Summary: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.

Top Publications

  1. Chamsaz M, Safavi A, Fadaee J. Simultaneous kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of carbidopa, levodopa and methyldopa in the presence of citrate with the aid of multivariate calibration and artificial neural networks. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;603:140-6 pubmed
    ..A set of synthetic mixtures of carbidopa (CD), levodopa (LD) and methyldopa (MD) was evaluated and the results obtained by the applications of these ..
  2. Ugoya S, Akinyemi R. The place of L-dopa/carbidopa in persistent vegetative state. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives were to prospectively follow up some cohorts of patients diagnosed to have PVS by a reliable and valid criteria and to look out for any response to L-dopa/carbidopa administration.
  3. Pandey P, Chaudhuri Z, Kumar M, Satyabala K, Sharma P. Effect of levodopa and carbidopa in human amblyopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2002;39:81-9 pubmed
    To assess the role of continuous therapy for 3 weeks with levodopa and carbidopa in the management of human amblyopia in children and adults.
  4. Hauser R, Holford N. Quantitative description of loss of clinical benefit following withdrawal of levodopa-carbidopa and bromocriptine in early Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2002;17:961-8 pubmed
    ..we evaluated 31 patients with early Parkinson's disease for 2 weeks following discontinuation of levodopa-carbidopa and bromocriptine after 14 months of treatment...
  5. Nausieda P, Pfeiffer R, Tagliati M, Kastenholz K, DeRoche C, Slevin J. A multicenter, open-label, sequential study comparing preferences for carbidopa-levodopa orally disintegrating tablets and conventional tablets in subjects with Parkinson's disease. Clin Ther. 2005;27:58-63 pubmed
    ..In these patients, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) can be given without water and may provide greater convenience and ease of use than conventional tablets...
  6. Olanow C, Kieburtz K, Odin P, Espay A, Standaert D, Fernandez H, et al. Continuous intrajejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube.
  7. Grünhut M, Centurión M, Fragoso W, Almeida L, de Araújo M, Fernandez Band B. Flow-batch technique for the simultaneous enzymatic determination of levodopa and carbidopa in pharmaceuticals using PLS and successive projections algorithm. Talanta. 2008;75:950-8 pubmed publisher
    ..was developed for simultaneous determination of levodopa [(S)-2 amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid] and carbidopa [(S)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydrazino-2-methylpropionic acid] in pharmaceutical preparations...
  8. Fahn S. Does levodopa slow or hasten the rate of progression of Parkinson's disease?. J Neurol. 2005;252 Suppl 4:IV37-IV42 pubmed
    ..Levodopa's toxicity to neurons in vitro has raised concerns if it might hasten the progression of PD, although in vivo animal studies suggest it may be neuroprotective...
  9. Stocchi F, Zappia M, Dall Armi V, Kulisevsky J, Lamberti P, Obeso J. Melevodopa/carbidopa effervescent formulation in the treatment of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1881-7 pubmed publisher
    Melevodopa hydrochloride plus carbidopa in effervescent tablets (M/C) is a readily soluble antiparkinsonian tablet formulation...

More Information


  1. Ondo W, Shinawi L, Moore S. Comparison of orally dissolving carbidopa/levodopa (Parcopa) to conventional oral carbidopa/levodopa: A single-dose, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2724-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An orally dissolved carbidopa/levodopa (OD C/L) preparation (Parcopa UCB Pharma) is available in the United States...
  2. Silver D. Clinical experience with the novel levodopa formulation entacapone + levodopa + carbidopa (Stalevo). Expert Rev Neurother. 2004;4:589-99 pubmed
    ..Stalevo (Orion) combines levodopa, the dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa and the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor entacapone in a single tablet...
  3. Fernandez H, Vanagunas A, Odin P, Espay A, Hauser R, Standaert D, et al. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in advanced Parkinson's disease open-label study: interim results. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19:339-45 pubmed publisher
    Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) delivered continuously via percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) tube has been reported, mainly in small open-label studies, to significantly alleviate motor complications in Parkinson'..
  4. Dadeya S, Vats P, Malik K. Levodopa/carbidopa in the treatment of amblyopia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46:87-90; quiz 91-2 pubmed
    To evaluate the role of levodopa/carbidopa in the treatment of amblyopia.
