Summary: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.

Top Publications

  1. Hagen A, Entezami M, Gasiorek Wiens A, Albig M, Becker R, Knoll U, et al. The impact of first trimester screening and early fetal anomaly scan on invasive testing rates in women with advanced maternal age. Ultraschall Med. 2011;32:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Group 1: advanced maternal age as sole indication, group 2: additional abnormalities and/or suspicious maternal serum parameters...
  2. Cooper G, Coe B, Girirajan S, Rosenfeld J, Vu T, Baker C, et al. A copy number variation morbidity map of developmental delay. Nat Genet. 2011;43:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This evolving CNV morbidity map, combined with exome and genome sequencing, will be critical for deciphering the genetic basis of developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. ..
  3. Ekici A, Strissel P, Oppelt P, Renner S, Brucker S, Beckmann M, et al. HOXA10 and HOXA13 sequence variations in human female genital malformations including congenital absence of the uterus and vagina. Gene. 2013;518:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..to be 5 per 1000 and associate with infertility, abortion, stillbirth, preterm delivery and other organ abnormalities. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix and upper vagina (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome) has ..
  4. Ståhl O, Boyd H, Giwercman A, Lindholm M, Jensen A, Kjær S, et al. Risk of birth abnormalities in the offspring of men with a history of cancer: a cohort study using Danish and Swedish national registries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:398-406 pubmed publisher
    ..The offspring of male cancer survivors were more likely to have major congenital abnormalities than the offspring of fathers with no history of cancer (RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.31, P = .0043, 3...
  5. Hindryckx A, Peeraer K, Debrock S, Legius E, de Zegher F, Francois I, et al. Has the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after intracytoplasmic sperm injection increased? The Leuven data 1994-2000 and a review of the literature. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;70:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 172) were followed for biochemical and obstetrical parameters, prenatal diagnosis and congenital abnormalities. A total of 134/172 (78%) ongoing pregnancies resulted in 132 deliveries of 166 live born children...
  6. Banhidy F, Dakhlaoui A, Puho E, Czeizel A. Is there a reduction of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women after folic acid supplementation? A population-based case-control study. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011;51:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. congenital abnormalities [CAs]) in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1)...
  7. Citak F, Citak E, Akkaya E, Kosan B, Ezer U, Kurekci A. Minor anomalies in children with hematological malignancies. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:258-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies may be directed toward identifying the developmental pathways and the relevant genes that are involved in the overlap between childhood hematological malignancies and minor anomalies. ..
  8. Berghella V, Buchanan E, Pereira L, Baxter J. Preconception care. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010;65:119-31 pubmed publisher
  9. Olbertz D, Voigt M, Straube S, Renz I, Steinbicker V, Pötzsch S, et al. [Congenital malformations--a systematic cohort study from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany)]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2010;214:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Malformation prevalence and types of malformations, along with morbidity and mortality, are important parameters in perinatal medicine. The establishment of active malformation registries is therefore an important task. ..

More Information


  1. Sun G, Xu Z, Liang J, Li L, Tang D. Twelve-year prevalence of common neonatal congenital malformations in Zhejiang Province, China. World J Pediatr. 2011;7:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of hydrocephalus shows a downward trend. ..
  2. Chavatte Palmer P, Camous S, Jammes H, Le Cleac h N, Guillomot M, Lee R. Review: Placental perturbations induce the developmental abnormalities often observed in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. Placenta. 2012;33 Suppl:S99-S104 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormal epigenetic re-programming appears to be a key component of the observed pathologies, as shown by studies on the expression of imprinted genes in SCNT placenta. ..
  3. Leonardi Bee J, Britton J, Venn A. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011;127:734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..13 [95% CI: 1.01-1.26]; 7 studies), although none of the associations with specific congenital abnormalities were individually significant...
  4. Ravel C, Bashamboo A, Bignon Topalovic J, Siffroi J, McElreavey K, Darai E. Polymorphisms in DLGH1 and LAMC1 in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:462-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the first time that an extensive study of LAMC1 and DLGH1 has been undertaken in patients with MRKHS. The data support the notion that mutations in the coding sequence of LAMC1 and DLGH1 may not be associated with MRKHS...
  5. Oztarhan K, Gedikbasi A, Yildirim D, Arslan O, Adal E, Kavuncuoglu S, et al. Prevalence and distribution of congenital abnormalities in Turkey: differences between the prenatal and postnatal periods. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2010;50:221-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of cases associated with congenital abnormalities during the following three periods: pregnancy, birth, and the neonatal period...
