Summary: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.

Top Publications

  1. Bhat N, Joe A, PereiraPerrin M, Ward H. Cryptosporidium p30, a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin, mediates infection in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34877-87 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that p30 mediates C. parvum infection in vitro and raise the possibility that this protein may serve as a target for intervention. ..
  2. Sanchez J, Lescar J, Chazalet V, Audfray A, Gagnon J, Alvarez R, et al. Biochemical and structural analysis of Helix pomatia agglutinin. A hexameric lectin with a novel fold. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20171-80 pubmed
    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) binding lectin found in the albumen gland of the roman snail...
  3. Milton J, Fernig D, Rhodes J. Use of a biosensor to determine the binding kinetics of five lectins for Galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosamine. Glycoconj J. 2001;18:565-9 pubmed
    ..these lectins share as their preferred ligand the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen galactosyl beta1,3 N-Acetylgalactosamine (Galbeta1,3GalNAc), but differ in their finer specificities for modifications of this determinant and in ..
  4. Okuda T, Sawada T, Nakano H, Matsubara K, Matsuda Y, Fukuta M, et al. Mouse N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfotransferases-1 and -2. Molecular cloning, expression, chromosomal mapping and detection of their activity with GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-octyl. J Biochem. 2003;134:111-20 pubmed
    N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4ST) transfers sulfate to position 4 of nonreducing terminal GalNAc residues. We previously cloned human GalNAc4ST-1 cDNA...
  5. Medina S, Tiruchinapally G, Chevliakov M, Durmaz Y, Stender R, Ensminger W, et al. Targeting hepatic cancer cells with pegylated dendrimers displaying N-acetylgalactosamine and SP94 peptide ligands. Adv Healthc Mater. 2013;2:1337-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we compare the biodistribution of N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal)-targeted [(14) C]1 -G5-(NH2 )5 -(Ac)108 -(NAcGal)14 particles to non-targeted [(14) C]1 -G5-(NH2 )..
  6. Kirkeby S, Friis M, Mikkelsen H, Caye Thomasen P. Bacterial adherence in otitis media: determination of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in the submucosal glands and surface epithelium of the normal and diseased Eustachian tube. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is an important constituent of mucins and GalNAc containing sugar residues seem to be essential ..
  7. Stockbridge R, Wolfenden R. The intrinsic reactivity of ATP and the catalytic proficiencies of kinases acting on glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and homoserine: a thermodynamic analysis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22747-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate enhancements produced by yeast hexokinase, homoserine kinase, and N-acetylgalactosamine kinase (obtained by comparison of their k(cat)/K(m) values in the presence of saturating phosphoryl ..
  8. Blazquez S, Guigon G, Weber C, Syan S, Sismeiro O, Coppee J, et al. Chemotaxis of Entamoeba histolytica towards the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF is based on PI3K signalling, cytoskeleton reorganization and the Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin activity. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1676-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we found that elements of the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin (Gal/GalNAc lectin) were upregulated during chemotaxis as well as genes encoding proteins involved ..
  9. Mukherjee A, Mammel M, LeClerc J, Cebula T. Altered utilization of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the 2006 spinach outbreak. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1710-7 pubmed
    ..Notably, when agaF+ was cloned into an expression vector and transformed into six spinach isolates, all (6/6) were able to grow on Aga, thus demonstrating that the Gly91Ser substitution underlies the Aga- phenotype in these isolates. ..

More Information


  1. Moore J, Kulhavy R, Tomana M, Moldoveanu Z, Suzuki H, Brown R, et al. Reactivities of N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins with human IgA1 proteins. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:2598-604 pubmed
    ..To characterize potential differences in recognition of terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on IgA1, we evaluated the binding characteristics of several commercial preparations of GalNAc-..
  2. Takada A, Fujioka K, Tsuiji M, Morikawa A, Higashi N, Ebihara H, et al. Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry. J Virol. 2004;78:2943-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that a recently identified human macrophage galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin (hMGL), whose ligand specificity differs from DC-SIGN and L-SIGN, also enhances the ..
