West Nile virus

Summary

Alias: WNV

Top Publications

  1. Brinton M. The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:371-402 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally also infects humans and horses...
  2. Lanciotti R, Roehrig J, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:2333-7 pubmed
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. ..
  3. Westaway E, MacKenzie J, Kenney M, Jones M, Khromykh A. Ultrastructure of Kunjin virus-infected cells: colocalization of NS1 and NS3 with double-stranded RNA, and of NS2B with NS3, in virus-induced membrane structures. J Virol. 1997;71:6650-61 pubmed
    ..The collection of induced membranes may represent virus factories in which translation, RNA synthesis, and virus assembly occur. ..
  4. Yang J, Kim J, Hwang D, Choo A, Dang K, Maguire H, et al. Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999). J Infect Dis. 2001;184:809-16 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a vectorborne pathogen that induces brain inflammation and death. Recently, confirmed cases of infection and deaths have occurred in the United States Mid-Atlantic region...
  5. Tassaneetrithep B, Burgess T, Granelli Piperno A, Trumpfheller C, Finke J, Sun W, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:823-9 pubmed
    ..Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN- and L-SIGN-bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection. ..
  6. Setoh Y, Prow N, Hobson Peters J, Lobigs M, Young P, Khromykh A, et al. Identification of residues in West Nile virus pre-membrane protein that influence viral particle secretion and virulence. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    The pre-membrane protein (prM) of West Nile virus (WNV) functions as a chaperone for correct folding of the envelope (E) protein, and prevents premature fusion during virus egress. However, little is known about its role in virulence...
  7. Khromykh A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. J Virol. 2000;74:3253-63 pubmed
  8. Lanciotti R, Ebel G, Deubel V, Kerst A, Murri S, Meyer R, et al. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology. 2002;298:96-105 pubmed
    ..Lineage 2 WN viruses have been isolated only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Lineage 1 viruses can be further subdivided into three monophyletic clades. ..
  9. Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Howe J, Ng M. Identifying the region influencing the cis-mode of maturation of West Nile (Sarafend) virus using chimeric infectious clones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:714-20 pubmed
    ..Transmission electron microscopy analyses performed in Vero cells infected with these chimeric viruses disclosed that the 5' end of the WN(S)V genome plays a major role in influencing the process of maturation at the plasma membrane. ..

More Information

Publications176 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ray D, Shah A, Tilgner M, Guo Y, Zhao Y, Dong H, et al. West Nile virus 5'-cap structure is formed by sequential guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O methylations by nonstructural protein 5. J Virol. 2006;80:8362-70 pubmed
    ..Using West Nile virus (WNV), we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) mediates both guanine N-7 ..
  2. Kanai R, Kar K, Anthony K, Gould L, Ledizet M, Fikrig E, et al. Crystal structure of west nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes. J Virol. 2006;80:11000-8 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion...
  3. Mukhopadhyay S, Kim B, Chipman P, Rossmann M, Kuhn R. Structure of West Nile virus. Science. 2003;302:248 pubmed
  4. Beasley D, Whiteman M, Zhang S, Huang C, Schneider B, Smith D, et al. Envelope protein glycosylation status influences mouse neuroinvasion phenotype of genetic lineage 1 West Nile virus strains. J Virol. 2005;79:8339-47 pubmed
    The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America has been associated with relatively high rates of neurological disease and death in humans, birds, horses, and some other animals...
  5. Hanna S, Pierson T, Sanchez M, Ahmed A, Murtadha M, Doms R. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. J Virol. 2005;79:13262-74 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) encodes two envelope proteins, premembrane (prM) and envelope (E). While the prM protein of all WNV strains contains a single N-linked glycosylation site, not all strains contain an N-linked site in the E protein...
  6. Kramer L, Li J, Shi P. West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:171-81 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus originally isolated in 1937 from the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile province of Uganda...
