adenosine phosphosulfate


Summary: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.

Top Publications

  1. Renosto F, Martin R, Segel I. Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase from Penicillium chrysogenum: ligand binding properties and the mechanism of substrate inhibition. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;284:30-4 pubmed
    ..8 mM), or AMS (5.2 mM) from their respective ternary enzyme.MgADP.ligand complexes. Incubation of the fungal enzyme with [gamma-32P]MgATP did not yield a phosphoenzyme that survives gel filtration or gel electrophoresis. ..
  2. Ullrich T, Blaesse M, Huber R. Crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key enzyme in sulfate activation. EMBO J. 2001;20:316-29 pubmed
    ..Despite having similar folds and active site design, examination of the active site of ATPS and comparison with known structures of related nucleotidylyl transferases reveal a novel ATP binding mode that is peculiar to ATP sulfurylases. ..
  3. Renosto F, Martin R, Borrell J, Nelson D, Segel I. ATP sulfurylase from trophosome tissue of Riftia pachyptila (hydrothermal vent tube worm). Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;290:66-78 pubmed
    ..e., the physiological reaction is APS + MgPPi in equilibrium SO4(2-) + MgATP. ..
  4. MacRae I, Segel I, Fisher A. Crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum: insights into the allosteric regulation of sulfate assimilation. Biochemistry. 2001;40:6795-804 pubmed
    ..This trench may be a vestigial feature of a bifunctional ("PAPS synthetase") ancestor of fungal ATP sulfurylase. ..
  5. Williams S, Senaratne R, Mougous J, Riley L, Bertozzi C. 5'-adenosinephosphosulfate lies at a metabolic branch point in mycobacteria. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32606-15 pubmed
    ..coli, confirming the ability of this organism to make PAPS. The expression of recombinant M. tuberculosis APS kinase provides a means for the discovery of inhibitors of this enzyme and thus of the biosynthesis of SL-1. ..
  6. Lansdon E, Fisher A, Segel I. Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase (isoform 1, brain): kinetic properties of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase domains. Biochemistry. 2004;43:4356-65 pubmed
    ..Chlorate and perchlorate form dead-end E.MgATP.oxyanion complexes. Phenylalanine, reported to be an inhibitor of brain ATP sulfurylase, was without effect on PAPS synthetase isoform 1. ..
  7. Lyle S, Ozeran J, Stanczak J, Westley J, Schwartz N. Intermediate channeling between ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochemistry. 1994;33:6822-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that APS is channeled between the active sites of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase during the production of PAPS in rat chondrosarcoma. ..
  8. Sekulic N, Dietrich K, Paarmann I, Ort S, Konrad M, Lavie A. Elucidation of the active conformation of the APS-kinase domain of human PAPS synthetase 1. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:488-500 pubmed
    ..The first reaction involves the formation of the 5'-adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) intermediate from ATP and inorganic sulfate...
  9. Kowalska J, Osowniak A, Zuberek J, Jemielity J. Synthesis of nucleoside phosphosulfates. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3661-4 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. van den Boom J, Heider D, Martin S, Pastore A, Mueller J. 3'-Phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthases, naturally fragile enzymes specifically stabilized by nucleotide binding. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, naturally occurring changes in APS concentrations may be sensed by changes in the conformation of PAPSS2. ..
  2. Weber M, Suter M, Brunold C, Kopriva S. Sulfate assimilation in higher plants characterization of a stable intermediate in the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase reaction. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:3647-53 pubmed
  3. Bick J, Dennis J, Zylstra G, Nowack J, Leustek T. Identification of a new class of 5'-adenylylsulfate (APS) reductases from sulfate-assimilating bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:135-42 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the dissimilatory and assimilatory APS reductases evolved convergently. ..
  4. Satishchandran C, Markham G. Mechanistic studies of Escherichia coli adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;378:210-5 pubmed
    ..The affinity for Mn(2+) increases 23-fold when the enzyme is phosphorylated. Two Mn(2+) ions bind per subunit when both APS and the ATP analog AMPPNP are present, indicating a potential dual metal ion catalytic mechanism. ..