  6. Durmaz A, Durmaz B, Kadioglu B, Aksoylar S, Karapinar D, Koturoglu G, et al. The Association of minor congenital anomalies and childhood cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:1098-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The common pathways during the embryogenesis may play a role in the development of cancer. The presence and the combination of minor anomalies seem to be associated with a higher prevalence of cancer. ..
  7. Alaani S, Savabieasfahani M, Tafash M, Manduca P. Four polygamous families with congenital birth defects from Fallujah, Iraq. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of familial birth defects after 2003 highlights the relevance of epigenetic mechanisms and offers insights to focus research, with the aim of reducing further damage to people's health. ..
  8. Knapp K, Brogly S, Muenz D, Spiegel H, Conway D, Scott G, et al. Prevalence of congenital anomalies in infants with in utero exposure to antiretrovirals. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiovascular anomalies occurred most frequently. With the exception of a known teratogen (efavirenz), no statistically significant associations between in utero exposure to ARVs and congenital anomalies were identified. ..
  9. Greenlees R, Neville A, Addor M, Amar E, Arriola L, Bakker M, et al. Paper 6: EUROCAT member registries: organization and activities. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91 Suppl 1:S51-S100 pubmed publisher
    ..The registry description gives a detailed account of the organizational and operational aspects of each registry and is an invaluable resource that aids interpretation and evaluation of registry prevalence data. ..
  10. Banhidy F, Szilasi M, Czeizel A. Association of pre-eclampsia with or without superimposed chronic hypertension in pregnant women with the risk of congenital abnormalities in their offspring: a population-based case-control study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;163:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..e. congenital abnormalities) in their offspring...
  11. Parker S, Mai C, Canfield M, Rickard R, Wang Y, Meyer R, et al. Updated National Birth Prevalence estimates for selected birth defects in the United States, 2004-2006. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:1008-16 pubmed publisher
  12. Yan J, Huang G, Sun Y, Zhao X, Chen S, Zou S, et al. Birth defects after assisted reproductive technologies in China: analysis of 15,405 offspring in seven centers (2004 to 2008). Fertil Steril. 2011;95:458-60 pubmed publisher
  13. Gervasini C, Grati F, Lalatta F, Tabano S, Gentilin B, Colapietro P, et al. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Genet Med. 2010;12:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome...
  14. Murphy H, Steel S, Roland J, Morris D, Ball V, Campbell P, et al. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes: influences of glycaemic control, obesity and social disadvantage. Diabet Med. 2011;28:1060-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Better tools are needed to improve glycaemic control and reduce the rates of large for gestational age, particularly in Type 1 diabetes. ..
  15. Dai L, Zhu J, Liang J, Wang Y, Wang H, Mao M. Birth defects surveillance in China. World J Pediatr. 2011;7:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects, measures should be taken to improve the national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems in China. ..
  16. Corsello G, Giuffrè M. Congenital malformations. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25 Suppl 1:25-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of their increasing life expectancy, congenital malformations represent today a major issue in the health services for the amount of resources they need for the requested multidisciplinary assistance...
  17. Wahabi H, Alzeidan R, Bawazeer G, Alansari L, Esmaeil S. Preconception care for diabetic women for improving maternal and fetal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:63 pubmed publisher
    ..in the access and quality of antenatal care recent population based studies demonstrating increased congenital abnormalities and perinatal mortality in diabetic mothers as compared to the background population...
  18. Duong H, Hoyt A, Carmichael S, Gilboa S, Canfield M, Case A, et al. Is maternal parity an independent risk factor for birth defects?. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. ..
  19. Wang Y, Cross P, Druschel C. Hospital discharge data: can it serve as the sole source of case ascertainment for population-based birth defects surveillance programs?. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2010;16:245-51 pubmed publisher
  20. Carozza S, Langlois P, Miller E, Canfield M. Are children with birth defects at higher risk of childhood cancers?. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:1217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Untangling the strong relation between birth defects and childhood cancers could lead to a better understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that affect both conditions. ..
  21. Giusti S, Fruzzetti E, Perini D, Fruzzetti F, Giusti P, Bartolozzi C. Diagnosis of a variant of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: useful MRI findings. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:753-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome consists of vaginal aplasia associated with other müllerian duct abnormalities. Its penetrance varies, as does the involvement of other organ systems...
  22. Lisi A, Botto L, Robert Gnansia E, Castilla E, Bakker M, Bianca S, et al. Surveillance of adverse fetal effects of medications (SAFE-Med): findings from the international Clearinghouse of birth defects surveillance and research. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this activity, international networks of birth defect registries can contribute with limited resources to post-marketing surveillance of the teratogenicity of medications. ..