  7. Chu J, Rajamanonmani R, Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Lescar J, Ng M. Inhibition of West Nile virus entry by using a recombinant domain III from the envelope glycoprotein. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:405-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, the involvement of domain III of West Nile virus (WNV-DIII) envelope protein in binding to host cell surface was investigated...
  8. Chung K, Nybakken G, Thompson B, Engle M, Marri A, Fremont D, et al. Antibodies against West Nile Virus nonstructural protein NS1 prevent lethal infection through Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Virol. 2006;80:1340-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, we purified a recombinant, secreted form of West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 glycoprotein from baculovirus-infected insect cells and generated 22 new NS1-specific monoclonal ..
  9. Oliphant T, Engle M, Nybakken G, Doane C, Johnson S, Huang L, et al. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. Nat Med. 2005;11:522-30 pubmed
    Neutralization of West Nile virus (WNV) in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein...
  10. Samuel M, Diamond M. Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival. J Virol. 2005;79:13350-61 pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals...
  11. Nybakken G, Nelson C, Chen B, Diamond M, Fremont D. Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2006;80:11467-74 pubmed
    The envelope glycoprotein (E) of West Nile virus (WNV) undergoes a conformational rearrangement triggered by low pH that results in a class II fusion event required for viral entry. Herein we present the 3...
  12. Khromykh A, Varnavski A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. Coupling between replication and packaging of flavivirus RNA: evidence derived from the use of DNA-based full-length cDNA clones of Kunjin virus. J Virol. 2001;75:4633-40 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may thus help alleviate the high-copy error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ..
  13. Samuel M, Diamond M. Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion. J Virol. 2006;80:9349-60 pubmed
  14. Zhang B, Dong H, Zhou Y, Shi P. Genetic interactions among the West Nile virus methyltransferase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the 5' stem-loop of genomic RNA. J Virol. 2008;82:7047-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report genetic interactions of West Nile virus (WNV) methyltransferase with the RdRp and the 5'-terminal stem-loop of viral genomic RNA...
  15. Beasley D, Li L, Suderman M, Barrett A. Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype. Virology. 2002;296:17-23 pubmed
    ..Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses. ..
  16. MacKenzie J, Westaway E. Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively. J Virol. 2001;75:10787-99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  17. Rosas C, Tischer B, Perkins G, Wagner B, Goodman L, Osterrieder N. Live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against West Nile virus (WNV). Virus Res. 2007;125:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins was studied...
  18. Westaway E, Khromykh A, Kenney M, MacKenzie J, Jones M. Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology. 1997;234:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  19. MacKenzie J, Khromykh A, Jones M, Westaway E. Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A. Virology. 1998;245:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results indicate that the flavivirus replication complex includes NS2A and NS4A in the VP in addition to the previously identified NS1 and NS3...
  20. Chung K, Liszewski M, Nybakken G, Davis A, Townsend R, Fremont D, et al. West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS1 inhibits complement activation by binding the regulatory protein factor H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate an immunomodulatory function of West Nile virus NS1...
  21. Avirutnan P, Hauhart R, Somnuke P, Blom A, Diamond M, Atkinson J. Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation. J Immunol. 2011;187:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection...
  22. Reperant L, Brown I, Haenen O, de Jong M, Osterhaus A, Papa A, et al. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. J Comp Pathol. 2016;155:S41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, ..
  23. Gerold G, Bruening J, Weigel B, Pietschmann T. Protein Interactions during the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus Life Cycle. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017;16:S75-S91 pubmed publisher
    ..highlight how dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus proteins engage host proteins and how this knowledge helps elucidate ..
  24. Lobigs M, Lee E. Inefficient signalase cleavage promotes efficient nucleocapsid incorporation into budding flavivirus membranes. J Virol. 2004;78:178-86 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model for flavivirus morphogenesis involving temporal and spatial coordination of NC assembly and envelopment by regulated cleavages of an ER membrane-spanning capsid-prM intermediate...
