Human immunodeficiency virus 2

Summary

Alias: HIV type 2, HIV-2, Human immunodeficiency virus type 2, Human immunodeficiency virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2, human immunodeficiency virus type 2, HIV-2, HIV, HIV2, LAV-2, AIDS virus

Top Publications

  1. Hauser H, Lopez L, Yang S, Oldenburg J, Exline C, Guatelli J, et al. HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env counteract BST-2/tetherin by sequestration in a perinuclear compartment. Retrovirology. 2010;7:51 pubmed publisher
    In the absence of the Vpu protein, newly formed HIV-1 particles can remain attached to the surface of human cells due to the action of an interferon-inducible cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin...
  2. Powell R, Holland P, Hollis T, Perrino F. Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome gene and HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 is a dGTP-regulated deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43596-600 pubmed publisher
    The SAMHD1 protein is an HIV-1 restriction factor that is targeted by the HIV-2 accessory protein Vpx in myeloid lineage cells...
  3. Foxall R, Cortesão C, Albuquerque A, Soares R, Victorino R, Sousa A. Gag-specific CD4+ T-cell frequency is inversely correlated with proviral load and directly correlated with immune activation in infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) but not HIV-1. J Virol. 2008;82:9795-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection, unlike HIV-1 infection, is normally characterized by low rates of CD4 depletion and low-to-undetectable viremia...
  4. Goujon C, Arfi V, Pertel T, Luban J, Lienard J, Rigal D, et al. Characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVSM/human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx function in human myeloid cells. J Virol. 2008;82:12335-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(SM) Vpx is incorporated into virion particles and is thus present during the early steps of infection, when it has been reported to influence the nuclear ..
  5. Bergamaschi A, Ayinde D, David A, Le Rouzic E, Morel M, Collin G, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx protein usurps the CUL4A-DDB1 DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase to overcome a postentry block in macrophage infection. J Virol. 2009;83:4854-60 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genomes encode several auxiliary proteins that have increasingly shown their importance in the virus-host relationship...
  6. Noble B, Abada P, Nunez Iglesias J, Cannon P. Recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 complex by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein is necessary for high levels of virus release. J Virol. 2006;80:2924-32 pubmed
    The envelope (Env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the HIV-1 Vpu protein stimulate the release of retroviral particles from human cells that restrict virus production, an activity that we call the enhancement ..
  7. Mahnke L, Belshan M, Ratner L. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis. Virology. 2006;348:165-74 pubmed
    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis...
  8. Belshan M, Mahnke L, Ratner L. Conserved amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx nuclear localization signal are critical for nuclear targeting of the viral preintegration complex in non-dividing cells. Virology. 2006;346:118-26 pubmed
    The HIV-2 viral accessory protein Vpx is related to, but distinct from the Vpr protein of HIV-1...
  9. Le Tortorec A, Neil S. Antagonism to and intracellular sequestration of human tetherin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2009;83:11966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes the accessory gene vpu to overcome the action of tetherin, the lineage of primate lentiviruses that gave ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Ribeiro A, Maia e Silva A, Santa Marta M, Pombo A, Moniz Pereira J, Goncalves J, et al. Functional analysis of Vif protein shows less restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 by APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2005;79:823-33 pubmed
    Viral infectivity factor (Vif) is one of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory proteins and is conserved in the primate lentivirus group...
  2. Khalid M, Yu H, Sauter D, Usmani S, Schmökel J, Feldman J, et al. Efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 and CD28 is associated with high CD4+ T cell counts in viremic HIV-2 infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4906-20 pubmed publisher
    The role of the multifunctional accessory Nef protein in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-2 infection is currently poorly understood...
  3. Wei W, Guo H, Han X, Liu X, Zhou X, Zhang W, et al. A novel DCAF1-binding motif required for Vpx-mediated degradation of nuclear SAMHD1 and Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1745-56 pubmed publisher
    b>HIV-2 and closely related SIV Vpx proteins are essential for viral replication in macrophages and dendritic cells. Vpx hijacks DCAF1-DDB1-Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote viral replication...
  4. Hofmann H, Logue E, Bloch N, Daddacha W, Polsky S, Schultz M, et al. The Vpx lentiviral accessory protein targets SAMHD1 for degradation in the nucleus. J Virol. 2012;86:12552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and some simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) encode the accessory protein viral protein ..