  5. Smith J, Ju J, Saha B, Racette B, Fisher J. Levodopa with carbidopa diminishes glycogen concentration, glycogen synthase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;97:2339-46 pubmed
    We hypothesized that levodopa with carbidopa, a common therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease, might contribute to the high prevalence of insulin resistance reported in patients with Parkinson's disease...
  6. Muller T, Jugel C, Ehret R, Ebersbach G, Bengel G, Muhlack S, et al. Elevation of total homocysteine levels in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with duodenal levodopa/carbidopa gel. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1329-33 pubmed publisher
    Levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) application elevates total plasma homocysteine (thcys). We determined thcys-, LD- and 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) concentrations in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a LD/CD duodenal gel treatment...
  7. Koller W, Guarnieri M, Hubble J, Rabinowicz A, Silver D. An open-label evaluation of the tolerability and safety of Stalevo (carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone) in Parkinson's disease patients experiencing wearing-off. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2005;112:221-30 pubmed
    To evaluate the tolerability, safety and efficacy of Stalevo (carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone) in Parkinson's disease (PD).
  8. Fung V, Herawati L, Wan Y. Quality of life in early Parkinson's disease treated with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone. Mov Disord. 2009;24:25-31 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate whether treatment with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone when compared with levodopa/carbidopa improves quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with no or minimal, nondisabling motor fluctuations...
  9. Wafa L, Cheng H, Plaa N, Ghaidi F, Fukumoto T, Fazli L, et al. Carbidopa abrogates L-dopa decarboxylase coactivation of the androgen receptor and delays prostate tumor progression. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:2835-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we hypothesize that the DDC enzymatic inhibitor, carbidopa, can suppress DDC-coactivation of AR and retard prostate tumor growth...
  10. Allen R, Earley C. Augmentation of the restless legs syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa. Sleep. 1996;19:205-13 pubmed
    Dopaminergic agents and carbidopa/levodopa have become the preferred treatment for both the restless legs (RL) syndrome and for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS)...
  11. Orlefors H, Sundin A, Lu L, Oberg K, Langstrom B, Eriksson B, et al. Carbidopa pretreatment improves image interpretation and visualisation of carcinoid tumours with 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006;33:60-5 pubmed
    ..excretion of radioactivity and thereby improve image quality, we examined the effect of pretreatment with carbidopa (CD), a peripheral inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which converts 5-HTP to serotonin (5-..
  12. Lyons K, Pahwa R. Conversion from sustained release carbidopa/levodopa to carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (stalevo) in Parkinson disease patients. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006;29:73-6 pubmed
    This study was performed to determine if conversion from sustained release carbidopa/levodopa (SR-CL) with or without entacapone to carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (CLE; Stalevo) improves motor functioning and quality of life in Parkinson ..
  13. Solla P, Cannas A, Congia S, Floris G, Aste R, Tacconi P, et al. Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone-induced acute Pisa syndrome in a Parkinson's disease patient. J Neurol Sci. 2008;275:154-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we report on the acute development of PS in a parkinsonian patient during treatment with entacapone/levodopa/carbidopa combination...
  14. Adamiak U, Kaldonska M, Klodowska Duda G, Wyska E, Safranow K, Bialecka M, et al. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of levodopa in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010;33:135-41 pubmed publisher
  15. Muller T, Ander L, Kolf K, Woitalla D, Muhlack S. Comparison of 200 mg retarded release levodopa/carbidopa - with 150 mg levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone application: pharmacokinetics and efficacy in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114:1457-62 pubmed
    ..We compared the motor response after once dosing of 200 mg retarded release LD (levodopa)/CD (carbidopa) and of 150 mg LD/CD/EN (entacapone) by rating of motor symptoms, by measurement of LD- and 3-O-methyldopa (3-..
  16. Safavi A, Tohidi M. Simultaneous kinetic determination of levodopa and carbidopa by H-point standard addition method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;44:313-8 pubmed
    ..The kinetic H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) was applied to the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa. The method was based on the difference in the rate of oxidation of these compounds with Cu(II)-neocuproine ..