  25. Shiryaev S, Kozlov I, Ratnikov B, Smith J, Lebl M, Strongin A. Cleavage preference distinguishes the two-component NS2B-NS3 serine proteinases of Dengue and West Nile viruses. Biochem J. 2007;401:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..were to define the substrate recognition pattern of the NS2B-NS3 protease of West Nile and Dengue virises (WNV and DV respectively)...
  26. Bera A, Kuhn R, Smith J. Functional characterization of cis and trans activity of the Flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant proteases were created by fusion of West Nile virus (WNV) NS2B(40) to full-length WNV NS3. The protease catalyzed two autolytic cleavages...
  27. Butts C, Jones Y, Lim J, Salter C, Belyavskaya E, Sternberg E. Tissue expression of steroid hormone receptors is associated with differential immune responsiveness. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to investigate the potential impact in an area of neuropathology, we utilized a mouse model of West Nile Virus (WNV)...
  28. Honig A, Karussis D. Delayed-onset flaccid paralysis related to west Nile virus reactivation following treatment with rituximab: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:852 pubmed publisher
    Neurological manifestations of West Nile virus infection include meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis...
  29. Unger M, Sharakhova M, Harshbarger A, Glass P, Collins F. A standard cytogenetic map of Culex quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes in application for fine-scale physical mapping. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:307 pubmed publisher
    ..Mosquitoes of the complex can transmit human and animal pathogens, such as filarial worm, West Nile virus and avian malarial Plasmodium...
  30. Stock N, Escadafal C, Achazi K, Cissé M, Niedrig M. Development and characterization of polyclonal peptide antibodies for the detection of Yellow fever virus proteins. J Virol Methods. 2015;222:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No cross-reactivity was observed with Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus...
  31. Cardinale E, Bernard C, Lecollinet S, Rakotoharinome V, Ravaomanana J, Roger M, et al. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;53:45-49 pubmed publisher
    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean...
  32. Kaufmann B, Nybakken G, Chipman P, Zhang W, Diamond M, Fremont D, et al. West Nile virus in complex with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12400-4 pubmed publisher
    Flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), are significant human pathogens. The humoral immune response plays an important role in the control of flavivirus infection and disease...
  33. Epp T, Waldner C, Berke O. Predicting geographical human risk of West Nile virus--Saskatchewan, 2003 and 2007. Can J Public Health. 2009;100:344-8 pubmed
    To detail the use of a model to predict areas of low, medium, and high risk of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans in both 2003 and 2007 in the province of Saskatchewan...
  34. Dridi M, van den Berg T, Lecollinet S, Lambrecht B. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains in a SPF chicken model of infection: NS3-249Pro mutation is neither sufficient nor necessary for conferring virulence. Vet Res. 2015;46:130 pubmed publisher
    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains were reported for the first time in Europe in 2004...
  35. Beatman E, Massey A, Shives K, Burrack K, Chamanian M, Morrison T, et al. Alpha-Synuclein Expression Restricts RNA Viral Infections in the Brain. J Virol. 2015;90:2767-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Enveloped RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), invade the CNS and cause encephalitis, yet little is known about the innate neuron-specific inhibitors ..
  36. Leibler J, Zakhour C, Gadhoke P, Gaeta J. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016;16:435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (..
  37. Friedrich B, Beasley D. ELISA and Neutralization Methods to Measure Anti-West Nile Virus Antibody Responses. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1435:129-41 pubmed publisher
    Measurements of humoral immune responses to West Nile virus (WNV) infection in mouse or other animal models are valuable components of basic laboratory investigations to assess immunogenicity of candidate vaccines or to evaluate ..
  38. McKellar D, Conway M. Safe Handling of West Nile Virus in the Insectary. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1435:143-50 pubmed publisher
    Working with West Nile virus (WNV) in the insectary requires specific facilities and protocols to prevent laboratory-acquired infection...