  23. Lermann J, Mueller A, Wiesinger E, Haberle L, Brucker S, Wallwiener D, et al. Comparison of different diagnostic procedures for the staging of malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare different diagnostic procedures for staging malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  24. Schwarzer J, Schwarz M. Significance of CFTR gene mutations in patients with congenital aplasia of vas deferens with special regard to renal aplasia. Andrologia. 2012;44:305-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results militate against the assumption that there is an association between the CFTR gene and unilateral aplasia of vas deferens or bilateral aplasia of vas deferens with renal involvement...
  25. Dolk H, Loane M, Garne E. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;686:349-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary prevention of congenital anomalies in the population based on controlling environmental risk factors is a crucial policy priority, including preconceptional care and whole population approaches. ..
  26. Kallen B, Olausson P. Vaccination against H1N1 influenza with Pandemrix(®) during pregnancy and delivery outcome: a Swedish register study. BJOG. 2012;119:1583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a large study on pregnancy outcome after vaccination against H1N1 during the 2009/10 pandemic...
  27. Salmasi G, Grady R, Jones J, McDonald S. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:423-41 pubmed publisher
    ..11 cm; 95% CI -0.22 to 0.01 cm). ETS-exposed women have increased risks of infants with lower birthweight, congenital anomalies, longer lengths, and trends towards smaller head circumferences and LBW. ..
  28. Pasternak B, Svanström H, Mølgaard Nielsen D, Krause T, Emborg H, Melbye M, et al. Risk of adverse fetal outcomes following administration of a pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine during pregnancy. JAMA. 2012;308:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of the fetal safety of vaccination against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in pregnancy has been limited...
  29. Prakalapakorn S, Rasmussen S, Lambert S, Honein M. Assessment of risk factors for infantile cataracts using a case-control study: National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 2000-2004. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Other associations, although not statistically significant, suggest risk factors that merit further research. ..
  30. Zhou J, Sun J, Yang C, Xie Z, Shao W, Jin H. Long-term outcomes of transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum in 182 patients with Rokitansky's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the technical feasibility and anatomical and functional outcomes of one-stage transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum for the patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  31. Wiradjaja F, DiTommaso T, Smyth I. Basement membranes in development and disease. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2010;90:8-31 pubmed publisher
  32. Davies M, Moore V, Willson K, van Essen P, Priest K, Scott H, et al. Reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and the Australian Research Council.). ..
  33. Miller D, Adam M, Aradhya S, Biesecker L, Brothman A, Carter N, et al. Consensus statement: chromosomal microarray is a first-tier clinical diagnostic test for individuals with developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;86:749-64 pubmed publisher
    ..G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages. ..
  34. Philibert P, Biason Lauber A, Gueorguieva I, Stuckens C, Pienkowski C, Lebon Labich B, et al. Molecular analysis of WNT4 gene in four adolescent girls with mullerian duct abnormality and hyperandrogenism (atypical Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome). Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2683-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this mutant partially lacks the capability to repress ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, with abnormal expression of 17?- hydroxylase...
  35. Banhidy F, Acs N, Puho E, Czeizel A. Congenital abnormalities in the offspring of pregnant women with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus: a population-based case-control study. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2010;50:115-21 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the risk of structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]) in the offspring of pregnant women with type 1 (DM-1), type 2 (DM-2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to check the efficacy of recent ..
  36. Rock J, Roberts C, Jones H. Congenital anomalies of the uterine cervix: lessons from 30 cases managed clinically by a common protocol. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two forms of anatomic congenital cervical malformations, the second of which may be considered as three distinct variations. ..
  37. Abele H, Starz S, Hoopmann M, Yazdi B, Rall K, Kagan K. Idiopathic polyhydramnios and postnatal abnormalities. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2012;32:251-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this group, antenatal characteristics such as amniotic fluid volume, estimated fetal weight or gestational and maternal age at the time of diagnosis do not help to detect these anomalies before birth. ..
  38. Gagnon A. Evaluation of prenatally diagnosed structural congenital anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2009;31:875-881 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a proportion of such anomalies can be explained by chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation, deletions, or duplications), others may represent recognizable ..
  39. Ooki S. Birth defects in singleton versus multiple ART births in Japan (2004-2008). J Pregnancy. 2011;2011:285706 pubmed publisher
    ..86). We concluded that the impact of birth defects after ART would be larger in families with multiples compared to families with singletons, since the mean number of children would be larger in the former. ..
  40. Fujii M, Matsuoka R, Bergel E, van der Poel S, Okai T. Perinatal risk in singleton pregnancies after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because of sample size limitations, the study cannot exclude small to moderate increases in perinatal deaths or congenital malformations. ..
