by excitatory amino acids: functional significance and clinical implications. Endocrine. 2005;28:287-94 pubmed
    The involvement of excitatory amino acids in the control of ACTH release is well established...
  27. Lechner S, Curtis A, Brons R, Valentino R. Locus coeruleus activation by colon distention: role of corticotropin-releasing factor and excitatory amino acids. Brain Res. 1997;756:114-24 pubmed
    ..This activation may also play a role in disorders characterized by comorbidity of colonic and psychiatric symptoms, such as irritable bowel syndrome. ..
  28. Regan R, Guo Y. Estrogens attenuate neuronal injury due to hemoglobin, chemical hypoxia, and excitatory amino acids in murine cortical cultures. Brain Res. 1997;764:133-40 pubmed
    ..Investigation of high dose estrogen therapy in in vivo models of CNS hemorrhage, trauma, and ischemia is warranted. ..
  29. Cartmell J, Schoepp D. Regulation of neurotransmitter release by metabotropic glutamate receptors. J Neurochem. 2000;75:889-907 pubmed
    ..This review addresses the neurochemical evidence for mGlu receptor-mediated regulation of neurotransmitters, such as excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, monoamines, and neuropeptides. ..
  30. Moreno Fuenmayor H, Borjas L, Arrieta A, Valera V, Socorro Candanoza L. Plasma excitatory amino acids in autism. Invest Clin. 1996;37:113-28 pubmed
    ..Increments of taurine, an inhibitor, is likely compensatory and calcium dependent. ..
  31. de Bock F, Derijard B, Dornand J, Bockaert J, Rondouin G. The neuronal death induced by endotoxic shock but not that induced by excitatory amino acids requires TNF-alpha. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:3107-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, although inflammation follows glutamate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity, the mechanisms by which an endotoxic insult triggers neuronal death are different from those involved in excitotoxicity. ..
  32. Fujisawa H, Koizumi H, Ito H, Yamashita K, Maekawa T. Effects of mild hypothermia on the cortical release of excitatory amino acids and nitric oxide synthesis following hypoxia. J Neurotrauma. 1999;16:1083-93 pubmed
  33. Massieu L, Gomez Roman N, Montiel T. In vivo potentiation of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage after chronic administration of the glycolysis inhibitor iodoacetate. Exp Neurol. 2000;165:257-67 pubmed
    ..with cerebral ischemia and hypoglycemia might be the consequence of the extracellular accumulation of excitatory amino acids. In previous studies we showed that elevation of glutamate and aspartate extracellular levels by ..
  34. Herrera Marschitz M, Kohlhauser C, Gomez Urquijo S, Ubink R, Goiny M, Hokfelt T. Excitatory amino acids, monoamine, and nitric oxide synthase systems in organotypic cultures: biochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Amino Acids. 2000;19:33-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the organotypic model appears to capture many of the neurochemical and morphological features seen in vivo, providing a valuable model for studying in detail the neurocircuitries of the brain. ..
  35. McEwen B. Allostasis, allostatic load, and the aging nervous system: role of excitatory amino acids and excitotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2000;25:1219-31 pubmed
    ..Circulating stress hormones play a key role, and, in the hippocampus, excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors are important mediators of neuronal atrophy...
  36. Malmberg A, Yaksh T. The effect of morphine on formalin-evoked behaviour and spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandin E2 using microdialysis in conscious rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;114:1069-75 pubmed
    1. In the present study, the object was to examine the effects of morphine on spinal release in vivo of excitatory amino acids (EAA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and a marker for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, citrulline (Cit), evoked by a ..
  37. Dreyer E, Lipton S. The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via macrophage arachidonic acid. Eur J Neurosci. 1995;7:2502-7 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that the stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by excitatory amino acids is essential for the neuronal injury observed with gp120...
  38. Kunihara T, Matsuzaki K, Shiiya N, Saijo Y, Yasuda K. Naloxone lowers cerebrospinal fluid levels of excitatory amino acids after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40:681-90 pubmed
    Although naloxone has been used to prevent ischemic spinal cord injury (SCI), its effect on excitatory amino acids (EAAs) has not been understood...
  39. Haque R, Kuo Y, Lambein F, Hussain M. Effect of environmental factors on the biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory amino acid ?-ODAP (?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid) in callus tissue of Lathyrus sativus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, especially micronutrients and salinity, on the biosynthesis of ?-ODAP...