  3. Linton D, Allan E, Karlyshev A, Cronshaw A, Wren B. Identification of N-acetylgalactosamine-containing glycoproteins PEB3 and CgpA in Campylobacter jejuni. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:497-508 pubmed
    ..jejuni glycoproteins, including PEB3 and CgpA, is a result of the presence of alpha-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues...
  4. Vinogradov E, Sidorczyk Z. The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the core-lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide from Proteus penneri strain 40: new Proteus strains containing open-chain acetal-linked N-acetylgalactosamine in the core part of the LPS. Carbohydr Res. 2001;330:537-40 pubmed
    ..It is connected as a cyclic acetal to positions 4 and 6 of the galactosamine residue having a free amino group. All other sugars are in the pyranose form...
  5. Leteux C, Chai W, Loveless R, Yuen C, Uhlin Hansen L, Combarnous Y, et al. The cysteine-rich domain of the macrophage mannose receptor is a multispecific lectin that recognizes chondroitin sulfates A and B and sulfated oligosaccharides of blood group Lewis(a) and Lewis(x) types in addition to the sulfated N-glycans of lutro. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1117-26 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the three classes of sulfated carbohydrate ligands may variously regulate the trafficking and function of MR-bearing cells. ..
  6. Reizer J, Ramseier T, Reizer A, Charbit A, Saier M. Novel phosphotransferase genes revealed by bacterial genome sequencing: a gene cluster encoding a putative N-acetylgalactosamine metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 2):231-50 pubmed
    ..permease of the phosphotransferase system (IIB, IIB', IIC, IIC' and IID); (2) genes encoding a putative N-acetylgalactosamine 6-phosphate metabolic pathway including (a) a deacetylase, (b) an isomerizing deaminase, (c) a putative ..
  7. Carrizo M, Capaldi S, Perduca M, Irazoqui F, Nores G, Monaco H. The antineoplastic lectin of the common edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has two binding sites, each specific for a different configuration at a single epimeric hydroxyl. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10614-23 pubmed
    ..The binding of N-acetylgalactosamine overlaps with that moiety of the T antigen, but surprisingly, N-acetylglucosamine, which differs from N-..
  8. Muller S, Goletz S, Packer N, Gooley A, Lawson A, Hanisch F. Localization of O-glycosylation sites on glycopeptide fragments from lactation-associated MUC1. All putative sites within the tandem repeat are glycosylation targets in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24780-93 pubmed
  9. Yamanishi T, Hatakeyama T, Yamaguchi K, Oda T. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. J Biochem. 2009;146:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CEL-I induces NO production in RAW264.7 cells through the protein-cell interaction rather than the binding to the specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface...
  10. Gomes M, Suzuki H, Brooks M, Tomana M, Moldoveanu Z, Mestecky J, et al. Recognition of galactose-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1 by N-acetylgalactosamine-specific snail lectins: a comparative binding study. Biochemistry. 2010;49:5671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain lectins recognize the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-containing O-glycans on Gal-deficient IgA1 and can be potentially used as diagnostic tools...
  11. Gotoh M, Sato T, Akashima T, Iwasaki H, Kameyama A, Mochizuki H, et al. Enzymatic synthesis of chondroitin with a novel chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine to glucuronic acid in initiation and elongation of chondroitin sulfate synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38189-96 pubmed
    ..The truncated form was expressed in insect cells as a soluble enzyme. It transferred N-acetylgalactosamine, not galactose, to para-nitrophenyl-beta-glucuronic acid...
  12. Boyce M, Carrico I, Ganguli A, Yu S, Hangauer M, Hubbard S, et al. Metabolic cross-talk allows labeling of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine-modified proteins via the N-acetylgalactosamine salvage pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that metabolic cross-talk between the N-acetylgalactosamine salvage and O-GlcNAcylation pathways can be exploited for the tagging and identification of O-GlcNAcylated ..
  13. Takahashi Y, Ruhl S, Yoon J, Sandberg A, Cisar J. Adhesion of viridans group streptococci to sialic acid-, galactose- and N-acetylgalactosamine-containing receptors. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:257-62 pubmed
    The binding of 10 viridans group streptococci to sialic acid-, galactose (Gal)- and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-containing receptors was defined by analysis of the interactions between these bacteria and structurally defined ..