  5. Abola A, Willits M, Wang R, Long S. Reduction of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate instead of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate in cysteine biosynthesis by Rhizobium meliloti and other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5280-7 pubmed
    ..strain NGR234, Rhizobium fredii (Sinorhizobium fredii), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens were assayed for APS or PAPS reductase activity. Cell extracts from all four species also preferentially reduce APS over PAPS...
  6. Kopriva S, Büchert T, Fritz G, Suter M, Benda R, Schünemann V, et al. The presence of an iron-sulfur cluster in adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase separates organisms utilizing adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate for sulfate assimilation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21786-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude, therefore, that the presence of an iron-sulfur cluster determines the APS specificity of the sulfate-reducing enzymes and thus separates the APS- and PAPS-dependent assimilatory sulfate reduction pathways. ..
  7. Sun M, Leyh T. Channeling in sulfate activating complexes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11304-11 pubmed
    ..Structural models of type III reveal a 75 A-long channel that interconnects active-site pairs in the complex and that opens and closes in response to occupancy of those sites. ..
  8. Liu Y, Yang H, Zhang X, Xiao Y, Guo X, Liu X. Genomic Analysis Unravels Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of Heterotrophic Acidophilic Acidicaldus sp. Strain DX-1. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:8137012 pubmed publisher
    ..strain DX-1. This study might provide some references for the future study of RISC oxidation in heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles. ..
  9. Herrmann J, Ravilious G, McKinney S, Westfall C, Lee S, Baraniecka P, et al. Structure and mechanism of soybean ATP sulfurylase and the committed step in plant sulfur assimilation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:10919-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations that alter sulfate assimilation in Arabidopsis were mapped to the structure, which provides a molecular basis for understanding their effects on the sulfur assimilation pathway. ..
  10. Martire G, Villani G, Della Morte R, Belisario M, Pecce R, Staiano N. Effect of rat liver cytosolic enzymes and cofactors on mutagenicity of 1-amino-8-nitropyrene. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:361-4 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that rat hepatic cytosolic nitroreductases activate 1,8-ANP to an N-hydroxyarylamine derivative which can be further metabolized to mutagenic species by either bacterial or mammalian O-acetyltransferase. ..
  11. Brychkova G, Yarmolinsky D, Sagi M. Kinetic assays for determining in vitro APS reductase activity in plants without the use of radioactive substances. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1648-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The assays were further tested on tomato leaves, which revealed a higher APR activity than Arabidopsis. The proposed APR assays are highly specific, technically simple and readily performed in any laboratory. ..
  12. Jensen S, Fortunato S, Hoffmann F, Hoem S, Rapp H, Øvreås L, et al. The Relative Abundance and Transcriptional Activity of Marine Sponge-Associated Microorganisms Emphasizing Groups Involved in Sulfur Cycle. Microb Ecol. 2017;73:668-676 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining sequences clustered with sulfate-reducing Archaea of the phylum Euryarchaeota. These results indicate an active role of yet uncharacterized Bacteria and Archaea in the sponge's sulfur cycle. ..
  13. Monné M, Miniero D, Obata T, Daddabbo L, Palmieri L, Vozza A, et al. Functional characterization and organ distribution of three mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carriers in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1847:1220-30 pubmed publisher
  14. Arakawa H, Shiokawa M, Imamura O, Maeda M. Novel bioluminescent assay of alkaline phosphatase using adenosine-3'-phosphate-5'-phosphosulfate as substrate and the luciferin-luciferase reaction and its application. Anal Biochem. 2003;314:206-11 pubmed
  15. Koprivova A, Meyer A, Schween G, Herschbach C, Reski R, Kopriva S. Functional knockout of the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase gene in Physcomitrella patens revives an old route of sulfate assimilation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..patens. The moss Physcomitrella patens is thus the first plant species wherein PAPS reductase was confirmed on the molecular level and also the first organism wherein both APS- and PAPS-dependent sulfate assimilation co-exist...
  16. Paritala H, Palde P, Carroll K. Functional Site Discovery in a Sulfur Metabolism Enzyme by Using Directed Evolution. Chembiochem. 2016;17:1873-1878 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the use of directed evolution as a tool to rapidly discover functionally important sites in proteins. ..
  17. Koprivova A, Kopriva S. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;91:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions. ..
