Vaccinia virus

Summary

Alias: vaccinia virus VV

Top Publications

  1. Valentine R, Smith G. Inhibition of the RNA polymerase III-mediated dsDNA-sensing pathway of innate immunity by vaccinia virus protein E3. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2221-9 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus E3 protein is an important intracellular modulator of innate immunity that can be split into distinct halves...
  2. Maluquer de Motes C, Cooray S, Ren H, Almeida G, McGourty K, Bahar M, et al. Inhibition of apoptosis and NF-κB activation by vaccinia protein N1 occur via distinct binding surfaces and make different contributions to virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002430 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is an intracellular virulence factor and belongs to a family of VACV B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like proteins whose members inhibit apoptosis or activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as ..
  3. Paran N, De Silva F, Senkevich T, Moss B. Cellular DNA ligase I is recruited to cytoplasmic vaccinia virus factories and masks the role of the vaccinia ligase in viral DNA replication. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:563-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes DNA polymerase and additional proteins that enable cytoplasmic replication...
  4. Fedosyuk S, Grishkovskaya I, de Almeida Ribeiro E, Skern T. Characterization and structure of the vaccinia virus NF-κB antagonist A46. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:3749-62 pubmed publisher
    Successful vaccinia virus (VACV) replication in the host requires expression of viral proteins that interfere with host immunity, such as antagonists of the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB...
  5. Senkevich T, Koonin E, Moss B. Vaccinia virus F16 protein, a predicted catalytically inactive member of the prokaryotic serine recombinase superfamily, is targeted to nucleoli. Virology. 2011;417:334-42 pubmed publisher
    The F16L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) is conserved in all chordopoxviruses except avipoxviruses...
  6. Breiman A, Carpentier D, Ewles H, Smith G. Transport and stability of the vaccinia virus A34 protein is affected by the A33 protein. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:720-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) has two infectious forms called intracellular mature virus and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV)...
  7. Resch W, Weisberg A, Moss B. Expression of the highly conserved vaccinia virus E6 protein is required for virion morphogenesis. Virology. 2009;386:478-85 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus E6R gene (VACVWR062) is conserved in all members of the poxvirus family and encodes a protein associated with the mature virion. We confirmed this association and provided evidence for an internal location...
  8. Wolfe C, Moss B. Interaction between the G3 and L5 proteins of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex. Virology. 2011;412:278-83 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex (EFC) consists of 10 to 12 proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and individually required for fusion with the cell and entry of the core into the cytoplasm...
  9. Doceul V, Hollinshead M, van der Linden L, Smith G. Repulsion of superinfecting virions: a mechanism for rapid virus spread. Science. 2010;327:873-876 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that vaccinia virus spreads across one cell every 75 minutes, fourfold faster than its replication cycle would permit...

More Information

Publications147 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chan W, Ward B. There is an A33-dependent mechanism for the incorporation of B5-GFP into vaccinia virus extracellular enveloped virions. Virology. 2010;402:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in the absence of A33, the cytoplasmic tail of B5 contributes to its incorporation into the envelope of progeny virions. ..
  2. Amegadzie B, Ahn B, Moss B. Identification, sequence, and expression of the gene encoding a Mr 35,000 subunit of the vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13712-8 pubmed
    The gene rpo35, encoding a subunit of the vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, was identified, and its RNA and protein products were characterized...
  3. Isaacs S, Wolffe E, Payne L, Moss B. Characterization of a vaccinia virus-encoded 42-kilodalton class I membrane glycoprotein component of the extracellular virus envelope. J Virol. 1992;66:7217-24 pubmed
    ..complement control proteins, is a membrane glycoprotein present in the extracellular enveloped (EEV) form of vaccinia virus but absent from the intracellular naked (INV) form...
  4. Prichard M, Kern E, Quenelle D, Keith K, Moyer R, Turner P. Vaccinia virus lacking the deoxyuridine triphosphatase gene (F2L) replicates well in vitro and in vivo, but is hypersensitive to the antiviral drug (N)-methanocarbathymidine. Virol J. 2008;5:39 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus (VV) F2L gene encodes a functional deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) that catalyzes the conversion of dUTP to dUMP and is thought to minimize the incorporation of deoxyuridine residues into the viral genome...
