Influenza A virus (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1))


Alias: influenza A virus (A/goose/Guangdong/1/96/(H5N1))

Top Publications

  1. Maines T, Chen L, Van Hoeven N, Tumpey T, Blixt O, Belser J, et al. Effect of receptor binding domain mutations on receptor binding and transmissibility of avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Virology. 2011;413:139-47 pubmed publisher
  2. Li Z, Jiang Y, Jiao P, Wang A, Zhao F, Tian G, et al. The NS1 gene contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:11115-23 pubmed
  3. Yuan P, Bartlam M, Lou Z, Chen S, Zhou J, He X, et al. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA(N) reveals an endonuclease active site. Nature. 2009;458:909-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics. ..
  4. Varga Z, Palese P. The influenza A virus protein PB1-F2: killing two birds with one stone?. Virulence. 2011;2:542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. interferon antagonism, both in vitro and in the mouse model. Here, we discuss a hypothesis for a possible molecular link between the pro-apoptotic and anti-interferon functions of PB1-F2. ..
  5. Le Goffic R, Bouguyon E, Chevalier C, Vidic J, Da Costa B, Leymarie O, et al. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4812-23 pubmed publisher
  6. Schmolke M, Manicassamy B, Pena L, Sutton T, Hai R, Varga Z, et al. Differential contribution of PB1-F2 to the virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in mammalian and avian species. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002186 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data could explain why PB1-F2 is conserved in avian influenza virus isolates and only impacts pathogenicity in mammals when containing certain amino acid motifs such as the rare N66S polymorphism. ..
  7. Steel J, Lowen A, Mubareka S, Palese P. Transmission of influenza virus in a mammalian host is increased by PB2 amino acids 627K or 627E/701N. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000252 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that PB2 amino acids 627 and 701 are determinants of mammalian inter-host transmission in diverse virus backgrounds. ..
  8. He X, Zhou J, Bartlam M, Zhang R, Ma J, Lou Z, et al. Crystal structure of the polymerase PA(C)-PB1(N) complex from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. Nature. 2008;454:1123-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Mänz B, Brunotte L, Reuther P, Schwemmle M. Adaptive mutations in NEP compensate for defective H5N1 RNA replication in cultured human cells. Nat Commun. 2012;3:802 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, when crossing the species barrier, avian influenza viruses acquire adaptive mutations in nuclear export protein to escape restricted viral genome replication in mammalian cells. ..

More Information


  1. Li J, Li Y, Hu Y, Chang G, Sun W, Yang Y, et al. PB1-mediated virulence attenuation of H5N1 influenza virus in mice is associated with PB2. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the N terminus of PB2 in virulence attenuation in mice remains unclear. ..
  2. Wendel I, Rubbenstroth D, Doedt J, Kochs G, Wilhelm J, Staeheli P, et al. The avian-origin PB1 gene segment facilitated replication and transmissibility of the H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza virus. J Virol. 2015;89:4170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e., antigenic shift), enhanced viral polymerase activity is required for the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses from their seasonal human precursors. ..
  3. Vongsakul M, Kasisith J, Noisumdaeng P, Puthavathana P. The difference in IL-1beta , MIP-1alpha, IL-8 and IL-18 production between the infection of PMA activated U937 cells with recombinant vaccinia viruses inserted 2004 H5N1 influenza HA genes and NS genes. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2011;29:349-56 pubmed
    ..The same HA gene effect may or may not be the same in respiratory epithelial cells and this needs to be explored. ..
  4. Gao S, Wu J, Liu R, Li J, Song L, Teng Y, et al. Interaction of NS2 with AIMP2 facilitates the switch from ubiquitination to SUMOylation of M1 in influenza A virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2015;89:300-11 pubmed publisher
  5. Huang C, Chen C, Yen C, Yu C, Huang P, Kuo R, et al. Caspase-1 deficient mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus infection with PA variation. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the importance of monitoring PA reassortment in seasonal flu, and confirm the role of the Caspase-1 gene in influenza pathogenesis. ..