  40. Holownia A, Trofimiuk E, Krawczuk Rybak M, Jakubow P, Kaliszewski J, Muszynska Roslan K, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid excitatory amino acids and tau protein in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the BFM protocol. Acta Haematol. 2004;112:222-4 pubmed
  41. Ogawa S, Hori O. [Neuronal cell death and stress response]. Seikagaku. 2006;78:973-8 pubmed
  42. Rodrigues F, de Sousa C, Ximenes N, Almeida A, Cabral L, Patrocínio C, et al. Effects of standard ethanolic extract from Erythrina velutina in acute cerebral ischemia in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;96:1230-1239 pubmed publisher
    ..In HC, an increase in excitatory amino acids was also observed in ischemiated animals having treatment with EEEV200/2H or EEEV400/24H reversed this ..
  43. Sved A, Ito S, Yajima Y. Role of excitatory amino acid inputs to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in cardiovascular regulation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2002;29:503-6 pubmed
    ..4. The excitatory influence that EAA inputs to the RVLM have on vasomotor neurons in the RVLM may involve a sarthran-sensitive intermediary in the RVLM. ..
  44. Brooks V, Freeman K, Clow K. Excitatory amino acids in rostral ventrolateral medulla support blood pressure during water deprivation in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1642-8 pubmed
    ..05). These data suggest that water deprivation increases EAA drive to the RVLM, in part by increasing responsiveness of the RVLM to EAA such as glutamate. ..
  45. Llewellyn Smith I, Arnolda L, Pilowsky P, Chalmers J, Minson J. GABA- and glutamate-immunoreactive synapses on sympathetic preganglionic neurons projecting to the superior cervical ganglion. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;71:96-110 pubmed
    ..This increased excitatory input to sympathoadrenal neurons may explain the predominant activation of these neurons following baroreceptor unloading...
  46. Nilsson O, Polito A, Saveland H, Ungerstedt U, Nordstrom C. Are primary supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhages surrounded by a biochemical penumbra? A microdialysis study. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:521-8; discussion 521-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of a penumbra zone around large ICH may be of importance for making surgical decisions. ..
  47. Estienne M, Barb C. Modulation of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone secretion by excitatory amino acids in boars. Reprod Biol. 2002;2:13-24 pubmed
    ..Our finding that ketamine increased LH and testosterone release supports the notion that EAA have inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion in acutely fasted swine. ..
  48. Chen N, Huang S, Chen W, Chen C, Lu C, Chen C, et al. TGF-?1 attenuates spinal neuroinflammation and the excitatory amino acid system in rats with neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2013;14:1671-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, i.t. TGF-?1 significantly decreased the concentrations of 2 excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate, in the spinal dialysates in CCI rats...
  49. Hendrickson E, Edgerton J, Jaeger D. The capabilities and limitations of conductance-based compartmental neuron models with reduced branched or unbranched morphologies and active dendrites. J Comput Neurosci. 2011;30:301-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We also indicate suitable applications for different levels of reduction, including fast searches of full model parameter space. ..
  50. Wang J, Shen L, Cao Y, Zhu D. Effects of electroacupuncture on pressor response to angiotensin-(1-7) by amino acid release in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2003;28:25-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that attenuation of EA on the pressor effect of Ang-(1-7) or the depressor effect of Ang779 may be through regulating the corresponding amino acid neurotransmitter release in the RVLM. ..
  51. Monnerie H, Le Roux P. Reduced dendrite growth and altered glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65- and 67-kDa isoform protein expression from mouse cortical GABAergic neurons following excitotoxic injury in vitro. Exp Neurol. 2007;205:367-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GABAergic cortical neurons are relatively resistant to excitotoxic-induced cell death, but they can display morphological and biochemical alterations which may impair their function. ..
  52. Chitravanshi V, Sapru H. Microinjections of nociceptin into the nucleus ambiguus elicit tachycardia in the rat. Brain Res. 2005;1051:199-204 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 4, 33.3 +/- 2.9, 16.5 +/- 1.5 and 13.9 +/- 2.7 beats/min, respectively) which were blocked by an ORL1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of ORL1 receptors in the nucleus ambiguus elicits tachycardia. ..
  53. Kalivas P. Recent understanding in the mechanisms of addiction. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2004;6:347-51 pubmed
    ..This review describes the brain adaptations produced in excitatory transmission by addictive drugs and identifies new potential sites of pharmacotherapeutic intervention to ameliorate addiction. ..
  54. Matsko M, Ivanova N. [Changes in adaptation-compensatory processes in the course of acute ischemic stroke (clinico-biochemical comparisons)]. Ter Arkh. 2003;75:78-80 pubmed
    ..Imbalance between SRS and SLS converts stress-syndrome from nonspecific link of adaptation into a nonspecific link of the disease pathogenesis. ..