  14. Higashi N, Fujioka K, Denda Nagai K, Hashimoto S, Nagai S, Sato T, et al. The macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine is an endocytic receptor expressed on monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20686-93 pubmed
    ..Two of these, the macrophage mannose receptor and the macrophage lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (MGL), were found only in immature DCs, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and flow cytometric ..
  15. Liu Y, Chirino A, Misulovin Z, Leteux C, Feizi T, Nussenzweig M, et al. Crystal structure of the cysteine-rich domain of mannose receptor complexed with a sulfated carbohydrate ligand. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1105-16 pubmed
    ..carbohydrate recognition, we determined crystal structures of Cys-MR alone and complexed with 4-sulfated-N-acetylgalactosamine at 1.7 and 2.2 A resolution, respectively...
  16. Kitagawa H, Shimakawa H, Sugahara K. The tumor suppressor EXT-like gene EXTL2 encodes an alpha1, 4-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine to the common glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region. The key enzyme for the chain initiation . J Biol Chem. 1999;274:13933-7 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated a unique alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that transferred N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to the tetrasaccharide-serine, GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-Ser (GlcA represents glucuronic acid), ..
  17. von Mensdorff Pouilly S, Petrakou E, Kenemans P, van Uffelen K, Verstraeten A, Snijdewint F, et al. Reactivity of natural and induced human antibodies to MUC1 mucin with MUC1 peptides and n-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) peptides. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:702-12 pubmed
    ..STAAAA) sequence of each tandem repeat; and (3) four 60-mer glycopeptides with each 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) per repeat...
  18. Kakiuchi M, Okino N, Sueyoshi N, Ichinose S, Omori A, Kawabata S, et al. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from starfish, Asterina pectinifera. Glycobiology. 2002;12:85-94 pubmed
    We report here the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from starfish, Asterina pectinifera...
  19. Laughlin S, Baskin J, Amacher S, Bertozzi C. In vivo imaging of membrane-associated glycans in developing zebrafish. Science. 2008;320:664-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a multicolor detection strategy, we performed a spatiotemporal analysis of glycan expression and trafficking and identified patterns that would be undetectable with conventional molecular imaging approaches. ..
  20. Ohtake Niimi S, Kondo S, Ito T, Kakehi S, Ohta T, Habuchi H, et al. Mice deficient in N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-o-sulfotransferase are unable to synthesize chondroitin/dermatan sulfate containing N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate residues and exhibit decreased protease activity in bone marrow-derived mast . J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20793-805 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) containing N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate (GalNAc(4,6-SO(4))) show various physiological activities through interacting with numerous functional proteins...
  21. Brinkkötter A, Kloss H, Alpert C, Lengeler J. Pathways for the utilization of N-acetyl-galactosamine and galactosamine in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:125-35 pubmed
    ..coli K-12. These retain the DeltaagaW' EF 'A deletion and carry suppressor mutations in the gat and nag genes for galactitol and N-acetyl-glucosamine metabolism, respectively, that allow growth on Aga but not on GalN. ..
  22. Gotoh M, Yada T, Sato T, Akashima T, Iwasaki H, Mochizuki H, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase that transfers glucuronic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38179-88 pubmed
    ..This enzyme could play a role in the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate as a glucuronyltransferase. ..
  23. Iwase H, Tanaka A, Hiki Y, Kokubo T, Sano T, Ishii Karakasa I, et al. Mutual separation of hinge-glycopeptide isomers bearing five N-acetylgalactosamine residues from normal human serum immunoglobulin A1 by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999;728:175-83 pubmed
    ..The asialo-, agalacto-hinge glycopeptide (HGP-SG) composed of a 33-mer peptide (HP33) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues was obtained...
  24. Halldórsdóttir A, Zhang L, Tollefsen D. N-Acetylgalactosamine 4,6-O-sulfate residues mediate binding and activation of heparin cofactor II by porcine mucosal dermatan sulfate. Glycobiology. 2006;16:693-701 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that modification of IdoA-->GalNAc4SO3 subunits in the DS polymer by either 2-O-sulfation of IdoA or 6-O-sulfation of GalNAc can generate molecules with HCII-binding sites and anticoagulant activity. ..