  6. Metwally A, Yousif A. Visualization of Alternative Functional Configurations of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Facilitates Rapid Selection of Complementing Vaccines in Emergency Situations. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..It is projected that expansion of the vaccine HA1 3D model database will improve international emergency responses to AIV. ..
  7. Qian G, Wang S, Chi X, Li H, Wei H, Zhu X, et al. The amino-terminal region of the neuraminidase protein from avian H5N1 influenza virus is important for its biosynthetic transport to the host cell surface. Vet J. 2014;202:612-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the study reveal that amino acid residues 7-15 of H5N1 NA are critical for its biosynthetic transport to the host cell surface. ..
  8. Li C, Wu A, Peng Y, Wang J, Guo Y, Chen Z, et al. Integrating computational modeling and functional assays to decipher the structure-function relationship of influenza virus PB1 protein. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7192 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study has not only deepened our understanding of structure-function relationship of PB1, but also promoted the development of novel therapeutics against influenza virus. ..
  9. Suzuki Y, Uchida Y, Tanikawa T, Maeda N, Takemae N, Saito T. Amino acid substitutions in PB1 of avian influenza viruses influence pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens. J Virol. 2014;88:11130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A substitution at residue 14 reduced polymerase activity in vitro, while its effects on pathogenicity and transmissibility depended on the constellation of internal genes. ..
  10. Sun W, Li J, Han P, Yang Y, Kang X, Li Y, et al. U4 at the 3' UTR of PB1 segment of H5N1 influenza virus promotes RNA polymerase activity and contributes to viral pathogenicity. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93366 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, these data showed the importance of untranslated regions of H5N1 influenza virus to pathogenicity. ..
  11. Cheng C, Lan Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Shu Y. [Genetic analysis of NS1 fragment of human H5N1 influenza virus isolated in Anhui province and its expression in Escherichia coli]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007;47:418-22 pubmed
    ..As a result, the work paves the way for further understanding the role of NSI in human H5N1 infection and development of new antiviral drugs against influenza virus. ..
  12. Liu N, Lee K, Song W, Wang P, Cai Z, Chen H. Identification of amino acid substitutions in mutated peptides of nucleoprotein from avian influenza virus. Talanta. 2009;78:1492-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The MS/MS analyses allowed the confident determination of the three mutated amino acid residues F313Y, I194V and V408I/L in the mutated peptides of LLQNSQVYSLIRPNENPAHK, GVGTMVMELVR and ASAGQI/LSVQPTFSVQR, respectively. ..
  13. Brunotte L, Flies J, Bolte H, Reuther P, Vreede F, Schwemmle M. The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:20067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs. ..
  14. Song X, Huang Y, Xiao H, Liu D, Gao G. Stable non-synonymous substitutions on NS gene (NS1 and NS2 proteins) of Qinghai Lake H5N1 influenza virus (Clade 2.2) after successive passages in Muscovy ducks. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the exact functions of these mutations are not known, our results provide an important foundation for further understanding the characteristics of the Qinghai Lake isolates. ..
  15. Czudai Matwich V, Otte A, Matrosovich M, Gabriel G, Klenk H. PB2 mutations D701N and S714R promote adaptation of an influenza H5N1 virus to a mammalian host. J Virol. 2014;88:8735-42 pubmed publisher
  16. Wu J, Wang T, Zhang L, Ye Z, Lv J. [Virological impact of stalk region of neuraminidase in influenza A/Anhui/1/05 (H5N1) and A/Ohio/07/2009 (H1N1) viruses]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2014;30:238-45 pubmed
    ..Cysteine deletion in the stalk region is important for the infectivity of A/Anhui/1/05 (H5N1) and A/Ohio/07/2009 (H1N1). It may interfere with the infectivity via changes in NA polymerization. ..