  5. Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wu Y, Ahn J. HIV-2 and SIVmac accessory virulence factor Vpx down-regulates SAMHD1 enzyme catalysis prior to proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..triphosphohydrolase, down-regulates dNTP pools in terminally differentiated and quiescent cells, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 infection at the reverse transcription step...
  6. Fregoso O, Ahn J, Wang C, Mehrens J, Skowronski J, Emerman M. Evolutionary toggling of Vpx/Vpr specificity results in divergent recognition of the restriction factor SAMHD1. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003496 pubmed publisher
    SAMHD1 is a host restriction factor that blocks the ability of lentiviruses such as HIV-1 to undergo reverse transcription in myeloid cells and resting T-cells...
  7. Schwefel D, Groom H, Boucherit V, Christodoulou E, Walker P, Stoye J, et al. Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway. Nature. 2014;505:234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One such restriction factor, SAMHD1, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of myeloid-lineage cells as well as resting CD4(+) T cells by reducing the cellular deoxynucleoside 5'-..
  8. Chauveau L, Puigdomènech I, Ayinde D, Roesch F, Porrot F, Bruni D, et al. HIV-2 infects resting CD4+ T cells but not monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Retrovirology. 2015;12:2 pubmed publisher
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 2 (HIV-2) encodes Vpx that degrades SAMHD1, a cellular restriction factor active in non-dividing cells...
  9. Heusinger E, Deppe K, Sette P, Krapp C, Kmiec D, Kluge S, et al. Preadaptation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmm Facilitated Env-Mediated Counteraction of Human Tetherin by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..most simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), including the direct precursors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2, use their Nef protein to counteract tetherin in their natural hosts, they fail to antagonize the ..
  10. Cella E, Foley B, Riva E, Scolamacchia V, Ceccarelli G, Vita S, et al. HIV-2 infection in a migrant from Gambia: the history of the disease combined with phylogenetic analysis revealed the real source of infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection prevalence is increasing in some European countries...
  11. Smith R, Raugi D, Wu V, Leong S, Parker K, Oakes M, et al. The Nucleoside Analog BMS-986001 Shows Greater In Vitro Activity against HIV-2 than against HIV-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:7437-46 pubmed publisher
    Treatment options for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are restricted by the intrinsic resistance of the virus to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the reduced susceptibility ..
  12. Herrmann A, Happel A, Gramberg T. SAMHD1 in Retroviral Restriction and Innate Immune Sensing--Should We Leash the Hound?. Curr HIV Res. 2016;14:225-34 pubmed
    ..cells and resting CD4+ T cells and is counteracted by the accessory protein Vpx, which is encoded by human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) and several simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains...
  13. Rawson J, Landman S, Reilly C, Mansky L. HIV-1 and HIV-2 exhibit similar mutation frequencies and spectra in the absence of G-to-A hypermutation. Retrovirology. 2015;12:60 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is often distinguished clinically by lower viral loads, reduced transmissibility, and longer asymptomatic periods than for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  14. Pachulska Wieczorek K, BÅ‚aszczyk L, Biesiada M, Adamiak R, Purzycka K. The matrix domain contributes to the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-2 Gag. Retrovirology. 2016;13:18 pubmed publisher
    ..activity is considered necessary to retroviral Gag functions, but so far, NAC activity has only been confirmed for HIV-1 and RSV Gag polyproteins...
  15. Ramos Martínez G, Valdespino Díaz M, Hernández Marín M, Valle Carvajal E, Selles León M, Pozo Peña L. [Use of a synthetic peptide of HIV-2 glycoprotein 36 in antigen mixtures for the immunodiagnosis of HIV types 1 and 2]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2015;33:663-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An evaluation of the diagnostic indexes of antigen mixtures with a synthetic peptide of HIV2 gp36 (5) is performed in this study. Five mixtures of gp36 (5) and the recombinant proteins of HIV1/2 were prepared...
  16. Schaller T, Pollpeter D, Apolonia L, Goujon C, Malim M. Nuclear import of SAMHD1 is mediated by a classical karyopherin ?/?1 dependent pathway and confers sensitivity to VpxMAC induced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Retrovirology. 2014;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..dNTP) hydrolase sterile alpha motif domain and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) is a nuclear protein that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells as well as quiescent CD4 T-cells, by decreasing the intracellular dNTP concentration ..
  17. Fregoso O, Emerman M. Activation of the DNA Damage Response Is a Conserved Function of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr That Is Independent of SLX4 Recruitment. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we show that, for HIV-1, HIV-2, and related Vpr isolates and orthologs, there is a lack of correlation between DNA damage response ..
