Murid herpesvirus 4


Alias: Murine herpesvirus 68, mouse herpesvirus strain 68, murine herpesvirus type 68, MuHV-4, mouse herpesvirus 68, murine gammaherpesvirus 68

Top Publications

  1. Liang X, Paden C, Morales F, Powers R, Jacob J, Speck S. Murine gamma-herpesvirus immortalization of fetal liver-derived B cells requires both the viral cyclin D homolog and latency-associated nuclear antigen. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002220 pubmed publisher
    ..However, infection of laboratory strains of mice with the rodent virus murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) has been useful in gaining insights into how gammaherpesviruses contribute to the genesis and ..
  2. Gill M, Wright D, Smith C, May J, Stevenson P. Murid herpesvirus-4 lacking thymidine kinase reveals route-dependent requirements for host colonization. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore TK, and by implication lytic replication, is required for MuHV-4 to establish a significant infection by a non-invasive route. ..
  3. Ottinger M, Pliquet D, Christalla T, Frank R, Stewart J, Schulz T. The interaction of the gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 protein with cellular BET proteins affects the activation of cell cycle promoters. J Virol. 2009;83:4423-34 pubmed publisher
    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis...
  4. Hwang S, Kim K, Flano E, Wu T, Tong L, Park A, et al. Conserved herpesviral kinase promotes viral persistence by inhibiting the IRF-3-mediated type I interferon response. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that herpesviruses have evolved within their conserved kinase an anti-IFN activity critical for evasion of host immunity and for persistence...
  5. Paden C, Forrest J, Moorman N, Speck S. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA is essential for virus reactivation from splenocytes but not long-term carriage of viral genome. J Virol. 2010;84:7214-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) LANA (mLANA) is critical for efficient virus replication and the establishment of latent ..
  6. Gillet L, Colaco S, Stevenson P. The murid herpesvirus-4 gH/gL binds to glycosaminoglycans. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1669 pubmed publisher
    ..MuHV-4 GAG dependence is consequently two-fold: gp70 or gH/gL binding provides virions with a vital first foothold, and gp150 is then engaged to reveal GAG-independent binding. ..
  7. Pires de Miranda M, Alenquer M, Marques S, Rodrigues L, Lopes F, Bustelo X, et al. The Gammaherpesvirus m2 protein manipulates the Fyn/Vav pathway through a multidocking mechanism of assembly. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1654 pubmed publisher
    ..One such protein is M2, a murine gammaherpesvirus 68-encoded molecule that activates the Vav1/Rac1 pathway via the formation of trimolecular complexes with ..
  8. Gill M, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. Important role for the murid herpesvirus 4 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit in host colonization via the respiratory tract. J Virol. 2010;84:10937-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we disrupted the murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) ORF61, which encodes its ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) large subunit...
  9. Gillet L, Stevenson P. Antibody evasion by the N terminus of murid herpesvirus-4 glycoprotein B. EMBO J. 2007;26:5131-42 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the gB-NT glycans that blocked antibody binding could be targeted for neutralization instead by a lectin, suggesting a means of therapeutic counterattack...

More Information


  1. Gillet L, Stevenson P. Evidence for a multiprotein gamma-2 herpesvirus entry complex. J Virol. 2007;81:13082-91 pubmed
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) gB, gH, gL, and gp150 all participate in entry...
  2. Habison A, Beauchemin C, Simas J, Usherwood E, Kaye K. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA acts on terminal repeat DNA to mediate episome persistence. J Virol. 2012;86:11863-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) ORF73 (mLANA) has sequence homology to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)...
  3. Paden C, Forrest J, Tibbetts S, Speck S. Unbiased mutagenesis of MHV68 LANA reveals a DNA-binding domain required for LANA function in vitro and in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002906 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the rodent ?2-herpesvirus, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), the LANA homolog (mLANA) is required for efficient virus replication, reactivation from latency ..
  4. Gillet L, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. Glycoprotein L disruption reveals two functional forms of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein H. J Virol. 2007;81:280-91 pubmed
    ..The major function of gL appeared to be allowing gH to participate in cell binding prior to membrane fusion. This function was most important for the entry of MHV-68 virions into fibroblasts and epithelial cells...