  5. Yuen T, Flesch I, Hollett N, Dobson B, Russell T, Fahrer A, et al. Analysis of A47, an immunoprevalent protein of vaccinia virus, leads to a reevaluation of the total antiviral CD8+ T cell response. J Virol. 2010;84:10220-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and was the live vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. In addition, VACV is a possible vector for recombinant vaccines...
  6. Guerra S, Abaitua F, Mart nez Sobrido L, Esteban M, Garc a Sastre A, Rodr guez D. Host-range restriction of vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant can be overcome in vitro, but not in vivo, by expression of the influenza virus NS1 protein. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28677 pubmed publisher
    During the last decades, research focused on vaccinia virus (VACV) pathogenesis has been intensified prompted by its potential beneficial application as a vector for vaccine development and anti-cancer therapies, but also due to the fear ..
  7. Myskiw C, Arsenio J, van Bruggen R, Deschambault Y, Cao J. Vaccinia virus E3 suppresses expression of diverse cytokines through inhibition of the PKR, NF-kappaB, and IRF3 pathways. J Virol. 2009;83:6757-68 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus double-stranded RNA binding protein E3 has been demonstrated to inhibit the expression of cytokines, including beta interferon (IFN-beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)...
  8. Li Y, Meng X, Xiang Y, Deng J. Structure function studies of vaccinia virus host range protein k1 reveal a novel functional surface for ankyrin repeat proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:3331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2...
  9. Amegadzie B, Sisler J, Moss B. Frame-shift mutations within the vaccinia virus A-type inclusion protein gene. Virology. 1992;186:777-82 pubmed
    The genetic basis for the failure of vaccinia virus (strain WR) to form a full-length 150 kiloDalton (kDa) A-type inclusion protein was determined by sequencing a 4.1-kb pair segment of DNA and analyzing its transcription products...
  10. El Omari K, Solaroli N, Karlsson A, Balzarini J, Stammers D. Structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase in complex with dTTP: insights for drug design. BMC Struct Biol. 2006;6:22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaccinia virus TK is a close orthologue of variola TK but also shares a relatively high sequence identity to human type 2 TK (..
  11. Alcam A, Khanna A, Paul N, Smith G. Vaccinia virus strains Lister, USSR and Evans express soluble and cell-surface tumour necrosis factor receptors. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 4):949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Cowpox virus (CPV) encodes three vTNFRs (CrmB, CrmC and CrmD). The genes equivalent to CrmB and CrmC in vaccinia virus (VV) Copenhagen are mutated and are named B28R/C22L and A53R, respectively...
  12. Unger B, Mercer J, Boyle K, Traktman P. Biogenesis of the vaccinia virus membrane: genetic and ultrastructural analysis of the contributions of the A14 and A17 proteins. J Virol. 2013;87:1083-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus membrane biogenesis requires the A14 and A17 proteins...
  13. Aoyagi M, Zhai D, Jin C, Aleshin A, Stec B, Reed J, et al. Vaccinia virus N1L protein resembles a B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family protein. Protein Sci. 2007;16:118-24 pubmed
  14. Gammon D, Gowrishankar B, Duraffour S, Andrei G, Upton C, Evans D. Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase subunits are differentially required for replication and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000984 pubmed publisher
  15. Li G, Chen N, Feng Z, Buller R, Osborne J, Harms T, et al. Genomic sequence and analysis of a vaccinia virus isolate from a patient with a smallpox vaccine-related complication. Virol J. 2006;3:88 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin...
  16. Solaroli N, Johansson M, Balzarini J, Karlsson A. Substrate specificity of three viral thymidine kinases (TK): vaccinia virus TK, feline herpesvirus TK, and canine herpesvirus TK. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2006;25:1189-92 pubmed publisher
    ..search of novel suicide gene candidates we have cloned and characterized thymidine kinases from three viruses; vaccinia virus TK (VVTK), feline herpesvirus TK (FHV-TK), and canine herpesvirus TK (CHV-TK)...
  17. Kane E, Shuman S. Vaccinia virus morphogenesis is blocked by a temperature-sensitive mutation in the I7 gene that encodes a virion component. J Virol. 1993;67:2689-98 pubmed
    The ts16 mutation of vaccinia virus WR (R. C. Condit, A. Motyczka, and G. Spizz, Virology 128:429-443, 1983) has been mapped by marker rescue to the I7L open reading frame located within the genomic HindIII I DNA fragment...