  39. Wang J, Yang J, Ge J, Hua R, Liu R, Li X, et al. Newcastle disease virus-vectored West Nile fever vaccine is immunogenic in mammals and poultry. Virol J. 2016;13:109 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen which is harmful to human and animal health...
  40. Balasubramanian A, Manzano M, Teramoto T, Pilankatta R, Padmanabhan R. High-throughput screening for the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of the flaviviral protease. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:6-16 pubmed publisher
    The mosquito-borne dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) and West Nile virus (WNV) cause serious illnesses worldwide associated with considerable morbidity and mortality...
  41. Kalaiyarasu S, Mishra N, Khetan R, Singh V. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;48:61-8 pubmed publisher
    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology...
  42. Piyasena T, Setoh Y, Hobson Peters J, Newton N, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, McLean B, et al. Infectious DNAs derived from insect-specific flavivirus genomes enable identification of pre- and post-entry host restrictions in vertebrate cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2940 pubmed publisher
    Flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus and Zika virus are mosquito-borne pathogens that cause significant human diseases...
  43. Samuel G, Adelman Z, Myles K. Antiviral Immunity and Virus-Mediated Antagonism in Disease Vector Mosquitoes. Trends Microbiol. 2018;26:447-461 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific examples of mosquito-borne pathogens include Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), ..
  44. Davis J, Vincent G, Hildreth M, Kightlinger L, Carlson C, Wimberly M. Improving the prediction of arbovirus outbreaks: A comparison of climate-driven models for West Nile virus in an endemic region of the United States. Acta Trop. 2018;185:242-250 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we compared a set of alternative models of human West Nile virus (WNV) in 2004-2017 in South Dakota, USA...
  45. Miller M, Rialdi A, Ho J, Tilove M, Martínez Gil L, Moshkina N, et al. Senataxin suppresses the antiviral transcriptional response and controls viral biogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:485-94 pubmed publisher
    ..g., influenza A virus and West Nile virus)...
  46. Liu S, Haque M, Stanfield B, Andrews F, Roy A, Kousoulas K. A recombinant fusion protein consisting of West Nile virus envelope domain III fused in-frame with equine CD40 ligand induces antiviral immune responses in horses. Vet Microbiol. 2017;198:51-58 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999...
  47. Calzolari M, Zé Zé L, Vázquez A, Sánchez Seco M, Amaro F, Dottori M. Insect-specific flaviviruses, a worldwide widespread group of viruses only detected in insects. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;40:381-388 pubmed publisher
    ..and animals (Dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow-fever virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus)...
  48. Levine R, Mead D, Hamer G, Brosi B, Hedeen D, Hedeen M, et al. Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95:1174-1184 pubmed
    In the eastern United States, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) result from spillover from urban epizootic transmission between passerine birds and Culex mosquitoes...
  49. Wang J, Qiao L, Hou Z, Luo G. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus...
  50. Koval W, Vazquez Prokopec G. Environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition influence the population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:114 pubmed publisher
    ..pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus...
  51. Thackray L, Handley S, Gorman M, Poddar S, Bagadia P, Briseño C, et al. Oral Antibiotic Treatment of Mice Exacerbates the Disease Severity of Multiple Flavivirus Infections. Cell Rep. 2018;22:3440-3453.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota...
  52. Haviernik J, Štefánik M, Fojtíková M, Kali S, Tordo N, Rudolf I, et al. Arbidol (Umifenovir): A Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drug That Inhibits Medically Important Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..57 ± 0.74 to 19.16 ± 0.29 µM) in Vero cells infected with Zika virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus, three medically important representatives of the arthropod-borne ..
  53. Liu W, Sedlak P, Kondratieva N, Khromykh A. Complementation analysis of the flavivirus Kunjin NS3 and NS5 proteins defines the minimal regions essential for formation of a replication complex and shows a requirement of NS3 in cis for virus assembly. J Virol. 2002;76:10766-75 pubmed
    ..The results define minimal regions in the NS3 and NS5 genes essential for the formation of complementable replication complex and show a requirement of NS3 in cis for virus assembly...