  55. Vezmar S, Becker A, Bode U, Jaehde U. Biochemical and clinical aspects of methotrexate neurotoxicity. Chemotherapy. 2003;49:92-104 pubmed
    ..Moreover, MTX interferes with the metabolic pathways of folates, excitatory amino acids, homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine, adenosine and biopterins, inducing biochemical ..
  56. Ritz M, Curin Y, Mendelowitsch A, Andriantsitohaina R. Acute treatment with red wine polyphenols protects from ischemia-induced excitotoxicity, energy failure and oxidative stress in rats. Brain Res. 2008;1239:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino acids, free radical scavengers and energy metabolites during occlusion and reperfusion were monitored using ..
  57. De Sarro G, Russo E, Ferreri G, Giuseppe B, Flocco M, di Paola E, et al. Seizure susceptibility to various convulsant stimuli of knockout interleukin-6 mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;77:761-6 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that IL-6(-/-) mice might be a valid novel epileptic model for the study of pathophysiology and pharmacology of epileptic seizures. ..
  58. Bellinger L, Bernardis L. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and its role in ingestive behavior and body weight regulation: lessons learned from lesioning studies. Physiol Behav. 2002;76:431-42 pubmed
    ..The DMN has been shown to be involved in the rat's feeding response to an imbalanced amino acid diet. These data show the DMN has an important role in many processes that control both food intake and BW regulation. ..
  59. Sokolov S, Scheuer T, Catterall W. Ion permeation through a voltage- sensitive gating pore in brain sodium channels having voltage sensor mutations. Neuron. 2005;47:183-9 pubmed
    ..Paired substitutions of glutamine allow cation movement through the constriction when appropriately positioned by the gating movements of the S4 segment. ..
  60. Carbone S, Ponzo O, Szwarcfarb B, Rondina D, Reynoso R, Scacchi P, et al. Ontogenic modifications in the effect of the GABAergic system on the hypothalamic excitatory amino acids: its relationship with GABAergic control of gonadotrophin secretion during sexual maturation in female rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;133:13-8 pubmed
    ..01) in the hypothalamic release of glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP), the excitatory amino acids involved in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission and a decrease in the release of these excitatory amino ..
  61. Szabo S, Blier P. Serotonin (1A) receptor ligands act on norepinephrine neuron firing through excitatory amino acid and GABA(A) receptors: a microiontophoretic study in the rat locus coeruleus. Synapse. 2001;42:203-12 pubmed
    ..The prevention of the excitatory action of 8-OH-DPAT on NE neuron firing by kynurenate is also consistent with this neurocircuitry. ..
  62. Trabace L, Cassano T, Cagiano R, Tattoli M, Pietra C, Steardo L, et al. Effects of ENA713 and CHF2819, two anti-Alzheimer's disease drugs, on rat amino acid levels. Brain Res. 2001;910:182-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the modulation of amino acidergic transmission could represent an additional mechanism of action in Alzheimer's disease for some acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. ..
  63. Hu D, Yang J, Chang Q, Li S, Li Z. [Protective effects of liquid extract of Lishi No.5 formula against excitatory amino acid damage of neurons]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2005;25:1295-8 pubmed
    ..Lishi No.5 formula protects the neurons from toxicity by excitatory amino acids possibly by alleviating intracellular free calcium overload induced by these amino acids.
  64. de Erausquin G. Transactivation of cell death signals by glutamate transmission in dopaminergic neurons. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2004;16:107-19 pubmed
    ..Post-translational modification of p53 may be an important target for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease and perhaps in prevention of other neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  65. Normansell L, Panksepp J. Glutamatergic modulation of separation distress: profound emotional effects of excitatory amino acids in chicks. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1890-901 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, the effects of excitatory amino acids (EAA) on isolation-induced distress vocalization (DV) were assessed in young domestic chicks...
  66. Turner M, Lavin A, Grace A, Napier T. Regulation of limbic information outflow by the subthalamic nucleus: excitatory amino acid projections to the ventral pallidum. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2820-32 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the VP response to STN stimulation appears to be strongly dependent on the depolarization state of the neuron. ..
  67. Stacey D, Clarke T, Schumann G. The genetics of alcoholism. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009;11:364-9 pubmed
    ..Such advances will be essential for the effective treatment of alcoholism in the future. ..
  68. Coyle J. Glial metabolites of tryptophan and excitotoxicity: coming unglued. Exp Neurol. 2006;197:4-7 pubmed
  69. Kawashima N, Fugate J, Kusnecov A. Immunological challenge modulates brain orphanin FQ/nociceptin and nociceptive behavior. Brain Res. 2002;949:71-8 pubmed
    ..Since SEA induces various cytokines, including TNF-alpha, these results are consistent with a growing literature documenting the effects of cytokines on nociceptive functions, and a possible involvement of the OFQ/nociceptin system. ..