  5. Rodrigues L, Pires de Miranda M, Caloca M, Bustelo X, Simas J. Activation of Vav by the gammaherpesvirus M2 protein contributes to the establishment of viral latency in B lymphocytes. J Virol. 2006;80:6123-35 pubmed
    ..describe a new type of such viral-host interaction that is established through M2, a protein encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68. M2 associates with Vav proteins, a family of phosphorylation-dependent Rho/Rac exchange factors that ..
  6. Liang X, Pickering M, Cho N, Chang H, Volkert M, Kowalik T, et al. Deregulation of DNA damage signal transduction by herpesvirus latency-associated M2. J Virol. 2006;80:5862-74 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that gammaHV68 M2 blocks apoptosis-mediated intracellular innate immunity, which might ultimately contribute to its role in latent infection. ..
  7. Kara M, O Grady T, Feldman E, Feswick A, Wang Y, Flemington E, et al. Gammaherpesvirus Readthrough Transcription Generates a Long Non-Coding RNA That Is Regulated by Antisense miRNAs and Correlates with Enhanced Lytic Replication In Vivo. Noncoding RNA. 2019;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings suggest the possibility of a tripartite regulatory relationship between the lncRNA M3-04, antisense miRNAs, and the latency gene M2. ..
  8. Decalf J, Godinho Silva C, Fontinha D, Marques S, Simas J. Establishment of murine gammaherpesvirus latency in B cells is not a stochastic event. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004269 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model in which the establishment of latency in B cells by γ-herpesviruses is not stochastic in terms of BCR specificity and is tightly linked to the formation of GCs. ..
  9. Shen Y, Wang S, Sun F, Zheng G, Wu T, Du Y, et al. Inhibition of murine herpesvirus-68 replication by IFN-gamma in macrophages is counteracted by the induction of SOCS1 expression. PLoS Pathog. 2018;14:e1007202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a mechanism that balances the immune responses and the escape of a gamma-herpesvirus in some antigen-presenting cells. ..
  10. Feldman E, Kara M, Coleman C, Grau K, Oko L, Krueger B, et al. Virus-encoded microRNAs facilitate gammaherpesvirus latency and pathogenesis in vivo. MBio. 2014;5:e00981-14 pubmed publisher
    ..including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or HHV-8), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68, or MuHV-4), are B cell-tropic pathogens that each encode at least 12 microRNAs (miRNAs)...
  11. Bortz E, Wu T, Patel P, Whitelegge J, Sun R. Proteomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Reveals a Lung Oxidative Stress Response in Murine Herpesvirus-68 Infection. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins and small molecules in lung oxidative stress networks therefore may provide new therapeutic targets to ameliorate respiratory virus infections. ..
  12. Rolot M, Dougall A, Chetty A, Javaux J, Chen T, Xiao X, et al. Helminth-induced IL-4 expands bystander memory CD8+ T cells for early control of viral infection. Nat Commun. 2018;9:4516 pubmed publisher
  13. Tan C, Stevenson P. B cell response to herpesvirus infection of the olfactory neuroepithelium. J Virol. 2014;88:14030-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of host defense have focused on the lungs and the respiratory epithelium. Spontaneously inhaled murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) instead infect the olfactory epithelium, where neuronal cilia ..
  14. Pires de Miranda M, Quendera A, McVey C, Kaye K, Simas J. In Vivo Persistence of Chimeric Virus after Substitution of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus LANA DNA Binding Domain with That of Murid Herpesvirus 4. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear antigen from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), kLANA, and its homolog from the murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), mLANA, are essential for viral latency...
  15. Lawler C, Milho R, May J, Stevenson P. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004761 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding. ..
  16. Latif M, Machiels B, Xiao X, Mast J, Vanderplasschen A, Gillet L. Deletion of Murid Herpesvirus 4 ORF63 Affects the Trafficking of Incoming Capsids toward the Nucleus. J Virol. 2015;90:2455-72 pubmed publisher
    ..roles of ORF63 in the life cycle of a gammaherpesvirus, we generated null mutations in the ORF63 gene of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4)...
