amino acids


Summary: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

Top Publications

  1. Li H, Lee J, He C, Zou M, Xie Z. Suppression of the mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 pathway by activated AMPK prevents hepatic insulin resistance induced by excess amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin resistance that is induced by the consumption of a high-protein diet (HPD) and the presence of excess amino acids. Exposure of HepG2 cells to excess amino acids reduced AMPK phosphorylation, upregulated Notch1 expression, and ..
  2. Gulati P, Cheung M, Antrobus R, Church C, Harding H, Tung Y, et al. Role for the obesity-related FTO gene in the cellular sensing of amino acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2557-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a role for FTO in the coupling of amino acid levels to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. These findings suggest that FTO may influence body composition through playing a role in cellular nutrient sensing. ..
  3. Saiki E, Nagao K, Aonuma H, Fukumoto S, Xuan X, Bannai M, et al. Multivariable analysis of host amino acids in plasma and liver during infection of malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii. Malar J. 2013;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Amino acids were shown to be essential nutritional requirements since early times and much of the current knowledge of ..
  4. Thalacker Mercer A, Ingram K, Guo F, Ilkayeva O, Newgard C, Garvey W. BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans. Diabetes. 2014;63:791-800 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e...
  5. Leiman S, May J, Lebar M, Kahne D, Kolter R, Losick R. D-amino acids indirectly inhibit biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by interfering with protein synthesis. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:5391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..D-tryptophan, and D-tyrosine and was reported to inhibit biofilm formation via the incorporation of these D-amino acids into the cell wall...
  6. Tsun Z, Bar Peled L, Chantranupong L, Zoncu R, Wang T, Kim C, et al. The folliculin tumor suppressor is a GAP for the RagC/D GTPases that signal amino acid levels to mTORC1. Mol Cell. 2013;52:495-505 pubmed publisher
    The mTORC1 kinase is a master growth regulator that senses numerous environmental cues, including amino acids. The Rag GTPases interact with mTORC1 and signal amino acid sufficiency by promoting the translocation of mTORC1 to the ..
  7. Engineer A, Dhakephalkar A, Gaikaiwari R, Dhakephalkar P. Process parameter optimization for hydantoinase-mediated synthesis of optically pure carbamoyl amino acids of industrial value using Pseudomonas aeruginosa resting cells. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;40:1367-72 pubmed publisher
    Hydantoinase-mediated enzymatic synthesis of optically pure carbamoyl amino acids was investigated as an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient alternative to the otherwise energy-intensive, polluting chemical synthesis...
  8. Wang Q, Tiffen J, Bailey C, Lehman M, Ritchie W, Fazli L, et al. Targeting amino acid transport in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: effects on cell cycle, cell growth, and tumor development. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:1463-73 pubmed publisher
    L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling and protein synthesis...
  9. Kamisetty H, Ovchinnikov S, Baker D. Assessing the utility of coevolution-based residue-residue contact predictions in a sequence- and structure-rich era. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These conditions are currently met by 422 of the protein families collected in the Pfam database. ..