  18. Wojdyła Mamoń A, Guranowski A. Adenylylsulfate-ammonia adenylyltransferase activity is another inherent property of Fhit proteins. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    ..7.7.51). Our finding shows that the capacity to catalyse ammonolysis is another inherent property of Fhits. Basic kinetic parameters and substrate specificity of this reaction catalysed by human Fhit are presented. ..
  19. Todisco S, Di Noia M, Castegna A, Lasorsa F, Paradies E, Palmieri F. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene YPR011c encodes a mitochondrial transporter of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and 3'-phospho-adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1837:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that S. cerevisiae mitochondria are equipped with a transporter for APS and that YPR011cp-mediated mitochondrial transport of APS occurs in S. cerevisiae under thermal stress conditions. ..
  20. Dekas A, Connon S, Chadwick G, Trembath Reichert E, Orphan V. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses. ISME J. 2016;10:678-92 pubmed publisher
    ..With this combined data set we address several outstanding questions in methane seep microbial ecosystems and highlight the benefit of measuring microbial activity in the context of spatial associations. ..
  21. McCully K. Communication: Homocysteine, Thioretinaco Ozonide, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Biosynthesis of Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016;46:701-704 pubmed
    ..reactions, consisting of (1) reaction of inorganic sulfate with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate and (2) reaction of APS with inorganic phosphate to form PAPS and adenosine ..
  22. Carroll K, Gao H, Chen H, Stout C, Leary J, Bertozzi C. A conserved mechanism for sulfonucleotide reduction. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e250 pubmed
    ..Other sulfonucleotide reductases from structurally divergent subclasses appear to use the same mechanism, suggesting that this family of enzymes has evolved from a common ancestor. ..
  23. Herrmann J, Nathin D, Lee S, Sun T, Jez J. Recapitulating the Structural Evolution of Redox Regulation in Adenosine 5'-Phosphosulfate Kinase from Cyanobacteria to Plants. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the molecular basis for structural changes leading to the evolution of redox control of APSK in the green lineage from cyanobacteria to plants. ..
  24. Sun M, Andreassi J, Liu S, Pinto R, Triccas J, Leyh T. The trifunctional sulfate-activating complex (SAC) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7861-6 pubmed
    ..Ligand-induced increases in guanine nucleotide affinity observed in the mycobacterial system suggest that it too undergoes the energy-coupling isomerization. ..
  25. Lansdon E, Segel I, Fisher A. Ligand-induced structural changes in adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase from Penicillium chrysogenum. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13672-80 pubmed
    ..The structure of the binary E.ADP complex revealed further changes in the active site and N-terminal helix that occur upon the binding/release of (P)APS. ..
  26. Duperron S, Laurent M, Gaill F, Gros O. Sulphur-oxidizing extracellular bacteria in the gills of Mytilidae associated with wood falls. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008;63:338-49 pubmed publisher
    ..With their epibiotic bacteria, wood-associated mussels display a less integrated type of interaction than described in their seep, vent and whale fall relatives. ..
  27. Guranowski A, Wojdyła A, Zimny J, Wypijewska A, Kowalska J, Jemielity J, et al. Dual activity of certain HIT-proteins: A. thaliana Hint4 and C. elegans DcpS act on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as hydrolases (forming AMP) and as phosphorylases (forming ADP). FEBS Lett. 2010;584:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A mechanism for these activities is proposed and the possible role of some HIT-proteins in APS metabolism is discussed. ..
  28. Fritz G, Büchert T, Kroneck P. The function of the [4Fe-4S] clusters and FAD in bacterial and archaeal adenylylsulfate reductases. Evidence for flavin-catalyzed reduction of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26066-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, both [4Fe-4S] clusters function in electron transfer and guide two single electrons from the protein surface to the FAD catalytic site. ..
  29. Mishra P, Park P, Drueckhammer D. Identification of yacE (coaE) as the structural gene for dephosphocoenzyme A kinase in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2774-8 pubmed
    ..The activities with adenosine, AMP, and adenosine phosphosulfate were 4 to 8% of the activity with dephospho-CoA. Homologues of the E...
  30. Stevenson C, Hughes R, McManus M, Lawson D, Kopriva S. The X-ray crystal structure of APR-B, an atypical adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase from Physcomitrella patens. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural conservation with bacterial APS reductase rules out a structural role for the cluster, but supports the contention that it enhances the activity of conventional APS reductases. ..