  17. Yamaji R, Yamada S, Le M, Ito M, Sakai Tagawa Y, Kawaoka Y. Mammalian adaptive mutations of the PA protein of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus. J Virol. 2015;89:4117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are helpful for assessing the pandemic risk of isolates and further our understanding of the mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. ..
  18. Danzy S, Studdard L, Manicassamy B, Solórzano A, Marshall N, García Sastre A, et al. Mutations to PB2 and NP proteins of an avian influenza virus combine to confer efficient growth in primary human respiratory cells. J Virol. 2014;88:13436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that as few as three mutations, in the PB2 and NP proteins, support robust growth of a low-pathogenic, H1N1 duck isolate in primary human respiratory cells. ..
  19. Zhang X, Li Y, Xiong L, Chen S, Peng D, Liu X. [Construction and biological characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza viruses with different patterns of the glycosylation sites in HA protein]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:495-9 pubmed
    ..All viruses remained high pathogenicity to SPF chickens. Therefore, the growth of AIV can be affected by changes of glycosylation sites in HA protein, by which the effect is variable in different cells. ..
  20. Song W, Wang P, Mok B, Lau S, Huang X, Wu W, et al. The K526R substitution in viral protein PB2 enhances the effects of E627K on influenza virus replication. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5509 pubmed publisher
    ..PB2-K526R interacts with nuclear export protein and our results suggest that it contributes to enhance replication for certain influenza virus subtypes, particularly in combination with 627K. ..
  21. Asaf V, Kumar A, Raut A, Bhatia S, Mishra A. In-silico search of virus-specific host microRNAs regulating avian influenza virus NS1 expression. Theory Biosci. 2015;134:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1| influenza A virus (A/chicken/India/NIV33487/06(H5N1)) segment 8, complete sequence using RNAhybrid 2.2. The analysis yielded gga-miR-1658* as the potential miRNA which is targeting the NS1 gene of H5N1 genome. ..
  22. Zhang Y, Sun Y, Sun H, Pu J, Bi Y, Shi Y, et al. A single amino acid at the hemagglutinin cleavage site contributes to the pathogenicity and neurovirulence of H5N1 influenza virus in mice. J Virol. 2012;86:6924-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that an amino acid substitution at the P6 cleavage site alone could modulate the virulence of H5N1 in mice. ..
  23. Hervé P, Lorin V, Jouvion G, Da Costa B, Escriou N. Addition of N-glycosylation sites on the globular head of the H5 hemagglutinin induces the escape of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses from vaccine-induced immunity. Virology. 2015;486:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven H5N1 mutants were produced by adding glycosites on H5. The most glycosylated virus escaped from neutralizing antibodies, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a single additional glycosite was responsible for this escape. ..
  24. Li W, Zhang H, Wang G, Zhang C, Zeng X, Liu H, et al. Heterologous interactions between NS1 proteins from different influenza A virus subtypes/strains. Sci China Life Sci. 2012;55:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..4%-20.9% sequence diversity with NS11, NS51 and NS92. This indicates that the heterologous interactions between NS1 proteins from different influenza A virus subtypes/ strains may be a common event during co-infection. ..
  25. Abdelwhab E, Veits J, Tauscher K, Ziller M, Grund C, Hassan M, et al. Progressive glycosylation of the haemagglutinin of avian influenza H5N1 modulates virus replication, virulence and chicken-to-chicken transmission without significant impact on antigenic drift. J Gen Virol. 2016;97:3193-3204 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, progressive glycosylation of the HA may foster persistence of A/H5N1 by increasing replication, stability and bird-to-bird transmission without significant impact on antigenic drift. ..
  26. Fan S, Hatta M, Kim J, Halfmann P, Imai M, Macken C, et al. Novel residues in avian influenza virus PB2 protein affect virulence in mammalian hosts. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5021 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, H5N1 viruses bearing the former three PB2 residues have circulated widely in recent years in avian species in nature. ..