  18. Chang S, Chang Y, Izmailyan R, Tang Y, Chang W. Vaccinia virus A25 and A26 proteins are fusion suppressors for mature virions and determine strain-specific virus entry pathways into HeLa, CHO-K1, and L cells. J Virol. 2010;84:8422-32 pubmed publisher
    Mature vaccinia virus enters cells through either fluid-phase endocytosis/macropinocytosis or plasma membrane fusion...
  19. Demkowicz W, Maa J, Esteban M. Identification and characterization of vaccinia virus genes encoding proteins that are highly antigenic in animals and are immunodominant in vaccinated humans. J Virol. 1992;66:386-98 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus (VV) is a potent immunogen, but the nature of VV proteins involved in the activation of the immune response of the host is not yet known...
  20. Traktman P, Kelvin M, Pacheco S. Molecular genetic analysis of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase mutants. J Virol. 1989;63:841-6 pubmed
    To further our understanding of the structure and function of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase, we have performed fine genetic analysis of three mutants with lesions in the polymerase gene...
  21. Symons J, Alcami A, Smith G. Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. Cell. 1995;81:551-60 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus (VV) and other orthopoxviruses express a soluble type I interferon (IFN) receptor that for VV strain Western Reserve is encoded by gene B18R...
  22. Zhang P, Jacobs B, Samuel C. Loss of protein kinase PKR expression in human HeLa cells complements the vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant phenotype by restoration of viral protein synthesis. J Virol. 2008;82:840-8 pubmed
    The E3L proteins encoded by vaccinia virus bind double-stranded RNA and mediate interferon resistance, promote virus growth, and impair virus-mediated apoptosis...
  23. Wu X, Meng X, Yan B, Rose L, Deng J, Xiang Y. Vaccinia virus virion membrane biogenesis protein A11 associates with viral membranes in a manner that requires the expression of another membrane biogenesis protein, A6. J Virol. 2012;86:11276-86 pubmed publisher
    A group of vaccinia virus (VACV) proteins, including A11, L2, and A6, are required for biogenesis of the primary envelope of VACV, specifically, for the acquisition of viral membrane precursors...
  24. Yang Z, Moss B. Interaction of the vaccinia virus RNA polymerase-associated 94-kilodalton protein with the early transcription factor. J Virol. 2009;83:12018-26 pubmed publisher
    A multisubunit RNA polymerase (RPO) encoded by vaccinia virus (VACV), in conjunction with specific factors, transcribes early, intermediate, and late viral genes...
  25. Gerlic M, Faustin B, Postigo A, Yu E, Proell M, Gombosuren N, et al. Vaccinia virus F1L protein promotes virulence by inhibiting inflammasome activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that DNA viruses would target inflammasomes to overcome host defense. A Vaccinia virus (VACV) B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) homolog, F1L, was demonstrated to bind and inhibit the NLR family member ..
  26. Smith G, Howard S, Chan Y. Vaccinia virus encodes a family of genes with homology to serine proteinase inhibitors. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 9):2333-43 pubmed publisher
    Nucleotide sequencing of a region of the vaccinia virus genome proximal to the right inverted terminal repeat (ITR) identified two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of 39K and 40K with amino acid homology to each other, to ..
  27. Shida H. Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus hemagglutinin gene. Virology. 1986;150:451-62 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus hemagglutinin (HA) is expressed at late time of infection cycle, and it is nonessential for virus growth...
  28. Brown J, Twardzik D, Marquardt H, Todaro G. Vaccinia virus encodes a polypeptide homologous to epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor. Nature. 1985;313:491-2 pubmed
    ..We report here that a 140-residue polypeptide encoded by one of the early genes of vaccinia virus (VV) is related closely to EGF and TGF...
  29. Drumond B, Leite J, da Fonseca F, Bonjardim C, Ferreira P, Kroon E. Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains are genetically divergent and differ from the Lister vaccine strain. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:185-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus is responsible for an important zoonotic disease affecting dairy cattle and humans in Brazil, but little is known about the origin, epidemiology and evolution of these Brazilian Vaccinia virus strains...
  30. Shatzer A, Kato S, Condit R. Phenotypic analysis of a temperature sensitive mutant in the large subunit of the vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme. Virology. 2008;375:236-52 pubmed publisher
    The heterodimeric vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme is a multifunctional enzyme, encoded by genes D1R and D12L...
