Summary: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Top Publications

  1. Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Coventry S, Rengasamy P, McDonald G. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl- ions on barley growth under salinity stress. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2189-203 pubmed publisher
  2. Sagardoy R, Morales F, López Millán A, Abadia A, Abadía J. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009;11:339-50 pubmed publisher
    ..plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot ..
  3. Laganowsky A, Gómez S, Whitelegge J, Nishio J. Hydroponics on a chip: analysis of the Fe deficient Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane proteome. J Proteomics. 2009;72:397-415 pubmed
    ..Plants were cultivated using a novel hydroponic system, called "hydroponics on a chip", which yields highly reproducible plant tissue samples for physiological analyses, and can be ..
  4. Zhan X, Ma H, Zhou L, Liang J, Jiang T, Xu G. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) seedlings: passive or active uptake?. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that an active, carrier-mediated and energy-consuming influx process is involved in the uptake of PHE by plant roots. ..
  5. Ghandilyan A, Ilk N, Hanhart C, Mbengue M, Barboza L, Schat H, et al. A strong effect of growth medium and organ type on the identification of QTLs for phytate and mineral concentrations in three Arabidopsis thaliana RIL populations. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:1409-25 pubmed publisher
    ..and one new (LerxEri-1) Arabidopsis thaliana Recombinant Inbred Line populations were raised on soil and hydroponics as substrates...
  6. Bito T, Ohishi N, Hatanaka Y, Takenaka S, Nishihara E, Yabuta Y, et al. Production and characterization of cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown using hydroponics. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:3852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce leaves would be an excellent source of free cyanocobalamin, particularly for strict vegetarians or elderly people with food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. ..
  7. Lin D, Xing B. Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:5580-5 pubmed
  8. Norton G, Lou Hing D, Meharg A, Price A. Rice-arsenate interactions in hydroponics: whole genome transcriptional analysis. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2267-76 pubmed publisher
  9. Engelhart S, Rietschel E, Exner M, Lange L. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212:18-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl...

More Information


  1. Munns R, James R, Sirault X, Furbank R, Jones H. New phenotyping methods for screening wheat and barley for beneficial responses to water deficit. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:3499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no perfect medium: there are pitfalls in using soil in pots, and in using hydroponics with ionic and non-ionic osmotica. Use of mixed salts or NaCl is recommended over non-ionic osmotica...
  2. Macarisin D, Patel J, Sharma V. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;173:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil. Curli expression by E. coli O157:H7 had no significant effect on its root uptake by spinach plants...
  3. Norton G, Nigar M, Williams P, Dasgupta T, Meharg A, Price A. Rice-arsenate interactions in hydroponics: a three-gene model for tolerance. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results offer testable hypotheses for genes related to As(V) tolerance that might offer strategies for mitigating arsenic (As) accumulation in consumed rice. ..
  4. Tocquin P, Corbesier L, Havelange A, Pieltain A, Kurtem E, Bernier G, et al. A novel high efficiency, low maintenance, hydroponic system for synchronous growth and flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2003;3:2 pubmed
    ..Besides the use of phytotronic cabinets, controlling plant nutrition may be critical and could be achieved in hydroponics. The availability of such a system would also greatly facilitate studies dealing with root development...
  5. Tuberosa R, Sanguineti M, Landi P, Giuliani M, Salvi S, Conti S. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;48:697-712 pubmed
    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a ..
  6. Xu C, Li X, Xue Y, Huang Y, Gao J, Xing Y. Comparison of quantitative trait loci controlling seedling characteristics at two seedling stages using rice recombinant inbred lines. Theor Appl Genet. 2004;109:640-7 pubmed
    ..Zhenshan 97 alleles had positive effects during the first 30 days of seedling growth, but thereafter the positive effects of Minghui 63 alleles on seedling growth gradually became more pronounced. ..
  7. Taji T, Seki M, Satou M, Sakurai T, Kobayashi M, Ishiyama K, et al. Comparative genomics in salt tolerance between Arabidopsis and aRabidopsis-related halophyte salt cress using Arabidopsis microarray. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:1697-709 pubmed
    ..Stress tolerance of salt cress may be due to constitutive overexpression of many genes that function in stress tolerance and that are stress inducible in Arabidopsis...
  8. Parrish Z, White J, Isleyen M, Gent M, Iannucci Berger W, Eitzer B, et al. Accumulation of weathered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plant and earthworm species. Chemosphere. 2006;64:609-18 pubmed
    ..The data show that not only is the accumulation of weathered PAHs species-specific but also that the bioavailability of individual PAH constituents is highly variable. ..