  17. Mooney M, Schmitz J, Moeller F, Grabowski J. Safety, tolerability and efficacy of levodopa-carbidopa treatment for cocaine dependence: two double-blind, randomized, clinical trials. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;88:214-23 pubmed
    ..Based on these facts, levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacotherapy may be helpful in reducing or abolishing cocaine use...
  18. Lopci E, D Ambrosio D, Nanni C, Chiti A, Pession A, Marengo M, et al. Feasibility of carbidopa premedication in pediatric patients: a pilot study. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2012;27:729-33 pubmed publisher
    To verify the potential role and feasibility of carbidopa premedication in pediatric patients undergoing ¹?F-DOPA (Fluorine-18 fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine) PET scanning.
  19. Nilsson D, Nyholm D, Aquilonius S. Duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease--long-term experience. Acta Neurol Scand. 2001;104:343-8 pubmed
    ..A stable suspension of levodopa and carbidopa (Duodopa) has been developed...
  20. Dotchin C, Jusabani A, Walker R. Three year follow up of levodopa plus carbidopa treatment in a prevalent cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease in Hai, Tanzania. J Neurol. 2011;258:1649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Acknowledging that movement disorders and neurological diseases in general are an issue in this setting is important to drive education and training, and for allocation of funding from health care providers in SSA...
  21. Mao Z, Hsu A, Gupta S, Modi N. Population pharmacodynamics of IPX066: an oral extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa, and immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..levodopa (LD) in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with immediate-release (IR) carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) or an extended-release (ER) formulation of CD-LD (IPX066)...
  22. Nyholm D, Lewander T, Gomes Trolin C, Backström T, Panagiotidis G, Ehrnebo M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of levodopa/carbidopa microtablets versus levodopa/benserazide and levodopa/carbidopa in healthy volunteers. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two marketed formulations, standard levodopa/carbidopa, 100/25 mg (LC-100), and dispersible levodopa/benserazide, 100/25 mg (LB-100), were used as reference ..
  23. Eggert K, Skogar O, Amar K, Luotonen L, Kuoppamaki M, Leinonen M, et al. Direct switch from levodopa/benserazide or levodopa/carbidopa to levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone in Parkinson's disease patients with wearing-off: efficacy, safety and feasibility--an open-label, 6-week study. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2010;117:333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..was to assess the efficacy, safety and feasibility of switching from levodopa/benserazide (LB) or levodopa/carbidopa (LC) to levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing-off...
  24. Seeberger L, Hauser R. Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone in Parkinson's disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A dopa decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI), such as carbidopa or benserazide, is administered with levodopa to attenuate its peripheral conversion to dopamine, reduce nausea ..
  25. Fernandez H, Odin P. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:907-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The inability of perorally administered levodopa to provide more physiologic continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) is a leading hypothesis to explain these complications...
  26. Boiko A, Batysheva T, Minaeva N, Babina L, Vdovichenko T, Zhuravleva E, et al. Use of the new levodopa agent Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in out-patient clinical practice (the START-M open trial). Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:933-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To some extent this is provided by Stalevo, which contains levodopa and two enzyme inhibitors: the DDC inhibitor carbidopa and the COMT inhibitor entacapone...
  27. Hauser R, Panisset M, Abbruzzese G, Mancione L, Dronamraju N, Kakarieka A. Double-blind trial of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone versus levodopa/carbidopa in early Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized, double-blind, multicenter study to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE, Stalevo) with levodopa/carbidopa (LC, Sinemet IR) in patients with early Parkinson's disease (..
  28. Merola A, Zibetti M, Angrisano S, Rizzi L, Lanotte M, Lopiano L. Comparison of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and Duodopa in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:664-70 pubmed publisher
    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and levodopa/carbidopa enteral (Duodopa) infusion are two effective therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD).
  29. Grünhut M, Garrido M, Centurión M, Fernandez Band B. Kinetic approach for the enzymatic determination of levodopa and carbidopa assisted by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;673:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..least squares (MCR-ALS) was proposed for the enzymatic determination of levodopa (LVD) and carbidopa (CBD) in pharmaceuticals...