  18. Wiriyakosol N, Puangpetch A, Manosuthi W, Tomongkon S, Sukasem C, Pinthong D. A LC/MS/MS method for determination of tenofovir in human plasma and its application to toxicity monitoring. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018;1085:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a pro-drug of the active metabolite tenofovir widely used against the HIV1, HIV2, and Hepatitis B virus. Several studies have been conducted and found kidney injury associated with tenofovir exposure...
  19. Santos Costa Q, Mansinho K, Moniz Pereira J, Azevedo Pereira J. Characterization of HIV-2 chimeric viruses unable to use CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. Virus Res. 2009;142:41-50 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown the existence of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolates (MIC97 and MJC97) unable to use major coreceptors to entry into peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including CCR5 and CXCR4...
  20. Bognounou R, Kabore M, Diendéré A, Diallo I, Sagna Y, Guira O, et al. [Characteristics of the patients "lost to follow-up" and determining factors of loss to follow-up to patients living with HIV at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2015;108:197-200 pubmed publisher
    ..with the loss of follow-up were: no schooling (p=0,008), residing outside the capital (p=0,002) and being infected with HIV2 (p< 10(-3)). The phenomenon of loss of follow-up is important and concerned mainly not informed patients.
  21. Achuthan V, Singh K, Destefano J. Physiological Mg2+ Conditions Significantly Alter the Inhibition of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Reverse Transcriptases by Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors in Vitro. Biochemistry. 2017;56:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Mg2+ concentrations used in vitro can misrepresent different properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RT, including fidelity, catalysis, pausing, and RNase H activity...
  22. Xiong S, Borrego P, Ding X, Zhu Y, Martins A, Chong H, et al. A Helical Short-Peptide Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has already spread to different regions worldwide, and currently about 1 to 2 million people have been infected, calling for new antiviral agents that are effective on both HIV-1 and HIV-2 ..
  23. Sakai Y, Miyake A, Doi N, Sasada H, Miyazaki Y, Adachi A, et al. Expression Profiles of Vpx/Vpr Proteins Are Co-related with the Primate Lentiviral Lineage. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1211 pubmed publisher
    Viruses of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) lineages carry a unique accessory protein called Vpx...
  24. Chen Y, Xiao Y, Wu W, Wang Q, Luo G, Dierich M. HIV-2 transmembrane protein gp36 binds to the putative cellular receptor proteins P45 and P62. Immunobiology. 2000;201:317-22 pubmed
    ..that two cellular proteins of 45 kDa (P45) and 62 kDa (P62) serve as the putative receptor molecules for binding of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41 to human T, B lymphocytes and monocytes, we examined whether HIV-2 gp36 and HIV-1 gp41 ..
  25. Alford J, Marongiu M, Watkins G, Anderson E. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158941 pubmed publisher
    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, ..
  26. Smith J, Izumi T, Borbet T, Hagedorn A, Pathak V. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif interact with human APOBEC3 proteins using completely different determinants. J Virol. 2014;88:9893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the Vif-A3 interactions are attractive targets for novel drug development. HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose via distinct zoonotic transmission events of simian immunodeficiency viruses from chimpanzees and ..
  27. Miyake A, Fujita M, Fujino H, Koga R, Kawamura S, Otsuka M, et al. Poly-proline motif in HIV-2 Vpx is critical for its efficient translation. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:179-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) carries an accessory protein Vpx that is important for viral replication in natural target cells...
  28. Santos Costa Q, Lopes M, Calado M, Azevedo Pereira J. HIV-2 interaction with cell coreceptors: amino acids within the V1/V2 region of viral envelope are determinant for CCR8, CCR5 and CXCR4 usage. Retrovirology. 2014;11:99 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) use cellular receptors in distinct ways...
  29. Chen C, Shingai M, Welbourn S, Martin M, Borrego P, Taveira N, et al. Antagonism of BST-2/Tetherin Is a Conserved Function of the Env Glycoprotein of Primary HIV-2 Isolates. J Virol. 2016;90:11062-11074 pubmed
    Although HIV-2 does not encode a vpu gene, the ability to antagonize bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is conserved in some HIV-2 isolates, where it is controlled by the Env glycoprotein...