  9. Gu R, Fonseca S, Puskas L, Hackler L, Zvara A, Dudits D, et al. Transcript identification and profiling during salt stress and recovery of Populus euphratica. Tree Physiol. 2004;24:265-76 pubmed
    ..Transcript analysis during salt stress and recovery of this woody species revealed several genes and corresponding proteins deserving special attention in future studies of salt tolerance in woody species. ..
  10. Wang M, Xiong Y, Ling N, Feng X, Zhong Z, Shen Q, et al. Detection of the dynamic response of cucumber leaves to fusaric acid using thermal imaging. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;66:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining the response of the leaves under the light and dark conditions with the DIT employed in the present study permitted noninvasive monitoring and direct visualization of wilting development. ..
  11. Patterson K, Cakmak T, Cooper A, Lager I, Rasmusson A, Escobar M. Distinct signalling pathways and transcriptome response signatures differentiate ammonium- and nitrate-supplied plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1486-501 pubmed publisher
  12. Gupta D, Nicoloso F, Schetinger M, Rossato L, Pereira L, Castro G, et al. Antioxidant defense mechanism in hydroponically grown Zea mays seedlings under moderate lead stress. J Hazard Mater. 2009;172:479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Zea mays can be used as an indicator species for Pb, and the various antioxidants might play a key role in the detoxification of Pb induced toxic effects. ..
  13. Koseki S, Mizuno Y, Yamamoto K. Comparison of two possible routes of pathogen contamination of spinach leaves in a hydroponic cultivation system. J Food Prot. 2011;74:1536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7. The results of the present study indicate that the principal route of pathogen contamination of growing spinach leaves in a hydroponic system is from the plant's roots, rather than from leaf contamination itself. ..
  14. Ziegler J, Schmidt S, Chutia R, Müller J, Böttcher C, Strehmel N, et al. Non-targeted profiling of semi-polar metabolites in Arabidopsis root exudates uncovers a role for coumarin secretion and lignification during the local response to phosphate limitation. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:1421-32 pubmed publisher
  15. Hubberten H, Drozd A, Tran B, Hesse H, Hoefgen R. Local and systemic regulation of sulfur homeostasis in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2012;72:625-35 pubmed publisher
  16. Ehret D, Usher K, Helmer T, Block G, Steinke D, Frey B, et al. Tomato fruit antioxidants in relation to salinity and greenhouse climate. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:1138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple regressions of antioxidants in relation to EC and climatic factors showed that antioxidants responded more strongly to light and temperature than to EC. ..
  17. Armstrong S, Headley J, Peru K, Germida J. Phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2008;43:36-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, caution should be taken when making predictions on the environmental fate of oil sands naphthenic acids when using commercial NAs as surrogates. ..
  18. Llewellyn A, Lewis J, Miller S, Corol D, Beale M, Ward J. Tissue preparation using Arabidopsis. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;860:65-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter describes in detail how to generate reproducible Arabidopsis tissue suitable for a typical plant metabolomics experiment. Issues concerned with tissue sampling, harvesting, and storage are also discussed. ..
  19. Cui L, Feng X, Lin C, Wang X, Meng B, Wang X, et al. Accumulation and translocation of 198Hg in four crop species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfer factor data analysis showed that Hg translocation from stems to leaves was more efficient than that from roots to stems. ..
  20. Kumar N, Mallick S, Yadava R, Singh A, Sinha S. Co-application of selenite and phosphate reduces arsenite uptake in hydroponically grown rice seedlings: toxicity and defence mechanism. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;91:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall study concluded that application of lower rates of P (5?gml(-1)) and Se (0.75?gml(-1)) provides maximum amelioration of As(III) toxicity in rice seedlings. ..
  21. Gao L, Peng K, Xia Y, Wang G, Niu L, Lian C, et al. Cadmium and manganese accumulation in Phytolacca americana L. and the roles of non-protein thiols and organic acids. Int J Phytoremediation. 2013;15:307-19 pubmed
    ..4 to 89.3 mg (0.771 to 0.992 mmol) g(-1) dry weight, respectively, which was approximately 3.7- to 8.6-fold higher than the Mn level in the 0.6 M HCl extract. Thus, oxalic acid may play an important role in the detoxification of Mn...