  17. Gillet L, Frederico B, Stevenson P. Host entry by gamma-herpesviruses--lessons from animal viruses?. Curr Opin Virol. 2015;15:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrating these data with existing knowledge of human and veterinary γHVs suggests a new model of host entry, with potentially important implications for infection control. ..
  18. Farrell H, Lawler C, Oliveira M, Davis Poynter N, Stevenson P. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs. J Virol. 2015;90:2756-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs...
  19. Kreit M, Vertommen D, Gillet L, Michiels T. The Interferon-Inducible Mouse Apolipoprotein L9 and Prohibitins Cooperate to Restrict Theiler's Virus Replication. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133190 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoL9 is thus an example of ISG displaying a narrow antiviral range, which likely acts in complex with prohibitins to restrict TMEV replication. ..
  20. Kúdelová M, Belvončíková P, Vrbová M, Kovaľová A, Štibrániová I, Kocáková P, et al. Detection of Murine Herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks. Microb Ecol. 2015;70:785-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV 4) strain 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen of murid rodents, which serves as hosts to Dermacentor reticulatus ticks...
  21. Fontinha D, Lopes F, Marques S, Alenquer M, Simas J. Murid Gammaherpesvirus Latency-Associated Protein M2 Promotes the Formation of Conjugates between Transformed B Lymphoma Cells and T Helper Cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142540 pubmed publisher
    ..In an in vivo context this may confer a competitive advantage to the infected B cell in acquisition of T cell help and initiation of a germinal center reaction, hence host colonization. ..
  22. Lapuníková B, Lopušná K, Benkóczka T, Golais F, Kúdelová M, Režuchová I. Epigenetic modification of Rta (ORF50) promoter is not responsible for distinct reactivation patterns of murine gammaherpesviruses. Acta Virol. 2015;59:405-12 pubmed
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), belonging to the species Murid herpesvirus (MuHV-4), is widely used as a model to study ..
  23. Tan C, Lawler C, May J, Belz G, Stevenson P. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005654 pubmed publisher
    ..Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization. ..
  24. Farrell H, Lawler C, Tan C, MacDonald K, Bruce K, Mach M, et al. Murine Cytomegalovirus Exploits Olfaction To Enter New Hosts. MBio. 2016;7:e00251-16 pubmed publisher transmit via olfaction, together with previous demonstrations of experimental olfactory infection by murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), suggest that this is a common, conserved route of mammalian ..
  25. Tan C, Lawler C, Stevenson P. CD8+ T cell evasion mandates CD4+ T cell control of chronic gamma-herpesvirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006311 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, viral CD8+ T cell evasion led to niche-specific immune control, and an essential role for CD4+ T cells in limiting chronic infection. ..
  26. Kúdelová M, Jánošová M, Belvončíková P. First detection of murine herpesvirus 68 in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2018;63:511-515 pubmed publisher
    b>Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I...
  27. Lawler C, de Miranda M, May J, Wyer O, Simas J, Stevenson P. Gammaherpesvirus Colonization of the Spleen Requires Lytic Replication in B Cells. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that viral lytic infection is a potential target to reduce B cell proliferation. ..
  28. Lawler C, Tan C, Simas J, Stevenson P. Type I Interferons and NK Cells Restrict Gammaherpesvirus Lymph Node Infection. J Virol. 2016;90:9046-57 pubmed publisher
    Gammaherpesviruses establish persistent, systemic infections and cause cancers. Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) provides a unique window into the early events of host colonization. It spreads via lymph nodes...
  29. Gallo A, Lampe M, Gunther T, Brune W. The Viral Bcl-2 Homologs of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Rhesus Rhadinovirus Share an Essential Role for Viral Replication. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, the vBcl-2 proteins of the related γ2-herpesviruses murine herpesvirus 68 and herpesvirus saimiri did not rescue the replication of a KS-Bcl-2 deletion mutant, but rhesus ..
  30. Lawler C, Stevenson P. Type I Interferon Signaling to Dendritic Cells Limits Murid Herpesvirus 4 Spread from the Olfactory Epithelium. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    b>Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) is a B cell-tropic gammaherpesvirus that can be studied in vivo Despite viral evasion, type I interferons (IFN-I) limit its spread...