  30. Diez M, Garcia J, Prieto C, Fernandez N, Sahagun A, Sierra M. The hydrosoluble fiber Plantago ovata husk improves levodopa (with carbidopa) bioavailability after repeated administration. J Neurol Sci. 2008;271:15-20 pubmed publisher
    The influence of treatment duration (7 or 14 days) with Plantago ovata husk/levodopa/carbidopa in the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of levodopa were evaluated in rabbits...
  31. Kaplan P, Allen R, Buchholz D, Walters J. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the treatment of periodic limb movements in sleep using carbidopa/levodopa and propoxyphene. Sleep. 1993;16:717-23 pubmed
    We studied the relative benefits of carbidopa/levodopa (25/100 mg and 50/200 mg) and propoxyphene (100 mg and 200 mg) in six subjects with periodic limb movements (PLM) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over ..
  32. Cashaw J. Determination of tetrahydropapaveroline in the urine of parkinsonian patients receiving L-dopa-carbidopa (Sinemet) therapy by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1993;613:267-73 pubmed
    Tetrahydropapaveroline (THP) concentrations were measured in the urine of Parkinsonian patients receiving L-dopa-carbidopa (Sinemet) therapy, using a method that employs a separation scheme that selectively isolates THP from urine and ..
  33. Okereke C, Kirby L, Kumar D, Cullen E, Pratt R, Hahne W. Concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and levodopa/carbidopa in patients with Parkinson's disease: assessment of pharmacokinetic changes and safety following multiple oral doses. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58 Suppl 1:41-9 pubmed
    ..This randomized, double-blind, crossover study investigated the safety of, and possible drug-drug interaction between, donepezil HCl and levodopa/carbidopa.
  34. Nyholm D, Nilsson Remahl A, Dizdar N, Constantinescu R, Holmberg B, Jansson R, et al. Duodenal levodopa infusion monotherapy vs oral polypharmacy in advanced Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2005;64:216-23 pubmed
    To compare daytime intraduodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion as monotherapy with individually optimized conventional combination therapies in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) for motor fluctuations and quality of life (QoL).
  35. Findley L, Lees A, Apajasalo M, Pitkänen A, Turunen H. Cost-effectiveness of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (Stalevo) compared to standard care in UK Parkinson's disease patients with wearing-off. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:1005-14 pubmed
    A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE;Stalevo), in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and end-of-dose motor fluctuations (wearing-off)...
  36. Kim W, Karim M, Lee S. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry using double scans. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;619:2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..spectrometric method is described for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures of levodopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulation and urine sample, without prior separation steps, using two scans...
  37. Bhartiya P, Sharma P, Biswas N, Tandon R, Khokhar S. Levodopa-carbidopa with occlusion in older children with amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2002;6:368-72 pubmed
    To study the role of levodopa-carbidopa in supplementing occlusion therapy in older children with strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia.
  38. Martinez Martin P, Grandas F, Linazasoro G, Bravo J. Conversion to controlled-release levodopa/carbidopa treatment and quality of life as measured by the Nottingham Health Profile. The STAR Study Group. Neurologia. 1999;14:338-43 pubmed
    Controlled-release levodopa-carbidopa (CRLC) improves some aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients previously treated with standard levodopa formulations (SL)...
  39. Mukand J, Guilmette T, Allen D, Brown L, Brown S, Tober K, et al. Dopaminergic therapy with carbidopa L-dopa for left neglect after stroke: a case series. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:1279-82 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of carbidopa L-dopa (Sinemet) in reducing left spatial neglect after stroke.
  40. Frackiewicz E, Jhee S, Shiovitz T, Webster J, Topham C, Dockens R, et al. Brasofensine treatment for Parkinson's disease in combination with levodopa/carbidopa. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:225-30 pubmed
    To investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of the dopamine transporter antagonist brasofensine (BMS-204756) in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving levodopa/carbidopa treatment.
  41. Hauser R. IPX066: a novel carbidopa-levodopa extended-release formulation. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012;12:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..IPX066 is an investigational extended-release carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) formulation...