  30. Ciftci H, Fujino H, Koga R, Yamamoto M, Kawamura S, Tateishi H, et al. Mutational analysis of HIV-2 Vpx shows that proline residue 109 in the poly-proline motif regulates degradation of SAMHD1. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:1505-14 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we performed a mutational analysis to determine whether the mechanism by which HIV-2 Vpx confers the capacity for infectivity and viral replication in macrophages is solely dependent on its ability to degrade the host ..
  31. Herzig E, Hizi A. The importance of glutamine 294 that affects the ribonuclease H activity of the reverse transcriptase of HIV-2 to viral replication. Virology. 2015;483:13-20 pubmed publisher
    Most currently-used antiretroviral drugs inhibit the reverse-transcriptase (RT) of HIV. The differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 RTs explain why some of the anti-HIV-1 drugs are not effective against HIV-2...
  32. Döring M, Borrego P, Büch J, Martins A, Friedrich G, Camacho R, et al. A genotypic method for determining HIV-2 coreceptor usage enables epidemiological studies and clinical decision support. Retrovirology. 2016;13:85 pubmed publisher
    ..tenfold cross validation, we selected a linear support vector machine (SVM) as the model for geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2], because it outperformed the other SVMs with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95...
  33. Sohail A, Van Leer L, Holmes N. An unexpected diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in an overseas visitor: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:116 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection is endemic in West Africa but is also found in parts of Europe, North and South America, and India where it is thought to have been introduced secondary to migration and commercial trade ties...
  34. Deuzing I, Charpentier C, Wright D, Matheron S, Paton J, Frentz D, et al. Mutation V111I in HIV-2 reverse transcriptase increases the fitness of the nucleoside analogue-resistant K65R and Q151M viruses. J Virol. 2015;89:833-43 pubmed publisher
    Infection with HIV-2 can ultimately lead to AIDS, although disease progression is much slower than with HIV-1...
  35. Ghimire Rijal S, Maynard E. Comparative thermodynamic analysis of zinc binding to the His/Cys motif in virion infectivity factor. Inorg Chem. 2014;53:4295-302 pubmed publisher
    b>HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) is an accessory protein that induces the proteasomal degradation of the host restriction factor, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G)...
  36. McCulley A, Ratner L. HIV-2 viral protein X (Vpx) ubiquitination is dispensable for ubiquitin ligase interaction and effects on macrophage infection. Virology. 2012;427:67-75 pubmed publisher
    b>HIV-2 Vpx, a virus-associated accessory protein, is critical for infection of non-dividing myeloid cells...
  37. Yamamoto M, Koga R, Fujino H, Shimagaki K, Ciftci H, Kamo M, et al. Zinc-binding site of human immunodeficiency virus 2 Vpx prevents instability and dysfunction of the protein. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:275-283 pubmed publisher
    b>Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Vpx coordinates zinc through residues H39, H82, C87 and C89. We reported previously that H39, H82 and C87 mutants maintain Vpx activity to facilitate the degradation of SAMHD1...
  38. Dimonte S, Svicher V, Salpini R, Ceccherini Silberstein F, Perno C, Babakir Mina M. HIV-2 A-subtype gp125c?-v?-c? mutations and their association with CCR5 and CXCR4 tropism. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1943-51 pubmed publisher
    The early events of the HIV replication cycle involve the interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and their cellular CD4-chemokine (CCR5/CXCR4) receptor complex...
  39. Baldauf H, Stegmann L, Schwarz S, Ambiel I, Trotard M, Martin M, et al. Vpx overcomes a SAMHD1-independent block to HIV reverse transcription that is specific to resting CD4 T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:2729-2734 pubmed publisher
    Early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting CD4 T cells, HIV encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (RT) of the incoming viral RNA genome...
  40. Bartelsman M, Joore I, van Bergen J, Hogewoning A, Zuure F, van Veen M. HIV testing week 2015: lowering barriers for HIV testing among high-risk groups in Amsterdam. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:529 pubmed publisher
    ..The HTW took place from 28 November till 4 December 2015. Anonymous HIV rapid testing (INSTI™ HIV1/HIV2 Ab test or Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab test) was offered free of charge at four hospitals, 12 general practitioner (..
  41. Bennett E, Lever A, Allen J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Gag interacts specifically with PRP4, a serine-threonine kinase, and inhibits phosphorylation of splicing factor SF2. J Virol. 2004;78:11303-12 pubmed
    ..a yeast two-hybrid screen of a T-cell cDNA library to identify cellular proteins that bind to the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) Gag polyprotein, we identified PRP4, a serine-threonine protein kinase...