  31. Mueller J, Shafqat N. Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate--a multifaceted modulator of bifunctional 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate synthases and related enzymes. FEBS J. 2013;280:3050-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the assumption that cellular concentrations of APS fluctuate within this range, APS can therefore be regarded as a key modulator of PAPS synthase functions. ..
  32. Peliska J, O Leary M. Sulfuryl transfer catalyzed by phosphokinases. Biochemistry. 1991;30:1049-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the role of the metal ion in nucleoside diphosphate kinase is to coordinate the alpha, beta-phosphates of the substrate. Sulfuryl and phosphoryl transfer probably occur through dissociative transition states. ..
  33. Waseda K, Takeuchi T, Ohta M, Okishio Y, Fujita A, Hata F, et al. Participation of ATP in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of longitudinal muscle of wistar rat jejunum. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005;97:91-100 pubmed
    ..These findings in the Wistar rat jejunum suggest that ATP participates in the NANC relaxation via activation of SK channels induced by Ca(2+) ions that are released from the thapsigargin-sensitive store site. ..
  34. Callahan L, Ng K, Geller D, Agarwal K, Schwartz N. Synthesis and properties of a nonhydrolyzable adenosine phosphosulfate analog. Anal Biochem. 1989;177:67-71 pubmed
  35. Iwata K, Matsuda K, Kurosaki Y, Nakayama T, Nakajima H, Kimura T. Disposition of intravenously administered adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 1996;19:438-43 pubmed
    ..The total body clearance of APS could not be fully explained by metabolism in plasma or glomerular filtration, therefore the contribution of other elimination processes to the total body clearance was suggested. ..
  36. Peng Z, Verma D. A rice HAL2-like gene encodes a Ca(2+)-sensitive 3'(2'),5'-diphosphonucleoside 3'(2')-phosphohydrolase and complements yeast met22 and Escherichia coli cysQ mutations. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29105-10 pubmed
    ..Several residues that are essential for the activity of this enzyme were identified by site-directed mutagenesis, and the possible role of DPNPase in salt tolerance is discussed. ..
  37. Karamohamed S, Nyren P. Real-time detection and quantification of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase activity by a bioluminometric approach. Anal Biochem. 1999;271:81-5 pubmed
    ..1 microU and 50 mU. The method can be used for monitoring and quantification of recombinant ATP sulfurylase activity in Escherichia coli lysate, as well as for detection of the activity during different purification procedures. ..
  38. Yu M, Martin R, Jain S, Chen L, Segel I. Rat liver ATP-sulfurylase: purification, kinetic characterization, and interaction with arsenate, selenate, phosphate, and other inorganic oxyanions. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;269:156-74 pubmed
    ..7 to 200 for various reactive inorganic substrates. The cumulative results suggest the random binding of MgATP and the inorganic substrate but the ordered release of MgPPi before APS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  39. Leyh T. On the advantages of imperfect energetic linkage. Methods Enzymol. 1999;308:48-70 pubmed
  40. Ben Dov E, Shapiro O, Gruber R, Brenner A, Kushmaro A. Changes in microbial diversity in industrial wastewater evaporation ponds following artificial salination. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2008;66:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The share of SRB in the 16S rRNA gene was reduced following salination, consistent with the reduction of H2S emissions. However, the community composition, as shown by apsA gene analysis, was not markedly affected. ..
  41. Bakker Grunwald T, Geilhorn B. Sulfate metabolism in Entamoeba histolytica. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992;53:71-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, up to 10% of the sulfate taken up was incorporated into high-molecular weight material (possibly proteoglycans). We propose that sulfurylation of cholesterol may play a role in controlling membrane sterol content. ..
  42. Blazejak A, Kuever J, Erséus C, Amann R, Dubilier N. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase genes from gamma- and alphaproteobacterial symbionts in gutless marine worms (oligochaeta) from Bermuda and the Bahamas. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5527-36 pubmed
  43. Kim S, Rahman A, Mason J, Hirasawa M, Conover R, Johnson M, et al. The interaction of 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with its substrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1710:103-12 pubmed
    ..These results have been interpreted in terms of a scheme in which one of the redox-active cysteine residues serves as the initial reductant for APS bound at or in close proximity to the [4Fe-4S] cluster. ..