  25. Leyn S, Gao F, Yang C, Rodionov D. N-acetylgalactosamine utilization pathway and regulon in proteobacteria: genomic reconstruction and experimental characterization in Shewanella. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides comprehensive insights into the common and distinctive features of the GalNAc/GalN catabolism and its regulation in diverse Proteobacteria...
  26. Wandall H, Irazoqui F, Tarp M, Bennett E, Mandel U, Takeuchi H, et al. The lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases exhibit carbohydrate-binding specificity for GalNAc: lectin binding to GalNAc-glycopeptide substrates is required for high density GalNAc-O-glycosylation. Glycobiology. 2007;17:374-87 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that GalNAc-transferase lectins serve to modulate the kinetic properties of the enzymes in the late stages of the initiation process of O-glycosylation to accomplish dense or complete O-glycan occupancy. ..
  27. Kato K, Takeuchi H, Kanoh A, Mandel U, Hassan H, Clausen H, et al. N-acetylgalactosamine incorporation into a peptide containing consecutive threonine residues by UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. Glycobiology. 2001;11:821-9 pubmed
  28. Wang H, Xiong M, Wang Y, Zhu J, Wang J. N-acetylgalactosamine functionalized mixed micellar nanoparticles for targeted delivery of siRNA to liver. J Control Release. 2013;166:106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a promising liver targeting siRNA delivery system based on N-acetylgalactosamine functionalized mixed micellar nanoparticles (Gal-MNP), which can efficiently deliver siRNA to hepatocytes ..
  29. Shetty A, Kobayashi T, Mizumoto S, Narumi M, Kudo Y, Yamada S, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate from squid liver integument rich in N-acetylgalactosamine(4,6-disulfate) and glucuronate(3-sulfate) residues. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1526-32 pubmed publisher
    ..CS chains from squid liver integument, with their unique composition and strong biological activities, may be a good candidate for therapeutic application. ..
  30. Dube D, Prescher J, Quang C, Bertozzi C. Probing mucin-type O-linked glycosylation in living animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4819-24 pubmed
    ..Metabolic labeling with GalNAz followed by Staudinger ligation provides a means for proteomic analysis of this posttranslational modification and for identifying O-linked glycoprotein fingerprints associated with disease. ..
  31. Ezquerro Sáenz C, Ferrero M, Revilla Nuin B, López Velasco F, Martínez Blanco H, Rodriguez Aparicio L. Transport of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in Escherichia coli K92: effect on acetyl-amino sugar metabolism and polysialic acid production. Biochimie. 2006;88:95-102 pubmed
    ..The presence of intracellular phosphoderivative acetylamino sugars, generated by the action of the phosphotransferase transport system, can be responsible for this effect. ..
  32. Brooks S. The involvement of Helix pomatia lectin (HPA) binding N-acetylgalactosamine glycans in cancer progression. Histol Histopathol. 2000;15:143-58 pubmed publisher
    The lectin from Helix pomatia, the Roman snail (HPA), recognises terminal alpha N-acetylgalactosamine residues...
  33. Karr C, Jarroll E. Cyst wall synthase: N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity is induced to form the novel N-acetylgalactosamine polysaccharide in the Giardia cyst wall. Microbiology. 2004;150:1237-43 pubmed
    Uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) is required in the formation of the outer filamentous wall of Giardia and is synthesized by inducible enzymes in the cytosol of encysting trophozoites...
  34. de Albuquerque Garcia Redondo P, Nakamura C, de Souza W, Morgado Diaz J. Differential expression of sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine residues on the cell surface of intestinal epithelial cells according to normal or metastatic potential. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:629-40 pubmed
    In this study we investigated the levels of expression of sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine residues on the cell surface of a normal intestinal epithelium cell line, IEC-6, and in two colon adenocarcinoma cell lines with different ..
  35. Ray W, Larson T. Application of AgaR repressor and dominant repressor variants for verification of a gene cluster involved in N-acetylgalactosamine metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:813-26 pubmed
    ..cluster encodes the phosphotransferase systems and enzymes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of N-acetylgalactosamine and galactosamine in Escherichia coli. In some strains of E...
  36. Laughlin S, Bertozzi C. In vivo imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans glycans. ACS Chem Biol. 2009;4:1068-72 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. We treated worms with azidosugar variants of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), resulting in the metabolic labeling of their cell-surface ..
