baclofen

Summary

Summary: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.

Top Publications

  1. Kumru H, Stetkarova I, Schindler C, Vidal J, Kofler M. Neurophysiological evidence for muscle tone reduction by intrathecal baclofen at the brainstem level. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:1229-37 pubmed publisher
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an efficient treatment modality for severe spasticity that is considered to act at the spinal level...
  2. Dore G, Lo K, Juckes L, Bezyan S, Latt N. Clinical experience with baclofen in the management of alcohol-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidity: a selected case series. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011;46:714-20 pubmed publisher
    To illustrate the potential indications for, and adverse effects of, baclofen pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence in patients with co-existing psychiatric illness.
  3. Watve S, Sivan M, Raza W, Jamil F. Management of acute overdose or withdrawal state in intrathecal baclofen therapy. Spinal Cord. 2012;50:107-11 pubmed publisher
    Individuals who are treated with intrathecal Baclofen (ITB) pump delivery system for intractable spasticity can suffer from severe morbidity as a result of acute overdose or withdrawal of ITB, which can also be life threatening...
  4. Pastor A, Jones D, Currie J. High-dose baclofen for treatment-resistant alcohol dependence. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32:266-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent randomized trials of baclofen, with a total daily dose 30 mg administered in 3 divided doses, have supported its efficacy in reducing craving ..
  5. Johnson B. Medication treatment of different types of alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:630-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ondansetron, naltrexone, topiramate, and baclofen are examples...
  6. Leggio L, Zywiak W, McGeary J, Edwards S, Fricchione S, Shoaff J, et al. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;103:784-91 pubmed publisher
    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD)...
  7. Rolland B, Deheul S, Danel T, Bordet R, Cottencin O. A case of de novo seizures following a probable interaction of high-dose baclofen with alcohol. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012;47:577-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Baclofen is a promising medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence, and the prescription of high-dose baclofen (HDB) is increasing within the medical community, especially for patients who are unresponsive to approved treatments...
  8. Halbout B, Quarta D, Valerio E, Heidbreder C, Hutcheson D. The GABA-B positive modulator GS39783 decreases psychostimulant conditioned-reinforcement and conditioned-reward. Addict Biol. 2011;16:416-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Baclofen, a ?-amino-butyric-acid (GABA)(B) receptor agonist, can reduce cue-enhanced cocaine-seeking in rats and attenuate cue-evoked craving in cocaine addicts...
  9. Agabio R, Preti A, Gessa G. Efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in substance use disorders: a systematic review. Eur Addict Res. 2013;19:325-45 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that baclofen, a drug used in the treatment of spasticity, reduces the severity of withdrawal symptoms and substance use disorders (SUDs) for some psychoactive drugs.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nomura S, Kagawa Y, Kida H, Maruta Y, Imoto H, Fujii M, et al. Effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy on motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of cerebral palsy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..management of spasticity and include botulinum toxin administration, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and intrathecal baclofen (ITB)...
  2. Lindstrom E, Brusberg M, Ravnefjord A, Kakol Palm D, Påhlman I, Novén A, et al. Oral baclofen reduces visceral pain-related pseudo-affective responses to colorectal distension in rats: relation between plasma exposure and efficacy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:652-62 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that activation of GABA(B) receptors by intravenous baclofen reduces pseudo-affective responses to colorectal distension in rats. Here we evaluate the potential clinical significance of these observations.
  3. Houston A, Wong J, Ebenezer I. Effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on primary drinking in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;674:327-31 pubmed publisher
    The effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were investigated on primary drinking in rats...
  4. Vienne J, Bettler B, Franken P, Tafti M. Differential effects of GABAB receptor subtypes, {gamma}-hydroxybutyric Acid, and Baclofen on EEG activity and sleep regulation. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated the effects of the GHB-prodrug GBL (?-butyrolactone) and of baclofen (BAC), a high-affinity GABA(B) receptor agonist...
  5. Pulman K, Somerville E, Clifton P. Intra-accumbens baclofen, but not muscimol, mimics the effects of food withdrawal on feeding behaviour. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we compare the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, infused into the nucleus accumbens shell, on food intake and related ..
  6. Schechtmann G, Lind G, Winter J, Meyerson B, Linderoth B. Intrathecal clonidine and baclofen enhance the pain-relieving effect of spinal cord stimulation: a comparative placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on animal experiments, intrathecal baclofen was previously introduced clinically to enhance suboptimal SCS effects...