  42. Exline C, Yang S, Haworth K, Rengarajan S, Lopez L, Droniou M, et al. Determinants in HIV-2 Env and tetherin required for functional interaction. Retrovirology. 2015;12:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The primate lentiviruses have evolved several counteracting mechanisms which, in the case of HIV-2, is a function of its Env protein...
  43. Bakouche N, Vandenbroucke A, Goubau P, Ruelle J. Study of the HIV-2 Env cytoplasmic tail variability and its impact on Tat, Rev and Nef. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79129 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-2 env's 3' end encodes the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. This genomic region also encodes the rev, Tat and Nef protein in overlapping reading frames...
  44. Piroozmand A, Khamsri B, Fujita M, Adachi A, Uchiyama T. Morphological study on biologically distinct vpx/vpr mutants of HIV-2. J Med Invest. 2006;53:271-6 pubmed
    We have previously shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) without functional vpx and vpr genes is severely defective for viral growth in lymphocytic cells, and suggested that the virions produced in the absence of Vpx and ..
  45. Fridell R, Harding L, Bogerd H, Cullen B. Identification of a novel human zinc finger protein that specifically interacts with the activation domain of lentiviral Tat proteins. Virology. 1995;209:347-57 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptional activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the viral Tat protein requires the interaction of a cellular cofactor with the Tat activation domain...
  46. Kirchhoff F, Jentsch K, Bachmann B, Stuke A, Laloux C, L ke W, et al. A novel proviral clone of HIV-2: biological and phylogenetic relationship to other primate immunodeficiency viruses. Virology. 1990;177:305-11 pubmed
    Infectious molecular clones of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) will be valuable tools for the study of regulatory gene functions and the development of an animal model for the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (..
  47. Brand S, Kobayashi R, Mathews M. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a substrate and inhibitor of the interferon-induced, virally activated protein kinase, PKR. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8388-95 pubmed
    ..ds) RNA-activated kinase, PKR, is able to bind to and phosphorylate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activating protein, Tat. Furthermore, Tat can inhibit the activation and activity of the kinase...
  48. Matsui T, Kodera Y, Miyauchi E, Tanaka H, Endoh H, Komatsu H, et al. Structural role of the secondary active domain of HIV-2 NCp8 in multi-functionality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:673-8 pubmed publisher
    Nucleocapsid protein of HIV, containing two CCHC-type zinc fingers connected by a linker, is a multi-functional protein involved in many critical steps of the HIV life cycle...
  49. Malinowsky K, Luksza J, Dittmar M. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains. Virology. 2008;376:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion...
  50. Bochner R, Duvshani A, Adir N, Hizi A. Mutagenesis of Gln294 of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 and its effects on the ribonuclease H activity. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2799-805 pubmed publisher
    Despite the high homology between human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) reverse transcriptases (RTs), the ribonuclease H (RNase H) level of HIV-2 RT is lower than that of HIV-1 RT, ..
  51. Bercoff D, Triqueneaux P, Lambert C, Oumar A, Ternes A, Dao S, et al. Polymorphisms of HIV-2 integrase and selection of resistance to raltegravir. Retrovirology. 2010;7:98 pubmed publisher
    b>Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 is naturally resistant to some antiretroviral drugs, restricting therapeutic options for patients infected with HIV-2...
  52. Boyko V, Leavitt M, Gorelick R, Fu W, Nikolaitchik O, Pathak V, et al. Coassembly and complementation of Gag proteins from HIV-1 and HIV-2, two distinct human pathogens. Mol Cell. 2006;23:281-7 pubmed publisher
    Approximately one million people in the world are dually infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2...
  53. Fujita M, Otsuka M, Miyoshi M, Khamsri B, Nomaguchi M, Adachi A. Vpx is critical for reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 genome in macrophages. J Virol. 2008;82:7752-6 pubmed publisher
    The abilities of wild-type and vpx-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) clones to synthesize viral DNA in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and lymphocytic cells were comparatively and quantitatively evaluated...
  54. Sharifi H, Furuya A, Jellinger R, Nekorchuk M, de Noronha C. Cullin4A and cullin4B are interchangeable for HIV Vpr and Vpx action through the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex. J Virol. 2014;88:6944-58 pubmed publisher
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seizes control of cellular cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) to promote viral replication...
  55. Gold M, Yang X, Herrmann C, Rice A. PITALRE, the catalytic subunit of TAK, is required for human immunodeficiency virus Tat transactivation in vivo. J Virol. 1998;72:4448-53 pubmed
    ..squelches Tat-1 activation of both a transfected and an integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR), suggesting that PITALRE mediates Tat function as a multiprotein complex...