  31. Wagenaar T, Moss B. Expression of the A56 and K2 proteins is sufficient to inhibit vaccinia virus entry and cell fusion. J Virol. 2009;83:1546-54 pubmed publisher
    Many animal viruses induce cells to fuse and form syncytia. For vaccinia virus, this phenomenon is associated with mutations affecting the A56 and K2 proteins, which form a multimer (A56/K2) on the surface of infected cells...
  32. Garcel A, Crance J, Drillien R, Garin D, Favier A. Genomic sequence of a clonal isolate of the vaccinia virus Lister strain employed for smallpox vaccination in France and its comparison to other orthopoxviruses. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1906-16 pubmed
    Since 1980 there has been global eradication of smallpox due to the success of the vaccination programme using vaccinia virus (VACV)...
  33. Taylor J, Quilty D, Banadyga L, Barry M. The vaccinia virus protein F1L interacts with Bim and inhibits activation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39728-39 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of the orthopoxvirus genus, encodes the mitochondrial-localized protein F1L that functions to protect cells from apoptotic death and inhibits cytochrome c release...
  34. Campbell S, Hazes B, Kvansakul M, Colman P, Barry M. Vaccinia virus F1L interacts with Bak using highly divergent Bcl-2 homology domains and replaces the function of Mcl-1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4695-708 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaccinia virus F1L is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis that lacks significant sequence similarity with the Bcl-2 family and ..
  35. Dehaven B, Gupta K, Isaacs S. The vaccinia virus A56 protein: a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein that anchors two secreted viral proteins. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1971-80 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus A56 protein was one of the earliest-described poxvirus proteins with an identifiable activity. While originally characterized as a haemagglutinin protein, A56 has other functions as well...
  36. González Santamaría J, Campagna M, Garcia M, Marcos Villar L, Gonzalez D, Gallego P, et al. Regulation of vaccinia virus E3 protein by small ubiquitin-like modifier proteins. J Virol. 2011;85:12890-900 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 protein is essential for virulence and has antiapoptotic activity and the ability to impair the host innate immune response...
  37. Banham A, Smith G. Vaccinia virus gene B1R encodes a 34-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase that localizes in cytoplasmic factories and is packaged into virions. Virology. 1992;191:803-12 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus open reading frame B1R was expressed in E. coli and shown to encode a serine/threonine protein kinase which phosphorylated casein and calf thymus histones in vitro...
  38. Duncan S, Smith G. Identification and characterization of an extracellular envelope glycoprotein affecting vaccinia virus egress. J Virol. 1992;66:1610-21 pubmed
    Sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve genome revealed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF), SalL4R, which has the potential to encode a transmembrane glycoprotein with homology to C-type animal lectins (G...
  39. Roseman N, Slabaugh M. The vaccinia virus HindIII F fragment: nucleotide sequence of the left 6.2 kb. Virology. 1990;178:410-8 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the left 6.2 kb of the 13.2-kb HindIII F fragment of vaccinia virus was determined. Translation of the sequence revealed nine closely spaced, tandemly oriented open reading frames (ORFs), all reading leftward...
  40. Morikawa S, Sakiyama T, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Maeda A, Kurane I, et al. An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protection. J Virol. 2005;79:11873-91 pubmed
    The potential threat of smallpox bioterrorism has made urgent the development of lower-virulence vaccinia virus vaccines...
  41. Payne L. Identification of the vaccinia hemagglutinin polypeptide from a cell system yielding large amounts of extracellular enveloped virus. J Virol. 1979;31:147-55 pubmed
    HeLa, SIRC, and RK-13 cells were compared as to their production of intracellular naked vaccinia virus (INV) and extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus (EEV) after infection with vaccinia strains WR and IHD-J...
  42. Blasco R, Cole N, Moss B. Sequence analysis, expression, and deletion of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a homolog of profilin, a eukaryotic actin-binding protein. J Virol. 1991;65:4598-608 pubmed
    A 4,500-bp BamHI fragment, located within the HindIII A segment of the vaccinia virus genome, was found to contain eight potential coding regions for polypeptides of 78 to 346 amino acids...
  43. Traktman P, Anderson M, Rempel R. Vaccinia virus encodes an essential gene with strong homology to protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:21458-61 pubmed
    The B1 gene of vaccinia virus encodes a 34-kDa protein which is essential for viral replication. Temperature-sensitive mutants bearing lesions in this gene arrest at the stage of DNA replication during nonpermissive infections...