  41. Vaktskjold A, Talykova L, Nieboer E. Congenital anomalies in newborns to women employed in jobs with frequent exposure to organic solvents--a register-based prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011;11:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that these two categories of malformations are not readily diagnosed perinatally, the difference in prevalence between the exposed and unexposed may have been underestimated. ..
  42. Pasternak B, Hviid A. Use of proton-pump inhibitors in early pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this large cohort, exposure to PPIs during the first trimester of pregnancy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of major birth defects. (Funded by the Danish Medical Research Council and the Lundbeck Foundation.). ..
  43. Chang X, Qin Y, Xu C, Li G, Zhao X, Chen Z. Mutations in WNT4 are not responsible for Müllerian duct abnormalities in Chinese women. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:630-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This study screened WNT4 for mutation in 189 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities (10 Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome, five Müllerian aplasia and 174 incomplete Müllerian fusion) ..
  44. Sandbacka M, Halttunen M, Jokimaa V, Aittomaki K, Laivuori H. Evaluation of SHOX copy number variations in patients with Müllerian aplasia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we have studied SHOX copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort of 101 Finnish patients with MA and in 115 healthy controls...
  45. Ahern M, Hendryx M, Conley J, Fedorko E, Ducatman A, Zullig K. The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in central Appalachia, 1996-2003. Environ Res. 2011;111:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Both socioeconomic and environmental influences in mountaintop mining areas may be contributing factors. ..
  46. Nik Zainal S, Strick R, Storer M, Huang N, Rad R, Willatt L, et al. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Müllerian aplasia. J Med Genet. 2011;48:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in copy number at different genomic loci...
  47. Ledig S, Brucker S, Barresi G, Schömburg J, Rall K, Wieacker P. Frame shift mutation of LHX1 is associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2872-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The LHX1 gene, which is located in the deletion interval, has been suggested to be a strong candidate, because targeting inactivation of Lhx1 causes a complex phenotype including aplasia of the Müllerian ducts...
  48. Ledig S, Schippert C, Strick R, Beckmann M, Oppelt P, Wieacker P. Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  49. Johnson K, Roesler M, Linabery A, Hilden J, Davies S, Ross J. Infant leukemia and congenital abnormalities: a Children's Oncology Group study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between eight categories of maternally reported congenital abnormalities (CAs) (cleft lip or palate, spina bifida or other spinal defect, large or multiple birthmarks, other ..
  50. Brent R. The role of the pediatrician in preventing congenital malformations. Pediatr Rev. 2011;32:411-21; quiz 422 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances have enabled physicians and scientists to determine the causes of developmental abnormalities and, therefore, discover methods of prevention...
  51. Smith L, Manktelow B, Draper E, Springett A, Field D. Nature of socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality: population based study. BMJ. 2010;341:c6654 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the link between deprivation and preterm birth should be a major research priority to identify interventions to reduce preterm birth. ..
  52. Matte A, De Falco L, Iolascon A, Mohandas N, An X, Siciliano A, et al. The Interplay Between Peroxiredoxin-2 and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 Is Important in Limiting Oxidative Mediated Dysfunction in β-Thalassemic Erythropoiesis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;23:1284-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that Prx2(-/-) mice displayed reactive oxygen species related abnormalities in erythropoiesis similar to that of Hbb(th3/+) mice associated with activation of redox response ..
  53. Guan P, Li L, Zhang M, Liu S, Li W, Wang N. Iron supplementation effectively suppresses gastrocnemius muscle lesions to improve exercise capacity in chronic heart failure rats with anemia. Nutrition. 2015;31:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the poor relationship between heart dysfunction and exercise capacity has been ascribed to peripheral abnormalities. Several previous studies confirmed that iron supplementation could significantly improve the exercise ..
  54. Connor C, Shchelochkov O, Ciliberto H. Anetoderma in a patient with terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:2459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..TODPD in a girl with the 47,XXX chromosomal complement and deformities of the hands and feet, craniofacial abnormalities, and discolored, linear facial lesions...
  55. Xue J, Luo D, Xu D, Zeng M, Cui X, Li L, et al. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development. Plant J. 2015;83:375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..CCR1 is expressed basipetally in the leaf, and ccr1 mutants exhibited multiple abnormalities, including increased cell proliferation...
  56. Stark Z, Behrsin J, Burgess T, Ritchie A, Yeung A, Tan T, et al. SNP microarray abnormalities in a cohort of 28 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:2319-26 pubmed publisher
    Chromosomal abnormalities are an important factor in the pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a relatively common congenital defect associated with high morbidity and mortality...