  56. Stolp B, Abraham L, Rudolph J, Fackler O. Lentiviral Nef proteins utilize PAK2-mediated deregulation of cofilin as a general strategy to interfere with actin remodeling. J Virol. 2010;84:3935-48 pubmed publisher
    Nef is an accessory protein and pathogenicity factor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which elevates virus replication in vivo...
  57. Planelles V, Barker E. Roles of Vpr and Vpx in modulating the virus-host cell relationship. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:398-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the main functions ascribed to Vpr and Vpx in the context of both viral replication and modulation of host cell biology...
  58. Laguette N, Br gnard C, Benichou S, Basmaciogullari S. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:418-33 pubmed publisher
    ..multiple protein-protein interactions in which Nef is involved all contribute to explain the role played by Nef in HIV- and SIV-associated disease progression...
  59. Lau D, Kwan W, Guatelli J. Role of the endocytic pathway in the counteraction of BST-2 by human lentiviral pathogens. J Virol. 2011;85:9834-46 pubmed publisher
    ..BST-2 is broadly active against retroviruses, including HIV-1 and HIV-2...
  60. L Hernault A, Weiss E, Greatorex J, Lever A. HIV-2 genome dimerization is required for the correct processing of Gag: a second-site reversion in matrix can restore both processes in dimerization-impaired mutant viruses. J Virol. 2012;86:5867-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, dimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA occurs by interaction of a self-complementary sequence exposed in the loop of stem-loop ..
  61. Kalinina O, Oberwinkler H, Glass B, Kr usslich H, Russell R, Briggs J. Computational identification of novel amino-acid interactions in HIV Gag via correlated evolution. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42468 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied co-evolution analysis to thousands of sequences of HIV Gag, finding that the most significantly co-evolving positions are proximal in the quaternary structures of the ..
  62. Li Y. Protein B23 is an important human factor for the nucleolar localization of the human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat. J Virol. 1997;71:4098-102 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that B23 is a human factor necessary for the nucleolar localization of Tat...
  63. Trinh D, Brown K, Jeang K. Epithelin/granulin growth factors: extracellular cofactors for HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;256:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Here they are identified as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tat binding proteins using the yeast two-hybrid assay...
  64. Myers E, Allen J. Tsg101, an inactive homologue of ubiquitin ligase e2, interacts specifically with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 gag polyprotein and results in increased levels of ubiquitinated gag. J Virol. 2002;76:11226-35 pubmed
    ..a yeast two-hybrid screen of a T-cell cDNA library to identify cellular proteins that interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) Gag polyprotein, we identified Tsg101, an inactive homologue of ubiquitin ligase E2...
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    b>HIV-1 Tat enhances viral transcription elongation by forming a ribonucleoprotein complex with transactivating responsive (TAR) RNA and P-TEFb, an elongation factor composed of cyclin T1 (CycT1) and Cdk9 that phosphorylates the C-terminal ..
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    The three-dimensional (3-D) structure of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) Vpr/Vpx was predicted by homology modeling based on the NMR structure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr...
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    Full-length unspliced genomic RNA plays critical roles in HIV replication, serving both as mRNA for the synthesis of the key viral polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol and as genomic RNA for encapsidation into assembling viral particles...
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    ..is a newly identified restriction factor that targets lentiviruses in myeloid cells and is countered by the SIV(SM)/HIV-2 Vpx protein...
  69. Yu H, Usmani S, Borch A, Kr mer J, St rzel C, Khalid M, et al. The efficiency of Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 antagonism does not correlate with the potency of viral control in HIV-2-infected individuals. Retrovirology. 2013;10:27 pubmed publisher
    The presence of a vpx gene distinguishes HIV-2 from HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS...
  70. Cheng X, Ratner L. HIV-2 Vpx protein interacts with interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and inhibits its function. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:9146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that HIV-2 Vpx interacts with IRF5, and Vpx inhibits IRF5-mediated transactivation...
  71. Dufrasne F, Lombard C, Goubau P, Ruelle J. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction...
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    ..Simian Immunodeficiency Virus of sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm) has been revealed to be at the origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2) in humans, firstly detected from two Portuguese patients in 1986...
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    ..During HIV-1 infection, diverse viral proteins such as Env, Nef and Vpr have been proposed to activate NF-?B activity, whereas ..