  31. Masud H, Watanabe T, Yoshida M, Sato Y, Goshima F, Kimura H, et al. Epstein-Barr Virus BKRF4 Gene Product Is Required for Efficient Progeny Production. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..which is conserved only among gammaherpesviruses (ORF45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or murine herpesvirus 68)...
  32. Cerqueira S, Tan M, Li S, Juillard F, McVey C, Kaye K, et al. Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Impacts Gammaherpesvirus-Driven Germinal Center B Cell Proliferation. J Virol. 2016;90:7667-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we utilized murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infection of mice as a model system to address the role of MuHV-4 latency-associated nuclear ..
  33. Nakaya Y, Stavrou S, Blouch K, Tattersall P, Ross S. In Vivo Examination of Mouse APOBEC3- and Human APOBEC3A- and APOBEC3G-Mediated Restriction of Parvovirus and Herpesvirus Infection in Mouse Models. J Virol. 2016;90:8005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..mice were tested for their ability to be infected by the herpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 and murine herpesvirus 68 and the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM)...
  34. Machiels B, Dourcy M, Xiao X, Javaux J, Mesnil C, Sabatel C, et al. A gammaherpesvirus provides protection against allergic asthma by inducing the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages with regulatory monocytes. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:1310-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) inhibited the development of house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental asthma by modulating lung ..
  35. Zeippen C, Javaux J, Xiao X, Ledecq M, Mast J, Farnir F, et al. The Major Envelope Glycoprotein of Murid Herpesvirus 4 Promotes Sexual Transmission. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Infection control has proven difficult because the key process of transmission is ill understood. Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus of mice, is transmitted sexually...
  36. Guo H, Wang L, Peng L, Zhou Z, Deng H. Open reading frame 33 of a gammaherpesvirus encodes a tegument protein essential for virion morphogenesis and egress. J Virol. 2009;83:10582-95 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is genetically related to the human gammaherpesviruses and presents an excellent model for ..
  37. Martin A, Canasto Chibuque C, Shang L, Rollins B, Lira S. The chemokine decoy receptor M3 blocks CC chemokine ligand 2 and CXC chemokine ligand 13 function in vivo. J Immunol. 2006;177:7296-302 pubmed
    ..One such molecule in the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 genome is the M3 gene, which encodes a secreted 44-kDa protein that binds with high affinity to certain ..
  38. Nealy M, Coleman C, Li H, Tibbetts S. Use of a virus-encoded enzymatic marker reveals that a stable fraction of memory B cells expresses latency-associated nuclear antigen throughout chronic gammaherpesvirus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:7523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, gammaHV68) provides a model to determine the specific cellular and molecular events that occur ..
  39. Millward J, Holst P, Høgh Petersen M, Thomsen A, Christensen J, Owens T. The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 chemokine-binding protein M3 inhibits experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;224:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to neuroinflammatory disease. ..
  40. Milho R, Gill M, May J, Colaco S, Stevenson P. In vivo function of the murid herpesvirus-4 ribonucleotide reductase small subunit. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This seemed to reflect a requirement for lytic replication to occur in a terminally differentiated cell before a viable pool of latent genomes could be established...
  41. Tarakanova V, Kreisel F, White D, Virgin H. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 genes both induce and suppress lymphoproliferative disease. J Virol. 2008;82:1034-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) infection of BALB beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient (BALB beta(2)m(-/-)) mice provides an ..
  42. Leang R, Wu T, Hwang S, Liang L, Tong L, Truong J, et al. The anti-interferon activity of conserved viral dUTPase ORF54 is essential for an effective MHV-68 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002292 pubmed publisher
  43. Rangaswamy U, Speck S. Murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein induction of IRF4 via the NFAT pathway leads to IL-10 expression in B cells. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003858 pubmed publisher
    ..of the gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) from latently infected B cells has been linked to plasma cell differentiation...