  7. Rolland B, Deheul S, Danel T, Bordet R, Cottencin O. [A system of prescriptions without drug approval: example of baclofen]. Therapie. 2010;65:511-8 pubmed
    b>Baclofen is an anti-spastic drug that acts as an agonist of GABA-B receptors...
  8. Zheng Y, Vagal S, McNamara E, Darlington C, Smith P. A dose-response analysis of the effects of L-baclofen on chronic tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One such drug is the GABA(B) receptor agonist L-baclofen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-baclofen on the psychophysical attributes of tinnitus ..
  9. Bensmail D, Marquer A, Roche N, Godard A, Lofaso F, Quera Salva M. Pilot study assessing the impact of intrathecal baclofen administration mode on sleep-related respiratory parameters. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:96-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the impact of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) mode of administration on sleep and sleep-related breathing events in severely disabled patients with severe spasticity.
  10. Rigal L, Alexandre Dubroeucq C, de Beaurepaire R, Le Jeunne C, Jaury P. Abstinence and 'low-risk' consumption 1 year after the initiation of high-dose baclofen: a retrospective study among 'high-risk' drinkers. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012;47:439-42 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to assess the proportions of 'high-risk' drinkers' abstinent or with 'low-risk' consumption levels 1 year after the initiation of high-dose baclofen.
  11. Pratini N, Sweeters N, Vichinsky E, Neufeld J. Treatment of classic pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration with deferiprone and intrathecal baclofen. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92:728-33 pubmed publisher
    ..There is currently no established therapy for the disease. Intrathecal baclofen has been reported to improve ease of care and dystonia in patients with PKAN...
  12. Da Silva C, Menani J, Callera J. Natriorexigenic effect of baclofen is reduced by AT? receptor blockade in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:348-54 pubmed publisher
    GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors activation with agonists muscimol and baclofen, respectively in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), induces water and hypertonic NaCl intake in rats...
  13. Stetkarova I, Yablon S, Kofler M, Stokic D. Procedure- and device-related complications of intrathecal baclofen administration for management of adult muscle hypertonia: a review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010;24:609-19 pubmed publisher
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) effectively reduces muscle hypertonia; however, associated complications influence its utility and acceptance.
  14. Faroni A, Calabrese F, Riva M, Terenghi G, Magnaghi V. Baclofen modulates the expression and release of neurotrophins in schwann-like adipose stem cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2013;49:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrated that the specific GABA-B receptors agonist baclofen influences the expression and the secretion NGF and BDNF...
  15. Stetkarova I, Kofler M. Differential effect of baclofen on cortical and spinal inhibitory circuits. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Baclofen as a strong GABA(B) agonist effectively reduces muscle hypertonia, however, it is not known whether intrathecal ..
  16. Thakar K, Joshi G, Sawant K. Bioavailability enhancement of baclofen by gastroretentive floating formulation: statistical optimization, in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39:880-8 pubmed publisher
    The study was aimed to improve bioavailability of baclofen by developing gastroretentive floating drug delivery system (GFDDS).
  17. Miner P, Borkuhova Y, Shimonova L, Khaimov A, Bodnar R. GABA-A and GABA-B receptors mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions. Brain Res. 2010;1355:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..occur for GABA-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen, microinjected into the NAC shell was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with either the GABA-B antagonist, ..
  18. Young K, Franklin T, Roberts D, Jagannathan K, Suh J, Wetherill R, et al. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues. J Neurosci. 2014;34:5038-43 pubmed publisher
    ..prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory ..
  19. Tassëel Ponche S, Ferrapie A, Chenet A, Menei P, Gambart G, Ménégalli Bogeli D, et al. Intrathecal baclofen in cerebral palsy. A retrospective study of 25 wheelchair-assisted adults. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;53:483-98 pubmed publisher
    To study the efficacy and safety of intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) in wheelchair-dependent adults with cerebral palsy.
  20. VOIGT R, Herrold A, Napier T. Baclofen facilitates the extinction of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2011;125:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen facilitates the extinction of morphine-induced CPP in mice...
  21. Addolorato G, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Cardone S, Bedogni G, Caputo F, et al. Dose-response effect of baclofen in reducing daily alcohol intake in alcohol dependence: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011;46:312-7 pubmed publisher
    To explore the effect of baclofen in a dose of 20 mg three times per day, compared with the already studied dose of 10 mg three times per day, in the treatment of alcohol dependence.
  22. Priano L, Zara G, El Assawy N, Cattaldo S, Muntoni E, Milano E, et al. Baclofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: preparation, electrophysiological assessment of efficacy, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution in rats after intraperitoneal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011;79:135-41 pubmed publisher
    Intrathecal baclofen administration is the reference treatment for spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin, but the risk of infection or catheter dysfunctions are important limits...