  44. Schmitt J, Stunnenberg H. Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment. J Virol. 1988;62:1889-97 pubmed
    The complete sequence of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment, which is composed of 6,498 base pairs, encodes six complete and two incomplete open reading frames (ORFs)...
  45. Gammon D, Snoeck R, Fiten P, Krecmerov M, Hol A, De Clercq E, et al. Mechanism of antiviral drug resistance of vaccinia virus: identification of residues in the viral DNA polymerase conferring differential resistance to antipoxvirus drugs. J Virol. 2008;82:12520-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To address these concerns, vaccinia virus (strain Lederle) was passaged 40 times in medium containing an escalating dose of (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(..
  46. Waibler Z, Anzaghe M, Frenz T, Schwantes A, P hlmann C, Ludwig H, et al. Vaccinia virus-mediated inhibition of type I interferon responses is a multifactorial process involving the soluble type I interferon receptor B18 and intracellular components. J Virol. 2009;83:1563-71 pubmed publisher
    Poxviruses such as virulent vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve encode a broad range of immune modulators that interfere with host responses to infection...
  47. Yu E, Zhai D, Jin C, Gerlic M, Reed J, Liddington R. Structural determinants of caspase-9 inhibition by the vaccinia virus protein, F1L. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that the vaccinia virus-encoded Bcl-2-like protein, F1L, which suppresses cytochrome c release by binding Bcl-2 family proteins, is ..
  48. Maruri Avidal L, Weisberg A, Moss B. Association of the vaccinia virus A11 protein with the endoplasmic reticulum and crescent precursors of immature virions. J Virol. 2013;87:10195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies revealed similarities and differences between A11 and L2, both of which may be involved in the recruitment of the ER for virus assembly...
  49. Ibrahim N, Wicklund A, Jamin A, Wiebe M. Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) inhibits vaccinia virus intermediate transcription in the absence of the viral B1 kinase. Virology. 2013;444:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies expand our understanding of the role of the B1 kinase during infection and provide the first evidence that BAF is a defense against viral gene expression...
  50. Goebel S, Johnson G, Perkus M, Davis S, Winslow J, Paoletti E. The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus. Virology. 1990;179:247-66, 517-63 pubmed
    The complete DNA sequence of the genome of vaccinia virus has been determined. The genome consisted of 191,636 bp with a base composition of 66.6% A + T...
  51. De Silva F, Moss B. Effects of vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase catalytic site and deoxyuridine triphosphatase deletion mutations individually and together on replication in active and quiescent cells and pathogenesis in mice. Virol J. 2008;5:145 pubmed publisher
    Low levels of uracil in DNA result from misincorporation of dUMP or cytosine deamination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes two enzymes that can potentially reduce the amount of uracil in DNA...
  52. Satheshkumar P, Weisberg A, Moss B. Vaccinia virus H7 protein contributes to the formation of crescent membrane precursors of immature virions. J Virol. 2009;83:8439-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthesis of the 17-kDa H7 protein was dependent on DNA replication and occurred late during vaccinia virus infection...
  53. Auvynet C, Topalis D, Caillat C, Munier Lehmann H, Seclaman E, Balzarini J, et al. Phosphorylation of dGMP analogs by vaccinia virus TMP kinase and human GMP kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:6-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus thymidylate kinase, although similar in sequence to human TMP kinase, has broader substrate specificity and phosphorylates (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-dUMP and dGMP...
  54. Maruri Avidal L, Domi A, Weisberg A, Moss B. Participation of vaccinia virus l2 protein in the formation of crescent membranes and immature virions. J Virol. 2011;85:2504-11 pubmed publisher
    Morphogenesis of vaccinia virus begins with the appearance of crescent-shaped membrane precursors of immature virions in cytoplasmic factories...
  55. Kettle S, Blake N, Law K, Smith G. Vaccinia virus serpins B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) encode M(r) 38.5 and 40K, intracellular polypeptides that do not affect virus virulence in a murine intranasal model. Virology. 1995;206:136-47 pubmed
    A characterization of genes B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) from vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (WR) is presented...
  56. Santos C, Vega F, Blanco S, Barcia R, Lazo P. The vaccinia virus B1R kinase induces p53 downregulation by an Mdm2-dependent mechanism. Virology. 2004;328:254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The B1R kinase is an early viral gene required for vaccinia virus DNA synthesis and replication, but no cellular substrate is known for this viral kinase...