  54. Grygorczuk S, Osada J, Parczewski M, Moniuszko A, Świerzbińska R, Kondrusik M, et al. The expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 in tick-borne encephalitis. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:45 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalitis, and the non-functional CCR5Δ32 genetic variant was identified as a risk factor of a West Nile virus infection and of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)...
  55. Benelli G, Mehlhorn H. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1747-54 pubmed publisher
    ..follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013)...
  56. Kuiper B, Slater K, Spellmon N, Holcomb J, Medapureddy P, Muzzarelli K, et al. Increased activity of unlinked Zika virus NS2B/NS3 protease compared to linked Zika virus protease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:668-673 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, potent inhibitors of related viral proteases, like West Nile Virus and Dengue virus, may serve as advanced starting points to identify and develop ZIKV protease inhibitors.
  57. Rocheleau J, Michel P, Lindsay L, Drebot M, Dibernardo A, Ogden N, et al. Characterizing environmental risk factors for West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, using clinical data in humans and serology in pet dogs. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2797-2807 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data ..
  58. Parquet M, Kumatori A, Hasebe F, Morita K, Igarashi A. West Nile virus-induced bax-dependent apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2001;500:17-24 pubmed
    The mechanism of cell death induced by West Nile virus (WNV), a causative agent of human febrile syndrome and encephalitis, was investigated...
  59. Faggioni G, Pomponi A, De Santis R, Masuelli L, Ciammaruconi A, Monaco F, et al. West Nile alternative open reading frame (N-NS4B/WARF4) is produced in infected West Nile Virus (WNV) cells and induces humoral response in WNV infected individuals. Virol J. 2012;9:283 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that requires an efficient humoral and cellular host response for the control of neuroinvasive infection...
  60. Marandu T, Oduro J, Borkner L, Dekhtiarenko I, Uhrlaub J, Drabig A, et al. Immune Protection against Virus Challenge in Aging Mice Is Not Affected by Latent Herpesviral Infections. J Virol. 2015;89:11715-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and/or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) with influenza virus, West Nile virus (WNV), or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)...
  61. Cano Terriza D, Guerra R, Lecollinet S, Cerdà Cuéllar M, Cabezón O, Almería S, et al. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;43:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds...
  62. Beltrán F, Díaz L, Konigheim B, Molina J, Beaudoin J, Contigiani M, et al. [Serological evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus circulation in birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2015;47:312-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in sera of wild and domestic birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina...
  63. Gack M, Diamond M. Innate immune escape by Dengue and West Nile viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2016;20:119-128 pubmed publisher
    Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses are mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide...
  64. Mossenta M, Marchese S, Poggianella M, Slon Campos J, Burrone O. Role of N-glycosylation on Zika virus E protein secretion, viral assembly and infectivity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;492:579-586 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of pseudoviral particles with a West Nile virus replicon packaged with the Zika virus structural proteins C-PrM-E was significantly reduced with the non-..
  65. Angleró Rodríguez Y, MacLeod H, Kang S, Carlson J, Jupatanakul N, Dimopoulos G. Aedes aegypti Molecular Responses to Zika Virus: Modulation of Infection by the Toll and Jak/Stat Immune Pathways and Virus Host Factors. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2050 pubmed publisher
    ..of the ZIKV and DENV infection-responsive transcriptome data to those available for yellow fever virus and West Nile virus identified 26 genes likely to play key roles in virus infection of Aedes mosquitoes...
  66. Meshkat Z, Chinikar S, Shakeri M, Manavifar L, Moradi M, Mirshahabi H, et al. Prevalence of West Nile virus in Mashhad, Iran: A population-based study. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015;8:203-5 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the prevalence of West Nile virus seropositivity in the general population of Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. One hundred and eighty two individuals living in the city of Mashhad were studied using cluster sampling method...