  27. Zhu C, Zheng F, Sun T, Duan Y, Cao J, Feng H, et al. Interaction of avian influenza virus NS1 protein and nucleolar and coiled-body phosphoprotein 1. Virus Genes. 2013;46:287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated a positive interaction between a viral NS1 and NOLC1 of the host cells, and provided a new target for drug screening. ..
  28. Shimizu K, Li C, Muramoto Y, Yamada S, Arikawa J, Chen H, et al. The nucleoprotein and matrix protein segments of H5N1 influenza viruses are responsible for dominance in embryonated eggs. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest roles for these viral proteins in influenza virus dominance. ..
  29. Antanasijevic A, Basu A, Bowlin T, Mishra R, Rong L, Caffrey M. Mutagenesis studies of the H5 influenza hemagglutinin stem loop region. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these studies underscore the importance of the stem loop region to HA function and suggest potential sites for therapeutic intervention of influenza entry. ..
  30. Tan L, Su S, Smith D, He S, Zheng Y, Shao Z, et al. A combination of HA and PA mutations enhances virulence in a mouse-adapted H6N6 influenza A virus. J Virol. 2014;88:14116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..H6N6 viruses should be monitored in the field for more virulent forms that could threaten human health. ..
  31. Nao N, Kajihara M, Manzoor R, Maruyama J, Yoshida R, Muramatsu M, et al. A Single Amino Acid in the M1 Protein Responsible for the Different Pathogenic Potentials of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137989 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the amino acid at position 43 of the M1 protein is one of the factors contributing to the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in both avian and mammalian hosts. ..
  32. Cui Z, Hu J, Wang X, Gu M, Liu X, Hu S, et al. The virulence factor PA protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus inhibits NF-?B transcription in vitro. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3517-3522 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PA also inhibited NF-?B-regulated inflammatory factors, including IL-6, IL-2, Nos-2 and TNF-?. However, the inhibitory effect on NF-?B activation mediated by PA was not associated with nuclear translocation of p65. ..
  33. Gao H, Sun H, Hu J, Qi L, Wang J, Xiong X, et al. Twenty amino acids at the C-terminus of PA-X are associated with increased influenza A virus replication and pathogenicity. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:2036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aa 233-252 at the C terminus of PA-X strongly suppressed co-transfected gene expression by ∼ 50%, suggesting that these terminal 20 aa could play a role in enhancing viral replication and contribute to virulence. ..
  34. Han P, Li J, Hu Y, Sun W, Zhang S, Yang Y, et al. H5N1 influenza A virus with K193E and G225E double mutations in haemagglutinin is attenuated and immunogenic in mice. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:2522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify the RBD as a novel attenuation target for live vaccine development and highlight the complexity of RBD interactions. ..
  35. Kato Y, Fukui K, Suzuki K. Mechanism of a Mutation in Non-Structural Protein 1 Inducing High Pathogenicity of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. Protein Pept Lett. 2016;23:372-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the single amino acid replacement induces a minor, but global structural change leading to the loss of function of NS1 thereby the change in the degree of pathogenicity. ..
  36. . Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..An updated nonpathogenic H5N1 reference virus, lacking the polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin gene, was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans...
  37. Kalthoff D, R hrs S, H per D, Hoffmann B, Bogs J, Stech J, et al. Truncation and sequence shuffling of segment 6 generate replication-competent neuraminidase-negative influenza H5N1 viruses. J Virol. 2013;87:13556-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel HPAIV variants may facilitate future studies shedding light on the role of neuraminidase in virus replication and pathogenicity...
  38. Zaraket H, Bridges O, Duan S, Baranovich T, Yoon S, Reed M, et al. Increased acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein enhances H5N1 influenza virus growth in the upper respiratory tract but is insufficient for transmission in ferrets. J Virol. 2013;87:9911-22 pubmed publisher
  39. Shelton H, Roberts K, Molesti E, Temperton N, Barclay W. Mutations in haemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1220-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Li Q, Yuan X, Wang Q, Chang G, Wang F, Liu R, et al. Interactomic landscape of PA-X-chicken protein complexes of H5N1 influenza A virus. J Proteomics. 2016;148:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals the viral-host interactome of PA-X and uncovers interactions between host proteins and PA-X which might have crucial roles in viral infection. ..