  44. Sewatanon J, Ling P. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORF75c contains ubiquitin E3 ligase activity and requires PML SUMOylation but not other known cellular PML regulators, CK2 and E6AP, to mediate PML degradation. Virology. 2013;440:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) vFGARAT, ORF75c, mediates a proteasome-dependent degradation of the antiviral promyelocytic ..
  45. Mounce B, Tsan F, Droit L, Kohler S, Reitsma J, Cirillo L, et al. Gammaherpesvirus gene expression and DNA synthesis are facilitated by viral protein kinase and histone variant H2AX. Virology. 2011;420:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions between a cancer-associated gammaherpesvirus and host tumor suppressor system have important implications for the pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infection...
  46. Ponnusamy R, Petoukhov M, Correia B, Custodio T, Juillard F, Tan M, et al. KSHV but not MHV-68 LANA induces a strong bend upon binding to terminal repeat viral DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:10039-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although KSHV and MHV-68 are closely related, the findings provide new insights into how the structure, oligomerization, and DNA binding of LANA have evolved differently to assemble on the TR DNA. ..
  47. Ohno S, Steer B, Sattler C, Adler H. ORF23 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 is non-essential for in vitro and in vivo infection. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1076-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the expression of ORF23 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and its role during infection. ORF23 mRNA was detected in infected cells as a late transcript...
  48. Noh C, Cho H, Kang H, Jin H, Lee S, Deng H, et al. The virion-associated open reading frame 49 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 promotes viral replication both in vitro and in vivo as a derepressor of RTA. J Virol. 2012;86:1109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show a molecular mechanism and in vivo functions of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 or ?HV-68) ORF49. MHV-68 ORF49 was transcribed and translated as a late gene...
  49. Wong Ho E, Wu T, Davis Z, Zhang B, Huang J, Gong H, et al. Unconventional sequence requirement for viral late gene core promoters of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2014;88:3411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..have investigated the cis element that mediates late gene expression during de novo lytic infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68)...
  50. Polcicova K, Hrabovska Z, Mistrikova J, Tomaskova J, Pastorek J, Pastorekova S, et al. Up-regulation of Murid herpesvirus 4 ORF50 by hypoxia: possible implication for virus reactivation from latency. Virus Res. 2008;132:257-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) is a member of the Gammaherpesvirus subfamily capable to establish a long-lasting latency and induce occasional malignancies...
  51. Jia X, Shen S, Lv Y, Zhang Z, Guo H, Deng H. Tegument Protein ORF45 Plays an Essential Role in Virion Morphogenesis of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol. 2016;90:7587-7592 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we determined the ultrastructural localization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) ORF45 and found that this protein was incorporated into virions around the site of host-derived ..
  52. Gauld S, De Santis J, Kulinski J, McGraw J, Leonardo S, Ruder E, et al. Modulation of B-cell tolerance by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection: requirement for Orf73 viral gene expression and follicular helper T cells. Immunology. 2013;139:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we overcame these problems by using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a virus genetically and biologically related to EBV...
  53. Qi J, Han C, Gong D, Liu P, Zhou S, Deng H. Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 ORF48 Is an RTA-Responsive Gene Product and Functions in both Viral Lytic Replication and Latency during In Vivo Infection. J Virol. 2015;89:5788-800 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we characterized the transcription unit of ORF48 from murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and analyzed its transcriptional regulation...
  54. Kang H, Cheong W, Park J, Ryu S, Cho H, Youn H, et al. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 encoding open reading frame 11 targets TANK binding kinase 1 to negatively regulate the host type I interferon response. J Virol. 2014;88:6832-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), a double-stranded DNA virus, encodes open reading frame 11 (ORF11), a novel immune modulator, ..
  55. Sifford J, Stahl J, Salinas E, Forrest J. Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA and SOX Homologs Counteract ATM-Driven p53 Activity during Lytic Viral Replication. J Virol. 2015;90:2571-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whether murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) provokes p53 during the lytic replication cycle has not been extensively evaluated...
  56. Xuan Y, Liu L, Shen S, Deng H, Gao G. Zinc finger antiviral protein inhibits murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M2 expression and regulates viral latency in cultured cells. J Virol. 2012;86:12431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that ZAP inhibits expression of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) M2, which plays important roles in establishment and maintenance of viral latency...