  67. Yamshchikov V. Development of a human live attenuated West Nile infectious DNA vaccine: conceptual design of the vaccine candidate. Virology. 2015;484:59-68 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus has become an important epidemiological problem attracting significant attention of health authorities, mass media, and the public...
  68. Basu M, Courtney S, Brinton M. Arsenite-induced stress granule formation is inhibited by elevated levels of reduced glutathione in West Nile virus-infected cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006240 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Caprin1 did not co-localize with West Nile virus (WNV) capsid protein in infected cells...
  69. Daniels B, Snyder A, Olsen T, Orozco S, Oguin T, Tait S, et al. RIPK3 Restricts Viral Pathogenesis via Cell Death-Independent Neuroinflammation. Cell. 2017;169:301-313.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis, we show that RIPK3 restricts WNV pathogenesis independently of cell death...
  70. Popescu C, Florescu S, Cotar A, Badescu D, Ceianu C, Zaharia M, et al. Re-emergence of severe West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans in Romania, 2012 to 2017-implications for travel medicine. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018;22:30-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in both the number and the mortality rate of WNND cases suggest a changing pattern of WNV infection in Romania...
  71. Toplu N, Oğuzoğlu T, Ural K, Albayrak H, Ozan E, Ertürk A, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Horses: Detection by Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, and ELISA. Vet Pathol. 2015;52:1073-6 pubmed publisher
    This study describes the clinicopathologic findings in naturally occurring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses...
  72. Escribano Romero E, Lupulović D, Merino Ramos T, Blázquez A, Lazić G, Lazić S, et al. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia. Vet Microbiol. 2015;176:365-9 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; ..
  73. Medigeshi G, Kumar R, Dhamija E, Agrawal T, Kar M. N-Desmethylclozapine, Fluoxetine, and Salmeterol Inhibit Postentry Stages of the Dengue Virus Life Cycle. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:6709-6718 pubmed publisher
    ..and this effect was specific to dengue virus, as other flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, or other RNA viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus, were not affected by these ..
  74. Shives K, Massey A, May N, Morrison T, Beckham J. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus...
  75. Fortuna P, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Ovchinnikov D, Wolvetang E, Whitworth D. Cortical Neurons Derived From Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Are Susceptible to Neurotropic Flavivirus Infection and Replication: an in vitro model for equine neuropathic diseases. Stem Cells Dev. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Horses are susceptible to a number of neurotropic viruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), which is a pathogen of global significance in both horses and humans...
  76. Musso D, Teissier A, Rouault E, Teururai S, De Pina J, Nhan T. Detection of chikungunya virus in saliva and urine. Virol J. 2016;13:102 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to ZIKV, dengue virus and West Nile virus, urine did not enlarged the window of detection of CHIKV RNA after the 1st week post symptoms onset...
  77. Boylan B, Moreira F, Carlson T, Bernard K. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005394 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic ..
  78. Rudolf I, Betášová L, Blažejová H, Venclíková K, Strakova P, Sebesta O, et al. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:452 pubmed publisher
    b>West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the most important mosquito-borne pathogen spreading in Europe...
  79. Suen W, Uddin M, Prow N, Bowen R, Hall R, Bielefeldt Ohmann H. Tissue-specific transcription profile of cytokine and chemokine genes associated with flavivirus control and non-lethal neuropathogenesis in rabbits. Virology. 2016;494:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..model for studying immune mechanisms behind virus control and non-lethal neuropathogenesis associated with West Nile virus (WNV) and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infections...
  80. Smartt C, Shin D, Anderson S. The Effect of West Nile Virus Infection on the Midgut Gene Expression of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Insects. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; ..
  81. Rocheleau J, Michel P, Lindsay L, Drebot M, Dibernardo A, Ogden N, et al. Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2940-2948 pubmed publisher
    Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade...