  41. Tang D, Lam Y, Siu Y, Lam C, Chu S, Peiris J, et al. A single residue substitution in the receptor-binding domain of H5N1 hemagglutinin is critical for packaging into pseudotyped lentiviral particles. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43596 pubmed publisher
    ..Because A134V substitution has been reported as a naturally occurring mutation in human host, our results may have implications for the understanding of human host adaptation of avian influenza H5N1 viruses...
  42. Wasilenko J, Lee C, Sarmento L, Spackman E, Kapczynski D, Suarez D, et al. NP, PB1, and PB2 viral genes contribute to altered replication of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens. J Virol. 2008;82:4544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..While the pathogenesis of AIVs in chickens is clearly dependent on the interaction of multiple gene products, we have shown that single-gene reassortment events are sufficient to alter the virulence of AIVs in chickens...
  43. Wang C, Chen J, Tseng Y, Hsu C, Hung Y, Chen S, et al. Glycans on influenza hemagglutinin affect receptor binding and immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, removal of structurally nonessential glycans on viral surface glycoproteins may be a very effective and general approach for vaccine design against influenza and other human viruses...
  44. Ilyushina N, Seiler J, Rehg J, Webster R, Govorkova E. Effect of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant mutations on pathogenicity of clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) influenza virus in ferrets. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000933 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for novel anti-influenza drugs that target different virus/host factors and can limit the emergence of resistance...
  45. Liu W, Lin S, Yu Y, Chu C, Wu S. Dendritic cell activation by recombinant hemagglutinin proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:12011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulation of mDCs by HA proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 was completely MyD88 dependent. These findings may provide useful information for the development of more-effective influenza vaccines...
  46. Jia D, Rahbar R, Chan R, Lee S, Chan M, Wang B, et al. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) disrupts interferon signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13927 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that NS1 can directly interfere with IFN signaling to enhance viral replication, but that treatment with IFN can nevertheless override these inhibitory effects to block H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections...
  47. Li Z, Liu Z, Ma C, Zhang L, Su Y, Gao G, et al. Identification of amino acids in highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus hemagglutinin that determine avian influenza species specificity. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation is the result of adaptation caused by the receptor. Our results suggest that continuing occurrence of these two types of mutations made the variants persist in the new host species...
  48. Suguitan A, Matsuoka Y, Lau Y, Santos C, Vogel L, Cheng L, et al. The multibasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) avian influenza virus acts as a virulence factor in a host-specific manner in mammals. J Virol. 2012;86:2706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the contribution of H5 HA MBS to the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 virus varies among mammalian hosts and is most significant in mice and ferrets and less remarkable in nonhuman primates...
  49. Maamary J, Pica N, Belicha Villanueva A, Chou Y, Krammer F, Gao Q, et al. Attenuated influenza virus construct with enhanced hemagglutinin protein expression. J Virol. 2012;86:5782-90 pubmed publisher
  50. Chen W, Zhong Y, Qin Y, Sun S, Li Z. The evolutionary pattern of glycosylation sites in influenza virus (H5N1) hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49224 pubmed publisher
  51. Song J, Feng H, Xu J, Zhao D, Shi J, Li Y, et al. The PA protein directly contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks. J Virol. 2011;85:2180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide strong evidence that the polymerase PA subunit is a virulence factor for H5N1 AIVs in ducks...
  52. Li J, Wang Y, Liang Y, Ni B, Wan Y, Liao Z, et al. Fine antigenic variation within H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin's antigenic sites defined by yeast cell surface display. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3498-510 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the existence of immunodominant positions in the H5 HA protein, alteration of these residues might improve the immunogenicity of vaccine strains...