  37. Wong S, Klein J, Hamilton H, Chu Q, Frey C, Trubetskoy V, et al. Co-injection of a targeted, reversibly masked endosomolytic polymer dramatically improves the efficacy of cholesterol-conjugated small interfering RNAs in vivo. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2012;22:380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity of the formulation and efficacy of this mode of siRNA delivery should prove beneficial in the use of siRNA as a therapeutic. ..
  38. Chai W, Beeson J, Lawson A. The structural motif in chondroitin sulfate for adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes comprises disaccharide units of 4-O-sulfated and non-sulfated N-acetylgalactosamine linked to glucuronic acid. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22438-46 pubmed
  39. Hanisch F, Muller S, Hassan H, Clausen H, Zachara N, Gooley A, et al. Dynamic epigenetic regulation of initial O-glycosylation by UDP-N-Acetylgalactosamine:Peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. site-specific glycosylation of MUC1 repeat peptide influences the substrate qualities at adjacent or distant Ser/Thr pos. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9946-54 pubmed
    ..mono- and disaccharide substituents of glycopeptide substrates on the site-specific in vitro addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues by recombinant GalNAc-Ts (rGalNAc-T1, -T2, and -T3)...
  40. Abe S, Araki S, Satake M, Fujiwara N, Kon K, Ando S. Structure of triphosphonoglycosphingolipid containing N-acetylgalactosamine 6-O-2-aminoethylphosphonate in the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9939-43 pubmed
    ..This may indicate the interactions between the 2-AEP residue of N-acetylgalactosamine and the internal galactose and between the N-acetyl group of N-acetylgalactosamine and the side chain ..
  41. Sato M, Kawakami K, Osawa T, Toyoshima S. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin on mouse tumoricidal macrophages. J Biochem. 1992;111:331-6 pubmed
    We previously reported that the mouse macrophage galacose and N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin (MMGL) may participate in the binding of the macrophages to tumor cells [Oda, S., Sato, M., Toyoshima, S., & Osawa, T. (1989) J...
  42. Fukuda S, Tomatsu S, Masue M, Sukegawa K, Iwata H, Ogawa T, et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA. N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase exonic point mutations in classical Morquio and mild cases. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:1049-53 pubmed
    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) results from a genetic deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate (Gal-NAc6S) sulfatase...
  43. Ii M, Kurata H, Itoh N, Yamashina I, Kawasaki T. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding the macrophage lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11295-8 pubmed
    The primary structure of the macrophage lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine (macrophage asialoglycoprotein-binding protein, M-ASGP-BP) has been deduced from its cDNA sequence...
  44. Cheng F, Yoshida K, Heinegard D, Fransson L. A new method for sequence analysis of glycosaminoglycans from heavily substituted proteoglycans reveals non-random positioning of 4- and 6-O-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine in aggrecan-derived chondroitin sulphate. Glycobiology. 1992;2:553-61 pubmed
    ..Chondroitin sulphate from nasal cartilage, which is mostly 4-O-sulphated, displays considerable heterogeneity in the linkage region. Three or possibly more charge variants are observed. ..
  45. van Kuik J, Sijbesma R, Kamerling J, Vliegenthart J, Wood E. Primary structure determination of seven novel N-linked carbohydrate chains derived from hemocyanin of Lymnaea stagnalis. 3-O-methyl-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine as constituents of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides in an animal . Eur J Biochem. 1987;169:399-411 pubmed
    ..Using 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with sugar, methylation and deamination analysis, the following seven novel primary oligosaccharide structures could be unravelled. (Formula: see text). ..
  46. Peiris D, Markiv A, Curley G, Dwek M. A novel approach to determining the affinity of protein-carbohydrate interactions employing adherent cancer cells grown on a biosensor surface. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;35:160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This methodology will be of interest to researchers developing new biological approaches for targeting cell surfaces in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. ..
  47. Xia B, Royall J, Damera G, Sachdev G, Cummings R. Altered O-glycosylation and sulfation of airway mucins associated with cystic fibrosis. Glycobiology. 2005;15:747-75 pubmed
    ..All mucins contained galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc), and sialic acid (Neu5Ac)...