  44. Wong K, Khoo B, Sit K. Biosynthesis of PAPS in vitro by human liver. Measurement by two independent assay procedures. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991;41:63-9 pubmed
  45. MacRae I, Segel I. ATP sulfurylase from filamentous fungi: which sulfonucleotide is the true allosteric effector?. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;337:17-26 pubmed
    ..Computer-assisted simulations allowing for APS and PAPS binding to both the catalytic and regulatory sites of the hexameric enzyme yielded results that nearly duplicated the experimental curves. ..
  46. Hanna M, Taylor R. Radioactive-electrophoretic assay of adenosine 5'-triphosphate sulfurylase activity in crude extracts with sulfate or selenate as a substrate. Anal Biochem. 1989;176:294-302 pubmed
    ..The method also has utility for measuring any direct reduction by crude microbial extracts of radioactive selenate to selenite, independent of ATP sulfurylase. ..
  47. Parey K, Demmer U, Warkentin E, Wynen A, Ermler U, Dahl C. Structural, biochemical and genetic characterization of dissimilatory ATP sulfurylase from Allochromatium vinosum. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74707 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite different kinetic properties ATPS involved in sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing processes are not distinguishable on a structural level presumably due to the interference between functional and evolutionary processes. ..
  48. Fankhauser H, Schiff J, Garber L. Purification and properties of adenylyl sulphate:ammonia adenylyltransferase from Chlorella catalysing the formation of adenosine 5' -phosphoramidate from adenosine 5' -phosphosulphate and ammonia. Biochem J. 1981;195:545-60 pubmed
    ..In the non-enzymic reaction both adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate and AMP are formed. Thus the enzyme forms adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate by selectively speeding up an already favoured reaction. ..
  49. Lee H, Ho M, Tseng C, Hsu C, Huang M, Peng H, et al. Exponential ATP amplification through simultaneous regeneration from AMP and pyrophosphate for luminescence detection of bacteria. Anal Biochem. 2011;418:19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This improved method can detect bacteria concentrations of fewer than 10 CFU. This exponential ATP amplification assay will benefit bacteria monitoring in public health and manufacturing processes that require high-quality water. ..
  50. Stec E, Witkowska M, Hryniewicz M, Brzozowski A, Wilkinson A, Bujacz G. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the cofactor-binding domain of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator Cbl from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1654-7 pubmed
    ..Despite this, X-ray data extending to 3.0 A resolution have been collected and solution of the structure by molecular replacement is in progress. ..
  51. Kopriva S, Fritzemeier K, Wiedemann G, Reski R. The putative moss 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase is a novel form of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase without an iron-sulfur cluster. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22930-8 pubmed
    ..These findings show that APS reduction without the FeS cluster is possible and that plant sulfate assimilation is predominantly dependent on reduction of APS. ..
  52. Wu H, Wu W, Chen Z, Wang W, Zhou G, Kajiyama T, et al. Highly sensitive pyrosequencing based on the capture of free adenosine 5' phosphosulfate with adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase. Anal Chem. 2011;83:3600-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This sensitivity-improving pyrosequencing chemistry allows the use of an inexpensive light sensor photodiode array for constructing a portable pyrosequencer, a potential tool in a point-of-care test (POCT). ..
  53. Hudson B, York J. Roles for nucleotide phosphatases in sulfate assimilation and skeletal disease. Adv Biol Regul. 2012;52:229-38 pubmed
  54. Renosto F, Patel H, Martin R, Thomassian C, Zimmerman G, Segel I. ATP sulfurylase from higher plants: kinetic and structural characterization of the chloroplast and cytosol enzymes from spinach leaf. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;307:272-85 pubmed
    ..HPLC elution profiles of chymotryptic and tryptic peptides were essentially the same for both enzyme forms. The N-terminal sequence of residues 5-20 of the cytosol enzyme was identical to residues 1-16 of the chloroplast enzyme. ..
  55. Guranowski A, Just G, Holler E, Jakubowski H. Synthesis of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (AppppA) from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate catalyzed by yeast AppppA phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 1988;27:2959-64 pubmed
  56. Kanno N, Sato M, Sato Y. Purification and properties of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate deaminating enzyme from marine macroalga Gloiopeltis furcata. Biochem Int. 1991;23:845-53 pubmed
    ..Thus the enzyme seemed to be a nonspecific adenine nucleotide deaminase. Some properties were determined and compared with those of other nonspecific adenine nucleotide deaminases. ..