  82. Jovanović Galović A, Weyer J, Jansen van Vuren P, Paweska J, Radovanov J, Kovacević G, et al. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Associated with Human Case in Republic of Serbia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:780-783 pubmed publisher
    A suspicion on West Nile virus (WNV) in Serbia was first reported in 1972 by a seroprevalence study, after which no data were available for four decades...
  83. Rebollo B, Llorente F, Pérez Ramírez E, Sarraseca J, Gallardo C, Risalde M, et al. Absence of protection from West Nile virus disease and adverse effects in red legged partridges after non-structural NS1 protein administration. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;56:30-33 pubmed publisher
    The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a competent host for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and highly susceptible to WNV disease...
  84. Ramanathan M, Chambers J, Taylor J, Korber B, Lee M, Nalca A, et al. Expression and evolutionary analysis of West Nile virus (Merion strain). J Neurovirol. 2005;11:544-56 pubmed
    The authors report a new strain of West Nile virus (WNV) with the expression analysis of its individual open reading frames...
  85. Shiryaev S, Ratnikov B, Aleshin A, Kozlov I, Nelson N, Lebl M, et al. Switching the substrate specificity of the two-component NS2B-NS3 flavivirus proteinase by structure-based mutagenesis. J Virol. 2007;81:4501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, crystal structures and substrate preferences of NS2B-NS3pro from Dengue and West Nile viruses (DV and WNV) were determined...
  86. Yang L, Piermarini P. Molecular expression of aquaporin mRNAs in the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens. J Insect Physiol. 2017;96:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular expression of AQPs in the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens, the primary vector of West Nile virus, is presently unknown. Here we characterize the relative mRNA expression of six AQP genes in C. pipiens...
  87. Braima K, Muslimin M, M Ghazali A, Wan Nor F, Wilson J, Jeffery J, et al. Feeding behavior of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) (Diptera, Culicidae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Acta Trop. 2017;171:138-140 pubmed publisher
    Mosquitoes are vectors of various human diseases in the tropics including yellow fever, dengue, malaria and West Nile virus. Mosquitoes can act as vectors between wildlife and humans, which is particularly important for diseases where ..
  88. Peterson J, Kesson A, King N. A theoretical model of the West Nile Virus survival data. BMC Immunol. 2017;18:22 pubmed publisher
    In this work, we develop a theoretical model that explains the survival data in West Nile Virus infection...
  89. Petrić D, Petrovic T, Hrnjaković Cvjetković I, Zgomba M, Milosevic V, Lazić G, et al. West Nile virus 'circulation' in Vojvodina, Serbia: Mosquito, bird, horse and human surveillance. Mol Cell Probes. 2017;31:28-36 pubmed publisher
    Efforts to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in the Vojvodina province, northern Serbia, commenced with human and mosquito surveillance in 2005, followed by horse (2009) and wild bird (2012) surveillance...
  90. Koosha M, Oshaghi M, Sedaghat M, Vatandoost H, Azari Hamidian S, Abai M, et al. Sequence analysis of mtDNA COI barcode region revealed three haplotypes within Culex pipiens assemblage. Exp Parasitol. 2017;181:102-110 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world...
  91. LAI C, Monath T. Chimeric flaviviruses: novel vaccines against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:469-509 pubmed
    ..The chimeric flavivirus strategy has led to the rapid development of novel live-attenuated vaccines against dengue, TBE, JE, and West Nile viruses...
  92. Yamshchikov G, Borisevich V, Seregin A, Chaporgina E, Mishina M, Mishin V, et al. An attenuated West Nile prototype virus is highly immunogenic and protects against the deadly NY99 strain: a candidate for live WN vaccine development. Virology. 2004;330:304-12 pubmed publisher
    In a short time, West Nile virus has developed into a nationwide health and veterinary problem. The high virulence of the circulating virus and related lineage 1 WN strains hinders development of an attenuated live vaccine...