More Information


  1. Zhou X, Wang E. Transfer RNA: a dancer between charging and mis-charging for protein biosynthesis. Sci China Life Sci. 2013;56:921-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, some unique mis-charged tRNA species necessary for the organism are also briefly described. ..
  2. Jordi J, Herzog B, Camargo S, Boyle C, Lutz T, Verrey F. Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents. J Physiol. 2013;591:5611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content...
  3. Polyansky A, Zagrovic B. Evidence of direct complementary interactions between messenger RNAs and their cognate proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:8434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we derive interaction preferences between amino acids and RNA bases by analyzing binding interfaces in the known 3D structures of protein-RNA complexes...
  4. Takada K, Ninomiya A, Naruse M, Sun Y, Miyazaki M, Nogi Y, et al. Surugamides A-E, cyclic octapeptides with four D-amino acid residues, from a marine Streptomyces sp.: LC-MS-aided inspection of partial hydrolysates for the distinction of D- and L-amino acid residues in the sequence. J Org Chem. 2013;78:6746-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentiation of D-Ile and L-Ile in the sequence was established by chiral analysis of fragment peptides obtained from the partial hydrolysate, whose identification was conducted by LC-MS/MS...
  5. Bar Peled L, Chantranupong L, Cherniack A, Chen W, Ottina K, Grabiner B, et al. A Tumor suppressor complex with GAP activity for the Rag GTPases that signal amino acid sufficiency to mTORC1. Science. 2013;340:1100-6 pubmed publisher
    The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway promotes cell growth in response to many cues, including amino acids, which act through the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) to promote mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface, its site of ..
  6. Churchward Venne T, Murphy C, Longland T, Phillips S. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans. Amino Acids. 2013;45:231-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover...
  7. Tomé L, Pinho S, Jorge M, Gomes J, Coutinho J. Salting-in with a salting-out agent: explaining the cation specific effects on the aqueous solubility of amino acids. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:6116-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of the molecular interactions responsible for the reversal of the Hofmeister trend in aqueous solutions of amino acids and proteins are still defectively understood...
  8. Melis M, Aragoni M, Arca M, Cabras T, Caltagirone C, Castagnola M, et al. Marked increase in PROP taste responsiveness following oral supplementation with selected salivary proteins or their related free amino acids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59810 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the role of these proteins and free amino acids that selectively interact with the PROP molecule, in modulating bitter taste responsiveness...
  9. Hou X, Liu Q, Smith T, Li N, Zong M. Evaluation of toxicity and biodegradability of cholinium amino acids ionic liquids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59145 pubmed publisher
    ..The low toxicity and high biodegradability of these novel [Ch][AA] make them promising candidates for use as environmentally friendly solvents in large-scale applications. ..
  10. Bernard J, Liao Y, Ding Z, Hara D, Kleinert M, Nelson J, et al. An amino acid mixture improves glucose tolerance and lowers insulin resistance in the obese Zucker rat. Amino Acids. 2013;45:191-203 pubmed publisher
  11. Jewell J, Guan K. Nutrient signaling to mTOR and cell growth. Trends Biochem Sci. 2013;38:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Both complexes respond to growth factors, whereas only mTORC1 is controlled by nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids. Since the discovery of mTOR, extensive studies have intricately detailed the molecular mechanisms by which ..
  12. Cao D, Xu Q, Liang Y. propy: a tool to generate various modes of Chou's PseAAC. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:960-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The python package, propy, is freely available via, and it runs on Linux and MS-Windows. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  13. Ou Y, Chen S, Wu S. ETMB-RBF: discrimination of metal-binding sites in electron transporters based on RBF networks with PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e46572 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins. ..
  14. Xiao X, Wang P, Lin W, Jia J, Chou K. iAMP-2L: a two-level multi-label classifier for identifying antimicrobial peptides and their functional types. Anal Biochem. 2013;436:168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..For the conveniences of users, a user-friendly web-server for iAMP-2L was established at ..
  15. Wan S, Mak M, Kung S. GOASVM: a subcellular location predictor by incorporating term-frequency gene ontology into the general form of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition. J Theor Biol. 2013;323:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GOASVM and Supplementary materials are available online at ..
  16. Russell W, Duncan S, Scobbie L, Duncan G, Cantlay L, Calder A, et al. Major phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites in the human gut can arise from microbial fermentation of protein. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although they have the potential to be derived from diets rich in plant-based foods, evidence suggests that these compounds can be derived from the microbial fermentation of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon.
  17. Caragata E, Rancès E, O Neill S, McGraw E. Competition for amino acids between Wolbachia and the mosquito host, Aedes aegypti. Microb Ecol. 2014;67:205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine cholesterol and amino acids as candidate molecules for competition, as they have critical roles in egg structural development and are known ..
  18. Azmi S, Srivastava S, Mishra N, Tripathi J, Shukla P, Ghosh J. Characterization of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties of short peptides with different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence. J Med Chem. 2013;56:924-39 pubmed publisher
    To understand the influence of different hydrophobic amino acids at "a" and "d" positions of a heptad repeat sequence on antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiendotoxin properties, four 15-residue peptides with leucine (..
  19. Taylor P. Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:223S-230S pubmed publisher
    ..New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. ..
  20. Longo L, Lee J, Blaber M. Simplified protein design biased for prebiotic amino acids yields a foldable, halophilic protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of different types of abiotic chemical syntheses identifies a consensus set of 10 "prebiotic" ?-amino acids. Before the emergence of biosynthetic pathways, this set is the most plausible resource for protein formation (..
  21. Collino S, Montoliu I, Martin F, Scherer M, Mari D, Salvioli S, et al. Metabolic signatures of extreme longevity in northern Italian centenarians reveal a complex remodeling of lipids, amino acids, and gut microbiota metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56564 pubmed publisher
  22. Muttucumaru N, Powers S, Elmore J, Mottram D, Halford N. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:6734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..concentrations in potato tubers, and this has potential implications for food quality and safety because free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing...
  23. Zhang G, Ge H. Protein hypersaline adaptation: insight from amino acids with machine learning algorithms. Protein J. 2013;32:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, the linear models have captured some clues for protein halo-stability. Among them, lower frequency of Ser in halophilic protein has not been report before. ..