Influenza B virus (B/Lee/1940)



Top Publications

  1. Oong X, Ng K, Tan J, Chan K, Kamarulzaman A, Chan Y, et al. Whole-Genome Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza B/Phuket/3073/2013-Like Viruses and Unique Reassortants Detected in Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170610 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding on reassortment patterns in influenza B evolution may contribute to future vaccine design. ..
  2. Sadewasser A, Saenger S, Paki K, Schwecke T, Wolff T. Disruption of Src homology 3-binding motif within non-structural protein 1 of influenza B virus unexpectedly enhances viral replication in human cells. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:2856-2867 pubmed publisher
  3. Briedis D, Tobin M. Influenza B virus genome: complete nucleotide sequence of the influenza B/lee/40 virus genome RNA segment 5 encoding the nucleoprotein and comparison with the B/Singapore/222/79 nucleoprotein. Virology. 1984;133:448-55 pubmed
    ..The remarkable conservation of nucleoprotein primary structure over a 39-year period probably reflects both selection for performance of specific functions and protection from antigenic selection by the host immune system. ..
  4. Elderfield R, Koutsakos M, Frise R, Bradley K, Ashcroft J, Miah S, et al. NB protein does not affect influenza B virus replication in vitro and is not required for replication in or transmission between ferrets. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest no role for NB in supporting replication or transmission in vivo in this animal model. The role of NB and the nature of selection to retain it in all natural influenza B viruses remain unclear. ..
  5. Dudas G, Bedford T, Lycett S, Rambaut A. Reassortment between influenza B lineages and the emergence of a coadapted PB1-PB2-HA gene complex. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:162-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Given sufficient time and continued recruitment to the reassortment-isolated PB1-PB2-HA gene complex, we expect influenza B viruses to eventually undergo sympatric speciation. ..
  6. Ni F, Mbawuike I, Kondrashkina E, Wang Q. The roles of hemagglutinin Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus. Virology. 2014;450-451:71-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in relation to the roles of Phe-95 in receptor binding and pathogenicity of influenza B virus. ..
  7. Ma L, Guan R, Hamilton K, Aramini J, Mao L, Wang S, et al. A Second RNA-Binding Site in the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus. Structure. 2016;24:1562-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, this study reveals an unexpected RNA-binding function in the C-terminal domain of NS1B, a novel function that distinguishes influenza B viruses from influenza A viruses. ..
  8. Shaw M, Lamb R, Erickson B, Briedis D, Choppin P. Complete nucleotide sequence of the neuraminidase gene of influenza B virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:6817-21 pubmed
    ..Five other cysteine residues in the terminal portions were also conserved. ..
  9. Shaw M, Choppin P, Lamb R. A previously unrecognized influenza B virus glycoprotein from a bicistronic mRNA that also encodes the viral neuraminidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4879-83 pubmed
    ..A protein analogous to NB has not been found with influenza A virus, and this represents a major difference between the two virus types. ..

More Information


  1. Air G, Hackett J. Gene 8 of influenza virus: sequences of cDNA transcribed from the 3' ends of viral RNA of influenza A and B strains. Virology. 1980;103:291-8 pubmed
  2. Liu M, Lam M, Zhang Q, Elderfield R, Barclay W, Shaw P. The Functional Study of the N-Terminal Region of Influenza B Virus Nucleoprotein. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137802 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show that the N terminus is involved in the formation of both higher homo-oligomers of BNP and BNP-RNA complex. ..
  3. Imai M, Watanabe S, Kawaoka Y. The cytoplasmic tail domain of influenza B virus hemagglutinin is important for its incorporation into virions but is not essential for virus replication in cell culture in the presence of compensatory mutations. J Virol. 2012;86:11633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..They also demonstrate that the domain is not absolutely required for virus viability in cell culture in the presence of compensatory mutations. ..
  4. Gatherer D. Passage in egg culture is a major cause of apparent positive selection in influenza B hemagglutinin. J Med Virol. 2010;82:123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The major cause of molecular adaptation in influenza B hemagglutinin proteins may well be laboratory eggs rather than natural hosts...
  5. Ni F, Kondrashkina E, Wang Q. Structural basis for the divergent evolution of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Virology. 2013;446:112-22 pubmed publisher
  6. Kemdirim S, Palefsky J, Briedis D. Influenza B virus PB1 protein; nucleotide sequence of the genome RNA segment predicts a high degree of structural homology with the corresponding influenza A virus polymerase protein. Virology. 1986;152:126-35 pubmed
    ..This remarkable conservation of primary structure argues for severe functional constraint on the evolution of this influenza virus polymerase protein...
  7. Ujike M, Nakajima K, Nobusawa E. A point mutation at the C terminus of the cytoplasmic domain of influenza B virus haemagglutinin inhibits syncytium formation. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1669-76 pubmed publisher
  8. Hiromoto Y, Saito T, Lindstrom S, Li Y, Nerome R, Sugita S, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the three polymerase genes (PB1, PB2 and PA) of influenza B virus. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Completion of evolutionary analysis of the six internal genes and the HA gene of influenza B viruses revealed frequent genetic reassortment among co-circulating variable strains and suggested co-dependent evolution of genes...
  9. Briedis D, Lamb R. Influenza B virus genome: sequences and structural organization of RNA segment 8 and the mRNAs coding for the NS1 and NS2 proteins. J Virol. 1982;42:186-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, between the influenza A and B viruses, the organization of the NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and the sizes of the NS2 mRNA and protein are conserved despite the larger size of the influenza B virus RNA segment, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein...
  10. Briedis D, Lamb R, Choppin P. Sequence of RNA segment 7 of the influenza B virus genome: partial amino acid homology between the membrane proteins (M1) of influenza A and B viruses and conservation of a second open reading frame. Virology. 1982;116:581-8 pubmed
  11. Krystal M, Young J, Palese P, Wilson I, Skehel J, Wiley D. Sequential mutations in hemagglutinins of influenza B virus isolates: definition of antigenic domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4527-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, modulation of antigenic regions in B virus HAs may also occur through amino acid deletions and variation in glycosylation sites...