  53. Chen Q, Huang S, Chen J, Zhang S, Chen Z. NA proteins of influenza A viruses H1N1/2009, H5N1, and H9N2 show differential effects on infection initiation, virus release, and cell-cell fusion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54334 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenomena might be partially due to NA proteins' different specificity to ?2-3/2-6-sialylated carbohydrate chains, but the exact mechanism remains to be explored...
  54. Nayak B, Kumar S, DiNapoli J, Paldurai A, Perez D, Collins P, et al. Contributions of the avian influenza virus HA, NA, and M2 surface proteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. J Virol. 2010;84:2408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there was no indication that M2 is immunogenic or protective. Furthermore, inclusion of NA in addition to HA in a vaccine preparation for chickens may not enhance the high level of protection provided by HA...
  55. Das P, Li J, Royyuru A, Zhou R. Free energy simulations reveal a double mutant avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin with altered receptor binding specificity. J Comput Chem. 2009;30:1654-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These large scale molecular simulations on single and double mutants thus provide new insights into our understanding toward human adaptation of the avian H5N1 virus...
  56. Karthick V, Ramanathan K. Insight into the oseltamivir resistance R292K mutation in H5N1 influenza virus: a molecular docking and molecular dynamics approach. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014;68:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that this study provides valuable guidance for the resistance management of oseltamivir and designing of more potent antiviral inhibitor...
  57. Li W, Wang G, Zhang H, Xin G, ZHANG D, Zeng J, et al. Effects of NS1 variants of H5N1 influenza virus on interferon induction, TNFalpha response and p53 activity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed new light on the role of NS1 in the pathogenicity of H5N1 virus...
  58. Matsuoka Y, Swayne D, Thomas C, Rameix Welti M, Naffakh N, Warnes C, et al. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice. J Virol. 2009;83:4704-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans...
  59. Lim A, Chan C, Wong S, Chan A, Ooi E, Hanson B. Neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against H5N1 influenza HA selected from a Fab-phage display library. Virol J. 2008;5:130 pubmed publisher
  60. Ng A, Zhang H, Tan K, Li Z, Liu J, Chan P, et al. Structure of the influenza virus A H5N1 nucleoprotein: implications for RNA binding, oligomerization, and vaccine design. FASEB J. 2008;22:3638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study of H5N1 NP provides insight into the oligomerization interface and the RNA-binding groove, which are attractive drug targets, and it identifies the epitopes that might be used for universal vaccine development...
  61. Johnson R, Hamill M, Harvey R, Nicolson C, Robertson J, Engelhardt O. Permissible variation in the 3' non-coding region of the haemagglutinin genome segment of the H5N1 candidate influenza vaccine virus NIBRG-14 [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36241 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may serve to assure the influenza vaccine community that generation of CVVs using best-guess NCR sequences, based on sequence alignments, are likely to produce robust viruses...
  62. Lee K, Pessi A, Gui L, Santoprete A, Talekar A, Moscona A, et al. Capturing a fusion intermediate of influenza hemagglutinin with a cholesterol-conjugated peptide, a new antiviral strategy for influenza virus. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide proof of concept for an antiviral strategy that is applicable to intracellularly fusing viruses, including known and emerging viral pathogens...
  63. Miyazaki M, Nishihara H, Hasegawa H, Tashiro M, Wang L, Kimura T, et al. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated...
  64. Long J, Xue F, Peng Y, Gu M, Liu X. [The deletion of nucleotides of NS gene from 263 to 277 of H5N1 increases viral virulence in chicken]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:301-5 pubmed
    ..81. RWSN-m848 caused one of the ten chickens died and its' index was only 0.175. The results revealed that the deletion of nucleotides of NS gene from 263 to 277 sites increases H5N1 pathogenesis in chicken...