  23. Mirijello A, Addolorato G, D Angelo C, Ferrulli A, Vassallo G, Antonelli M, et al. Baclofen in the treatment of persistent hiccup: a case series. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67:918-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Persistent hiccup is a worrying symptom both for patients, because of reduced quality of life, and for physicians, because of frustration for unsuccessful treatments...
  24. Bartoletti M, Colantoni A, de Luca V, Gaiardi M. Single and repeated baclofen treatment attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..was performed to investigate the effects of acute (Experiment 1) and chronic (Experiment 2) pretreatment with baclofen on the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. Rats were trained to discriminate morphine (5mg/kgi.p...
  25. Garbutt J, Kampov Polevoy A, Gallop R, Kalka Juhl L, Flannery B. Efficacy and safety of baclofen for alcohol dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1849-57 pubmed publisher
    Recent clinical trials and case-reports indicate that baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, may have efficacy for alcohol dependence...
  26. Addolorato G, Leggio L. Safety and efficacy of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:2113-7 pubmed
    ..evidence, the majority of the human studies have demonstrated that the prototype GABA(B) receptor antagonist baclofen may represent an effective mediation to treat alcohol-dependent individuals...
  27. Sullivan R, Hodgman M, Kao L, Tormoehlen L. Baclofen overdose mimicking brain death. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012;50:141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report two cases of baclofen intoxication where brain death was entertained as an explanation for prolonged coma, with arousal seen days later,..
  28. Blondeau K, Boecxstaens V, Rommel N, Farré R, Depeyper S, Holvoet L, et al. Baclofen improves symptoms and reduces postprandial flow events in patients with rumination and supragastric belching. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment options are limited and focused on behavioral therapy. Baclofen, an agonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid B receptor, increases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and decreases ..
  29. Vienne J, Lecciso G, Constantinescu I, Schwartz S, Franken P, Heinzer R, et al. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory. Sleep. 2012;35:1071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep...
  30. de Oliveira L, Kimura E, Callera J, De Luca L, Colombari D, Menani J. Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride and sucrose intake in rats. Neuroscience. 2011;183:160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen, injected alone or combined with GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor antagonists into the LPBN on 0.3 M NaCl, water, 0...
  31. Saval A, Chiodo A. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity management: a comparative analysis of spasticity of spinal vs cortical origin. J Spinal Cord Med. 2010;33:16-21 pubmed
    To examine the differences in intrathecal baclofen management of individuals with spasticity of cortical vs spinal etiologies.
  32. Salazar M, Eiland L. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal resembling serotonin syndrome in an adolescent boy with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008;24:691-3 pubmed publisher
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is increasingly being used to reduce spasticity among children with cerebral palsy, dystonia, and spinal cord injuries...
  33. Brvar M, Vrtovec M, Kovac D, Kozelj G, Pezdir T, Bunc M. Haemodialysis clearance of baclofen. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:1143-6 pubmed
    b>Baclofen is a centrally acting gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used for spasticity of spinal origin and mainly excreted unchanged by the kidneys...
  34. Kasamatsu T, Mizobe K, Sutter E. Muscimol and baclofen differentially suppress retinotopic and nonretinotopic responses in visual cortex. Vis Neurosci. 2005;22:839-58 pubmed
    ..effects of a GABA(A)-receptor agonist, muscimol, on the FLC and SDC with those of a GABA(B)-receptor agonist, baclofen, and found that muscimol more strongly suppressed the FLC than the SDC, and that the reverse was the case for ..
  35. Ridley B. Intrathecal baclofen therapy: challenges in patients with multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Nurs. 2006;31:158-64 pubmed
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a recognized therapy for severe spasticity of both spinal and cerebral origin, with documented positive clinical outcomes for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  36. Bernards C. Cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord distribution of baclofen and bupivacaine during slow intrathecal infusion in pigs. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:169-78 pubmed
    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving chronic intrathecal infusions of local anesthetics, baclofen, opioids, and other analgesics via implanted pumps...
  37. Albright A, Awaad Y, Muhonen M, Boydston W, Gilmartin R, Krach L, et al. Performance and complications associated with the synchromed 10-ml infusion pump for intrathecal baclofen administration in children. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:64-8 pubmed
    The objectives of this multicenter study were to monitor the performance of a 10-ml pump infusing intrathecal baclofen to treat 100 children with cerebral spasticity, to monitor complications associated with the pump, and to correlate ..