  57. Krug L, Evans A, Gargano L, Paden C, Speck S. The absence of M1 leads to increased establishment of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency in IgD-negative B cells. J Virol. 2013;87:3597-604 pubmed publisher
    The secreted M1 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) promotes effector V?4(+) CD8(+) T cell expansion to impact virus control and immune-mediated pathologies in C57BL/6 mice, but not BALB/c mice...
  58. Hong Y, Qi J, Gong D, Han C, Deng H. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 binds to an RTA-responsive element and activates the expression of ORF18. J Virol. 2011;85:11338-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is genetically related to KSHV and EBV, and the RTA homologue from MHV-68 also initiates the ..
  59. Juh sov B, Bhatia Ki ov I, Pol icov K, Mentel M, Forte M, Pol ic P. Reconstitution of interactions of Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M11 with Bcl-2 family proteins in yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:783-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To escape this line of protection, genomes of many viruses encode for proteins that inhibit apoptosis. Murid herpesvirus 4 gene M11 encodes for homologue of cellular Bcl-2 proteins that inhibits apoptosis and autophagy in infected ..
  60. Hellert J, Weidner Glunde M, Krausze J, Richter U, Adler H, Fedorov R, et al. A structural basis for BRD2/4-mediated host chromatin interaction and oligomer assembly of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and murine gammaherpesvirus LANA proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003640 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a related ?2-herpesvirus frequently used as a model to study the biology of ?-herpesviruses in ..
  61. Sewatanon J, Ling P. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 encodes a second PML-modifying protein. J Virol. 2014;88:3591-7 pubmed publisher
    The ORF75c tegument protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) promotes the degradation of the antiviral promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein...
  62. Upton J, van Dyk L, Speck S. Characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 v-cyclin interactions with cellular cdks. Virology. 2005;341:271-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) viral cyclin (v-cyclin) has been shown to be oncogenic when expression is targeted to ..
  63. Foreman H, Armstrong J, Santana A, Krug L, Reich N. The replication and transcription activator of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 cooperatively enhances cytokine-activated, STAT3-mediated gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16257-16266 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that MHV68 RTA specifically recognizes and recruits activated pTyr705-STAT3 during the lytic phase of infection. ..
  64. Minkah N, Macaluso M, Oldenburg D, Paden C, White D, McBride K, et al. Absence of the uracil DNA glycosylase of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 impairs replication and delays the establishment of latency in vivo. J Virol. 2015;89:3366-79 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we demonstrated that the vUNG of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) retains the enzymatic function of host UNG in an in vitro class switch recombination assay...
  65. Tarakanova V, Molleston J, Goodwin M, Virgin H. MHV68 complement regulatory protein facilitates MHV68 replication in primary macrophages in a complement independent manner. Virology. 2010;396:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows a novel, complement independent cell-type-specific function of a gammaherpesvirus RCA protein...
  66. Correia B, Cerqueira S, Beauchemin C, Pires de Miranda M, Li S, Ponnusamy R, et al. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003673 pubmed publisher
    ..These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s). ..
  67. Rodrigues L, Popov N, Kaye K, Simas J. Stabilization of Myc through heterotypic poly-ubiquitination by mLANA is critical for ?-herpesvirus lymphoproliferation. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003554 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings here reported reveal that modulation of Myc is essential for ?-herpesvirus persistent infection, establishing a link between virus induced lymphoproliferation and disease...
  68. Allen R, Dezalia M, Speck S. Identification of an Rta responsive promoter involved in driving gammaHV68 v-cyclin expression during virus replication. Virology. 2007;365:250-9 pubmed
    ..b>Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) is a gamma2-herpesvirus that can infect inbred and outbred strains of mice, providing a ..
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    ..We have previously shown that murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (?HV68) induces the degradation of RelA, an essential subunit of the transcriptionally active NF-?B ..
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    ..In murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, ?HV68), essential lytic switch gene 50 controls the interchange between lytic and latent gene ..
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    ..These data argue that gL plays a key role in regulating a gH and gB functional switch from cell binding to membrane fusion...