  65. Velkov T, Ong C, Baker M, Kim H, Li J, Nation R, et al. The antigenic architecture of the hemagglutinin of influenza H5N1 viruses. Mol Immunol. 2013;56:705-19 pubmed publisher
  66. Schrauwen E, Herfst S, Leijten L, van Run P, Bestebroer T, Linster M, et al. The multibasic cleavage site in H5N1 virus is critical for systemic spread along the olfactory and hematogenous routes in ferrets. J Virol. 2012;86:3975-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HPAI H5N1 virus can spread systemically via two different routes, olfactory and hematogenous, in ferrets. This systemic spread was dependent on the presence of the MBCS in HA...
  67. Zhong G, Le M, Lopes T, Halfmann P, Hatta M, Fan S, et al. Mutations in the PA Protein of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses Affect Polymerase Activity and Mouse Virulence. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with viruses possessing these amino acid changes may pose an increased risk to humans. ..
  68. Leung B, Chen H, Brownlee G. Correlation between polymerase activity and pathogenicity in two duck H5N1 influenza viruses suggests that the polymerase contributes to pathogenicity. Virology. 2010;401:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we suggest that the influenza polymerase is one of the determinants of pathogenicity of duck H5N1 viruses...
  69. Long J, Peng D, Liu Y, Wu Y, Liu X. Virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus enhanced by a 15-nucleotide deletion in the viral nonstructural gene. Virus Genes. 2008;36:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the 15-nucleotide deletion of NS gene from site 263 to 277 associated with D92E shift in NS1 protein contributes to the virulence increase of H5N1 viruses in chickens and mice...
  70. Resa Infante P, Jorba N, Zamarre o N, Fern ndez Y, Ju rez S, Ort n J. The host-dependent interaction of alpha-importins with influenza PB2 polymerase subunit is required for virus RNA replication. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3904 pubmed publisher
  71. Wang Q, Long J, Hu S, Wu Y, Liu X. [Biological significance of amino acids deletion in NA stalk of H5N1 avian influenza virus]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:542-6 pubmed
    ..The unique amino acids deletion in NA molecule of H5N1 may be associated with the adaptation of virus to terrestrial poultry or the increasing ability of interspecies transmission...
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    ..The identification of this binding pocket opens a new avenue for anti-influenza drug discovery, targeting the cap-dependent endonuclease, in response to the worldwide threat of influenza...
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    ..These findings suggest a functional interplay between the mutations at NS1-138 and NS1-229 that results in a synergistic effect on influenza virulence...
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    ..These findings demonstrate that a PDZ domain ligand sequence in NS1 contributes little to the virulence of H5N1 viruses in these hosts, and they indicate that this motif modulates viral replication in a strain- and host-dependent manner...
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    ..4. Identification of the HA activation pH as a host-specific infectivity factor is expected to aid in the surveillance and risk assessment of currently circulating H5N1 influenza viruses...
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    ..Thus, we identified strain-specific differences between influenza virus NS1 proteins in pre-mRNA polyadenylation and mRNA translation...
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    ..Surveillance efforts should include sequencing of the PB1 gene segment and analysis for these molecular signatures to allow for the potential prioritization of resources during pandemic planning...
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    ..Thus, the H5M9 epitope identified here should provide valuable insights into H5N1 vaccine design and improvement, as well as antibody-based therapies for treatment of H5N1 infection...
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    ..These results suggest that PIV5?SH is a better vaccine vector than wild-type PIV5...
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    ..The results of the analysis allow assuming that A/swan/Mangystau/3/2006 strain has been brought onto the territory of Kazakhstan from the European part of the continent along the Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway...
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    ..Numerous other adaptive mutations, some of which compensate for the lack of PB2 E627K, have been observed in PB2 as well as in the polymerase subunit PB1, the nucleoprotein NP, and the nuclear export protein NEP (NS2)...
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    ..Altogether, the data indicates that FAK kinase activity is important in promoting IAV replication by regulating its polymerase activity. ..