  22. Bhagat A, Mahmoud B, Linton R. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on hydroponic tomatoes using chlorine dioxide gas. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed that ClO(2) gas is a promising antimicrobial technology for fresh tomato skin surfaces. ..
  23. Duman F, Ozturk F, Aydin Z. Biological responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) exposed to the inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V): effects of concentration and duration of exposure. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..7H(2)O, were studied in hydroponics. The accumulation of both As species depended on As concentration and exposure duration...
  24. Yu X, Gu J, Li L. Assimilation and physiological effects of ferrocyanide on weeping willows. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;71:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The assimilation of ferrocyanide by plants showed a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytoremediation of ferrocyanide-contaminating wastewater and soils can be possible for the environmental cleaning up. ..
  25. Keller R, Perin K, Souza W, Cruz L, Zandonade E, Cassini S, et al. Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58:2051-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants. ..
  26. Tajini F, Suriyakup P, Vailhe H, Jansa J, Drevon J. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:73 pubmed publisher
    ..The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis. ..
  27. Musante C, White J. Toxicity of silver and copper to Cucurbita pepo: differential effects of nano and bulk-size particles. Environ Toxicol. 2012;27:510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that humic acid and solution chemistry differentially impact bulk and NP behavior highlights the importance of evaluating nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions...
  28. Gent M, White J, Eitzer B, Mattina M. Modeling the difference among Cucurbita in uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dichloroethylene. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007;26:2476-85 pubmed
    ..To match the observed concentration of DDE in fruit, the model coefficient for partitioning of DDE into water in phloem had to be increased to 200 times that in pure water. ..
  29. Fine P, Rathod P, Beriozkin A, Mingelgrin U. Uptake of cadmium by hydroponically grown, mature Eucalyptus camaldulensis saplings and the effect of organic ligands. Int J Phytoremediation. 2013;15:585-601 pubmed
    ..EDTA was shown to be much more efficient in enhancing Cd translocation than s,s-EDDS. ..
  30. Fristedt R, Carlberg I, Zygadlo A, Piippo M, Nurmi M, Aro E, et al. Intrinsically unstructured phosphoprotein TSP9 regulates light harvesting in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemistry. 2009;48:499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that TSP9 regulates plant light harvesting acting as a membrane-binding protein facilitating dissociation of light-harvesting proteins from photosystem II. ..
  31. Deavers K, Macek T, Karlson U, Trapp S. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010;17:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explores the feasibility of using basket willows, Salix viminalis, to remove 4-CBA from polluted sites, which also might stimulate PCB degradation...
  32. Yamamoto T, Nakamura A, Iwai H, Ishii T, Ma J, Yokoyama R, et al. Effect of silicon deficiency on secondary cell wall synthesis in rice leaf. J Plant Res. 2012;125:771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and Si content in, the pectic, hemicellulosic, and cellulosic fractions prepared from rice seedlings grown in hydroponics with or without 1.5 mM silicic acid were analyzed...
  33. Diaz S, Smith J, Zaleski S, Murray S. Effectiveness of the California state ban on the sale of Caulerpa species in aquarium retail stores in southern California. Environ Manage. 2012;50:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists...
  34. Cirou A, Raffoux A, Diallo S, Latour X, Dessaux Y, Faure D. Gamma-caprolactone stimulates growth of quorum-quenching Rhodococcus populations in a large-scale hydroponic system for culturing Solanum tuberosum. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:945-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the assayed Rhodococcus isolates exhibited efficient biocontrol activity for protecting potato tubers. Analytical chemistry approach revealed the rapid degradation of GCL introduced in the plant cultures...
  35. Vimolmangkang S, Sitthithaworn W, Vannavanich D, Keattikunpairoj S, Chittasupho C. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique. J Nat Med. 2010;64:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil...
  36. Liu D, Lia T, Yang X, Islam E, Jin X, Mahmood Q. Influence of EDTA on lead transportation and accumulation by Sedum alfredii hance. Z Naturforsch C. 2007;62:717-24 pubmed
    b>Hydroponics and pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on Pb transportation and accumulation by two contrasting ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance...
  37. Chen X, Mao X, Lu Q, Liao Z, He Z. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;129:228-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2...
  38. Sun S, Li Y, Zheng Y, Hua Y, Datta R, Dan Y, et al. Uptake of 2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine by Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) from Hydroponic Media. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The removal half-life (t1/2) was shortened by 11.5 days. Prometryn removal followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 1.8070e(-0.0601t)). This study demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass for the phytoremediation for prometryn. ..