  38. Scheinberg A, Hall K, Lam L, O Flaherty S. Oral baclofen in children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind cross-over pilot study. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42:715-20 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness of oral baclofen in reducing spasticity and improving function in children with cerebral palsy.
  39. Addolorato G, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Cardone S, Vonghia L, Mirijello A, et al. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis: randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet. 2007;370:1915-22 pubmed
    ..We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of baclofen in achieving and maintaining alcohol abstinence in patients with liver cirrhosis.
  40. Arai S, Takuma K, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Nagai T, Takahashi K, et al. Involvement of pallidotegmental neurons in methamphetamine- and MK-801-induced impairment of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex in mice: reversal by GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:3164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we examined the effects of baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, on METH- and MK-801-induced PPI impairment...
  41. Hoving M, van Raak E, Spincemaille G, van Kranen Mastenbroek V, van Kleef M, Gorter J, et al. Safety and one-year efficacy of intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2009;13:247-56 pubmed publisher
    Prospective studies that address both efficacy and safety of continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen (CITB) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), and that use outcome measures beyond muscle tone are lacking.
  42. Wong K, Wojnicki F, Corwin R. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under limited access conditions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;92:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol...
  43. Collares E, Vinagre A. Effect of the GABAB agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:99-104 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone...
  44. Woon K, Tsegaye M, Vloeberghs M. The role of intrathecal baclofen in the management of primary and secondary dystonia in children. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21:355-8 pubmed
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a well-established method of treating spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. In our series, eight children with primary or dystonia secondary to cerebral palsy have benefited from ITB...
  45. Spano M, Fattore L, Fratta W, Fadda P. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen prevents heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:1555-62 pubmed
    ..The gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen is known to affect the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse, including heroin, as well as to decrease ..
  46. Maccioni P, Fantini N, Froestl W, Carai M, Gessa G, Colombo G. Specific reduction of alcohol's motivational properties by the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783--comparison with the effect of the GABAB receptor direct agonist, baclofen. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:1558-64 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the GABA(B) receptor--either by means of direct agonists (like baclofen) or positive allosteric modulators (like GS39783)--has been observed to suppress alcohol drinking and reinforcement in rats and mice...
  47. Lal R, Sukbuntherng J, Tai E, Upadhyay S, Yao F, Warren M, et al. Arbaclofen placarbil, a novel R-baclofen prodrug: improved absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination properties compared with R-baclofen. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:911-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Baclofen is a racemic GABA(B) receptor agonist that has a number of significant pharmacokinetic limitations, including a narrow window of absorption in the upper small intestine and rapid clearance from the blood...
  48. Huang Y, Guilleminault C. Narcolepsy: action of two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonists, baclofen and sodium oxybate. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41:9-16 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to evaluate the actions of baclofen and sodium oxybate, two medications with gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist properties, on symptoms of narcolepsy in drug-naïve teenagers...
  49. Liang J, Chen F, Krstew E, Cowen M, Carroll F, Crawford D, et al. The GABA(B) receptor allosteric modulator CGP7930, like baclofen, reduces operant self-administration of ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:632-9 pubmed
    ..Given that the prototypic agonist, baclofen, reduces the self-administration of alcohol, we hypothesized that the GABA(B) receptor allosteric modulator, ..
  50. Potes C, Neto F, Castro Lopes J. Administration of baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonist in the thalamic ventrobasal complex, attenuates allodynia in monoarthritic rats subjected to the ankle-bend test. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:515-23 pubmed
    ..study, experimental groups of 2, 4, and 14 days monoarthritic (MA) rats were injected with saline (controls) or baclofen (0...
  51. Krach L. Intrathecal baclofen use in adults with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2009;51 Suppl 4:106-12 pubmed publisher
    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment for both spasticity and dystonia in people with cerebral palsy (CP). Its use is becoming increasingly common...
  52. Suzuki T, Nurrochmad A, Ozaki M, Khotib J, Nakamura A, Imai S, et al. Effect of a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on the mu-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociceptive, emetic and rewarding effects. Neuropharmacology. 2005;49:1121-31 pubmed
    ..study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptor agonist baclofen on the mu-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociceptive, emetic and rewarding effects...
  53. Bensmail D, Ward A, Wissel J, Motta F, Saltuari L, Lissens J, et al. Cost-effectiveness modeling of intrathecal baclofen therapy versus other interventions for disabling spasticity. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009;23:546-52 pubmed publisher
    To assess by simulation the cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy compared with conventional medical treatments for patients with disabling spasticity and functional dependence caused by any neurological disease.