  57. Lyle S, Geller D, Ng K, Stanczak J, Westley J, Schwartz N. Kinetic mechanism of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochem J. 1994;301 ( Pt 2):355-9 pubmed
    ..These results are in accord with the formulation of the predominant pathway as a steady-state ordered mechanism with APS as the leading substrate and PAPS as the final product released. ..
  58. Sugahara K, Schwartz N. Defect in 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate formation in brachymorphic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:6615-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the production of an undersulfated proteoglycan in brachymorphic cartilage results from a defective conversion of APS to PAPS. ..
  59. Koprivova A, Kopriva S. Sulfation pathways in plants. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;259:23-30 pubmed publisher
  60. Wei J, Leyh T. Conformational change rate-limits GTP hydrolysis: the mechanism of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase. Biochemistry. 1998;37:17163-9 pubmed
    ..The implications of these finding for GTPase/target interactions and the mechanism of energetic linkage in the ATP sulfurylase system are discussed. ..
  61. Bykowski T, van der Ploeg J, Iwanicka Nowicka R, Hryniewicz M. The switch from inorganic to organic sulphur assimilation in Escherichia coli: adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as a signalling molecule for sulphate excess. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:1347-58 pubmed
    ..Our data comprise the first evidence that APS may act as the negative cofactor of the transcriptional regulator Cbl, and that APS, and not sulphate itself, serves as the signalling molecule for sulphate excess. ..
  62. Arcond guy T, Huez I, Fourment J, Kahn D. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation does not require adenylylation of glutamine synthetase I in Rhizobium meliloti. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;145:33-40 pubmed
    ..This is rationalized by the observation that less GS protein is present in R. meliloti bacteroids than in free-living bacterial cells...
  63. Renosto F, Martin R, Segel I. Sulfate-activating enzymes of Penicillium chrysogenum. The ATP sulfurylase.adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate complex does not serve as a substrate for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:9433-7 pubmed
    ..The cumulative results suggest that the two sulfate activating enzymes do not associate to form a "3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase" complex. ..
  64. Jakubowski H, Goldman E. Methionine-mediated lethality in yeast cells at elevated temperature. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:5469-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, methionine-mediated lethality at elevated temperature is linked to the inability to synthesize APS. The results demonstrate that APS plays an important role in thermotolerance. ..
  65. Valdes J, Veloso F, Jedlicki E, Holmes D. Metabolic reconstruction of sulfur assimilation in the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans based on genome analysis. BMC Genomics. 2003;4:51 pubmed
    ..Metabolic modeling provides an important preliminary step in understanding the unusual physiology of this extremophile especially given the severe difficulties involved in its genetic manipulation and biochemical analysis. ..
  66. Superti Furga A. A defect in the metabolic activation of sulfate in a patient with achondrogenesis type IB. Am J Hum Genet. 1994;55:1137-45 pubmed
    ..Expression of the sulfation defect in cultured fibroblasts may offer a diagnostic tool for the disorder. ..
  67. Lyle S, Geller D, Ng K, Westley J, Schwartz N. Kinetic mechanism of ATP-sulphurylase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochem J. 1994;301 ( Pt 2):349-54 pubmed
    ..The simplest formal mechanism that agrees with all the data is an ordered steady-state single displacement with MgATP as the leading substrate in the forward direction and APS as the leading substrate in the reverse direction. ..
  68. Wei J, Liu C, Leyh T. The role of enzyme isomerization in the native catalytic cycle of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system. Biochemistry. 2000;39:4704-10 pubmed
    ..These findings are incorporated into a model of the energy-coupling mechanism. ..
  69. Stec E, Witkowska Zimny M, Hryniewicz M, Neumann P, Wilkinson A, Brzozowski A, et al. Structural basis of the sulphate starvation response in E. coli: crystal structure and mutational analysis of the cofactor-binding domain of the Cbl transcriptional regulator. J Mol Biol. 2006;364:309-22 pubmed
    ..Based on the crystal structure and molecular modelling, we propose a model for the interaction of Cbl with adenosine phosphosulphate. ..