  48. Ii M, Kawasaki T, Yamashina I. Structural similarity between the macrophage lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine and the hepatic asialoglycoprotein binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;155:720-5 pubmed
    The rat peritoneal macrophage lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine was shown to be a homologue of the hepatic asialoglycoprotein binding protein (rat hepatic lectin, RHL)...
  49. Wiederschain GYa -, Newburg D. Glycosidase activities and sugar release in human milk. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:573-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that under typical conditions glycoconjugate degradation in milk is modest. ..
  50. Higashi N, Morikawa A, Fujioka K, Fujita Y, Sano Y, Miyata Takeuchi M, et al. Human macrophage lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine is a marker for cells at an intermediate stage in their differentiation from monocytes into macrophages. Int Immunol. 2002;14:545-54 pubmed
    We studied the expression of a human macrophage lectin specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (hMGL) during macrophage differentiation...
  51. Gabrielli M, Materazzi G, Bondi A, Menghi G. Developmental expression of glycocomponents in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2003;207:63-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude from these findings that various glycoconjugates in the CAM could participate in different physiological functions characteristic of the chorionic and the allantoic epithelium. ..
  52. Bernardi A, Arosio D, Manzoni L, Monti D, Posteri H, Potenza D, et al. Mimics of ganglioside GM1 as cholera toxin ligands: replacement of the GalNAc residue. Org Biomol Chem. 2003;1:785-92 pubmed
    ..NMR experiments have also proved that 5 occupies the GM1-binding site of the toxin and have revealed its bound conformation. ..
  53. Takeda M, Nakamori T, Hatta M, Yamada H, Koizumi J. Structure of the polysaccharide isolated from the sheath of Sphaerotilus natans. Int J Biol Macromol. 2003;33:245-50 pubmed
    ..The structure of SPS was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting data showed that SPS is a straight-chained basic polysaccharide constructed of a pentasaccharide repeating unit. ..
  54. Mazany K, Peng T, Watson C, Tabas I, Williams K. Human chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase: cloning, gene structure, and chromosomal localization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1407:92-7 pubmed
    ..C6ST catalyzes the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to carbon 6 of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues of chondroitin...
  55. Schietinger A, Philip M, Yoshida B, Azadi P, Liu H, Meredith S, et al. A mutant chaperone converts a wild-type protein into a tumor-specific antigen. Science. 2006;314:304-8 pubmed
    ..This epitope induced a high-affinity, highly specific, syngeneic monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity. Such tumor-specific glycopeptidic neo-epitopes represent potential targets for monoclonal antibody therapy. ..
  56. Mann B. Structure and function of the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin. Int Rev Cytol. 2002;216:59-80 pubmed
    ..Current knowledge regarding both the structure and function of this unique multifunctional virulence factor are discussed. ..
  57. Lee R, Wang M, Lin W, Lee Y. New and more efficient multivalent glyco-ligands for asialoglycoprotein receptor of mammalian hepatocytes. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:2494-500 pubmed publisher
    New multi-valent, carbohydrate ligands that contain terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or lactose (Lac) were prepared using a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) derivative of L-lysine as scaffold...
  58. Arag o K, Satre M, Imberty A, Varrot A. Structure determination of Discoidin II from Dictyostelium discoideum and carbohydrate binding properties of the lectin domain. Proteins. 2008;73:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Those results highlight the structural differentiation of the DS domain involved in many cell-adhesion processes from the lectin activity of Dictyostelium discoidins...
  59. Leung J, Chan L, Tang S, Tam P, Fenn J, Lai K. Glycosylation profile of differently charged IgA1 and their binding characteristics to cultured mesangial cells in IgA nephropathy. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2007;107:e107-18 pubmed the carbohydrate moieties of these differently charged IgA1 was analyzed by galactose (Gal)-, galactose-acetylgalactosamine (Gal-GalNAc)-, or sialic acid-specific enzyme-linked lectin binding assays (ELLA)...
  60. Agundis C, Pereyra A, Zenteno R, Brassart C, Sierra C, Vazquez L, et al. Quantification of lectin in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) hemolymph by ELISA. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;127:165-72 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that lectin concentration and hemagglutinating activity could be influenced by developmental conditions of the freshwater prawn. ..
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