  39. Sharifi M, Khoshgoftarmanesh A, Hadadzadeh H. Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:7022-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the decrease in the active sites of adsorption on the root cell walls as a response to toluene pollution can affect the water flow rate and the mineral nutrients uptake by roots. ..
  40. Dos Santos Utmazian M, Wieshammer G, Vega R, Wenzel W. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars. Environ Pollut. 2007;148:155-65 pubmed
    ..In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves...
  41. König S, Mosblech A, Heilmann I. Stress-inducible and constitutive phosphoinositide pools have distinctive fatty acid patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana. FASEB J. 2007;21:1958-67 pubmed
    ..Metabolic analysis of wild-type and transgenic plants disturbed in phosphoinositide metabolism suggests that, in contrast to saturated species, unsaturated polyphosphoinositides are channeled toward InsP3-production. ..
  42. Barrutia O, Garbisu C, Hernández Allica J, García Plazaola J, Becerril J. Differences in EDTA-assisted metal phytoextraction between metallicolous and non-metallicolous accessions of Rumex acetosa L. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1710-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the existence of a non-selective apoplastic transport of metal chelates by R. acetosa roots, not related to transpiration stream...
  43. Peng K, Luo C, You W, Lian C, Li X, Shen Z. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator--Phytolacca Americana L. J Hazard Mater. 2008;154:674-81 pubmed
    ..americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant...
  44. Rotkittikhun P, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Baker A. Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production. J Environ Biol. 2010;31:329-34 pubmed
    ..grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production...
  45. Reid M, Jaffe P. A push-pull test to measure root uptake of volatile chemicals from wetland soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..021 ± 9.0 × 10(-4) h(-1) for CFC-12 to 2.41 ± 0.98 h(-1) for helium. Hydroponic and mesocosm experiments demonstrate that the molecular diameter is a robust empirical predictor of kv. ..
  46. Colla G, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, Svecova E, Rea E, Lucini L. Effects of saline stress on mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon genotypes grown in floating system. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:1119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired profile of bioactive compounds. ..
  47. Csog Á, Mihucz V, Tatár E, Fodor F, Virag I, Majdik C, et al. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 ?M Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with ..
  48. Krishnamurthy P, Ranathunge K, Franke R, Prakash H, Schreiber L, Mathew M. The role of root apoplastic transport barriers in salt tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Planta. 2009;230:119-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced barriers were detected after several days of moderate stress. Overall, more extensive apoplastic barriers in roots correlated with reduced Na+ uptake and enhanced survival when challenged with high salinity. ..
  49. Haider M, Barnes J, Cushman J, Borland A. A CAM- and starch-deficient mutant of the facultative CAM species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum reconciles sink demands by repartitioning carbon during acclimation to salinity. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest a key role for the vacuole in regulating the supply and demand for carbohydrate over the day/night cycle in the starch-/CAM-deficient mutant. ..
  50. Page V, Schwitzguebel J. The role of cytochromes P450 and peroxidases in the detoxification of sulphonated anthraquinones by rhubarb and common sorrel plants cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2009;16:805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, these results reinforce the idea that natural biodiversity should be better studied to use the most appropriate species for the phytotreatment of a specific pollutant. ..
  51. Krishnasamy K, Nair J, Bäuml B. Hydroponic system for the treatment of anaerobic liquid. Water Sci Technol. 2012;65:1164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recommended that, a pre-treatment of the effluent to increase DO and reduce ammonium content is required before plant application, and simple dilution by itself is not suitable for optimum plant growth in a hydroponic system. ..
  52. Islam E, Liu D, Li T, Yang X, Jin X, Khan M, et al. Effect of Pb toxicity on the growth and physiology of two ecotypes of Elsholtzia argyi and its alleviation by Zn. Environ Toxicol. 2011;26:403-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydroponics experiments were conducted to underpin the nature of interactions between Zn, an essential micronutrient and Pb, a nonessential element on plant growth and root morphology, as well as antioxidant adaptation in mined ecotype (..
  53. Li Y, Zhou C, Huang M, Luo J, Hou X, Wu P, et al. Lead tolerance mechanism in Conyza canadensis: subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, antioxidative defense system, and phytochelatins. J Plant Res. 2016;129:251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the roles played by these detoxification mechanisms in supporting Pb tolerance in C. canadensis. ..