  42. Klostermann F, Jugel C, Muller T, Marzinzik F. Malnutritional neuropathy under intestinal levodopa infusion. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2012;119:369-72 pubmed publisher
    Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG) for Parkinson's disease is under debate to provoke polyneuropathy (PNP)...
  43. Nyholm D, Askmark H, Gomes Trolin C, Knutson T, Lennernas H, Nyström C, et al. Optimizing levodopa pharmacokinetics: intestinal infusion versus oral sustained-release tablets. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003;26:156-63 pubmed
    Continuous duodenal infusion of carbidopa/levodopa has been shown to control motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  44. Hauser R. Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (Stalevo). Neurology. 2004;62:S64-71 pubmed
    A levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone combination product (Stalevo) was recently approved to treat patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) who experience end-of-dose "wearing-off...
  45. Antonini A, Isaias I, Canesi M, Zibetti M, Mancini F, Manfredi L, et al. Duodenal levodopa infusion for advanced Parkinson's disease: 12-month treatment outcome. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1145-9 pubmed
    ..05). Two patients withdrew for adverse events. Our results demonstrate that a satisfactory therapeutic window can be achieved and maintained for several months in advanced PD patients...
  46. Muller T, Erdmann C, Muhlack S, Bremen D, Przuntek H, Goetze O, et al. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa after repeat administration of levodopa/carbidopa with and without entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:1441-8 pubmed
    ..treated hospitalised patients with Parkinson's disease received the same LD dosage on the first day only with carbidopa (CD) and on the second day with CD and EN (t.i.d.) within a standardised setting...
  47. Lowin J, Bergman A, Chaudhuri K, Findley L, Roeder C, Schifflers M, et al. A cost-effectiveness analysis of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel compared to standard care in late stage Parkinson's disease in the UK. J Med Econ. 2011;14:584-93 pubmed publisher
    Evaluation of cost-effectiveness of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG), compared to standard care (SC) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (aPD) in the UK.
  48. Hauser R, Ellenbogen A, Metman L, Hsu A, O Connell M, Modi N, et al. Crossover comparison of IPX066 and a standard levodopa formulation in advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:2246-52 pubmed publisher compare the pharmacokinetics, motor effects, and safety of IPX066, a novel extended-release formulation of carbidopa-levodopa, with an immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa formulation in advanced Parkinson's disease...
  49. Fernandez N, Carriedo D, Sierra M, Diez M, Sahagun A, Calle A, et al. Hydrosoluble fiber (Plantago ovata husk) and levodopa II: experimental study of the pharmacokinetic interaction in the presence of carbidopa. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15:505-9 pubmed
    Levodopa combined with carbidopa constitutes one of the most frequent medication in the treatment of Parkinson's disease...
  50. Nyholm D, Odin P, Johansson A, Chatamra K, Locke C, Dutta S, et al. Pharmacokinetics of levodopa, carbidopa, and 3-O-methyldopa following 16-hour jejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in advanced Parkinson's disease patients. AAPS J. 2013;15:316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is infused continuously via an intrajejunal percutaneous gastrostomy tube...
  51. Castro A, Valldeoriola F, Linazasoro G, Rodriguez Oroz M, Stochi F, Marin C, et al. [Optimization of use of levodopa in Parkinson's disease: role of levodopa-carbidopa-entacapone combination]. Neurologia. 2005;20:180-8 pubmed
    ..of levodopa and its application in clinical practice on the light of the marketing of the combination levodopa-carbidopa- entacapone...
  52. Jorga K, Fotteler B, Sedek G, Nielsen T, Aitken J. The effect of tolcapone on levodopa pharmacokinetics is independent of levodopa/carbidopa formulation. J Neurol. 1998;245:223-30 pubmed
    ..of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) after coadministration of tolcapone 200 mg with levodopa/ carbidopa in the following doses: 100/10 mg, 100/25 mg, 200/20 mg, 200/50 mg, 250/25 mg (all immediate-release) and 200/50 ..
  53. Meppelink A, Nyman R, van Laar T, Drent M, Prins T, Leenders K. Transcutaneous port for continuous duodenal levodopa/carbidopa administration in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26:331-4 pubmed publisher
    Motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be reduced by intraduodenal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa (Duodopa®) via percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG)...