  57. Meng X, Embry A, Rose L, Yan B, Xu C, Xiang Y. Vaccinia virus A6 is essential for virion membrane biogenesis and localization of virion membrane proteins to sites of virion assembly. J Virol. 2012;86:5603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..poorly understood, but several poxvirus proteins essential for the process have been identified in studies of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypical poxvirus...
  58. Handa Y, Durkin C, Dodding M, Way M. Vaccinia virus F11 promotes viral spread by acting as a PDZ-containing scaffolding protein to bind myosin-9A and inhibit RhoA signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the ability of Myosin-9A to promote viral spread depends on F11 binding RhoA. Thus, F11 acts as a functional PDZ-containing scaffolding protein to inhibit RhoA signaling by binding Myosin-9A...
  59. Symons J, Adams E, Tscharke D, Reading P, Waldmann H, Smith G. The vaccinia virus C12L protein inhibits mouse IL-18 and promotes virus virulence in the murine intranasal model. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of interferon (IFN)-gamma from mouse splenocytes was used to identify a soluble factor in the supernatants of vaccinia virus (VV)-infected cells that inhibited the production of IFN-gamma...
  60. Deng L, Dai P, Parikh T, Cao H, Bhoj V, Sun Q, et al. Vaccinia virus subverts a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein-dependent innate immune response in keratinocytes through its double-stranded RNA binding protein, E3. J Virol. 2008;82:10735-46 pubmed publisher
    ..None of these immune mediators is produced by keratinocytes infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. The dsRNA-binding domain of E3 suffices to prevent activation of the innate immune response...
  61. Chen Y, Honeychurch K, Yang G, Byrd C, Harver C, Hruby D, et al. Vaccinia virus p37 interacts with host proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis. Virol J. 2009;6:44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaccinia virus (VV) induces a wrapping complex derived from intracellular host membranes to envelope intracellular mature ..
  62. Dodding M, Mitter R, Humphries A, Way M. A kinesin-1 binding motif in vaccinia virus that is widespread throughout the human genome. EMBO J. 2011;30:4523-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations demonstrate that KLC binding can be conferred by a common set of features that are found in a wide range of proteins associated with diverse cellular functions and human diseases...
  63. Martin S, Harris D, Shisler J. The C11R gene, which encodes the vaccinia virus growth factor, is partially responsible for MVA-induced NF-?B and ERK2 activation. J Virol. 2012;86:9629-39 pubmed publisher
    MVA is an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector. MVA infection activates NF-?B...
  64. Maruri Avidal L, Weisberg A, Bisht H, Moss B. Analysis of viral membranes formed in cells infected by a vaccinia virus L2-deletion mutant suggests their origin from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Virol. 2013;87:1861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary role of L2 may be to recruit ER and modulate its transformation to viral membranes in juxtaposition with the viroplasm, simultaneously preventing the degradation of viral proteins dependent on viral membranes for stability...
  65. Lin S, Chen W, Broyles S. The vaccinia virus B1R gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase. J Virol. 1992;66:2717-23 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus open reading frame B1 predicts a polypeptide with significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of known protein kinases...
  66. Smith G, De Carlos A, Chan Y. Vaccinia virus encodes a thymidylate kinase gene: sequence and transcriptional mapping. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:7581-90 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of a vaccinia virus gene from the SalI F fragment are shown...
  67. Hirt P, Hiller G, Wittek R. Localization and fine structure of a vaccinia virus gene encoding an envelope antigen. J Virol. 1986;58:757-64 pubmed
    The major antigen on the envelope of extracellular vaccinia virus particles is a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 37,000 (p37K; G. Hiller and K. Weber, J. Virol. 55:651-659, 1985)...
  68. Parkinson J, Smith G. Vaccinia virus gene A36R encodes a M(r) 43-50 K protein on the surface of extracellular enveloped virus. Virology. 1994;204:376-90 pubmed
    A characterization of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (WR) open reading frame (ORF) A36R is described. This ORF is predicted to encode a 221-amino-acid protein (M(r) 25...
  69. Wolffe E, Isaacs S, Moss B. Deletion of the vaccinia virus B5R gene encoding a 42-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein inhibits extracellular virus envelope formation and dissemination. J Virol. 1993;67:4732-41 pubmed
    The structure, formation, and function of the virion membranes are among the least well understood aspects of vaccinia virus replication...
  70. Cooray S, Bahar M, Abrescia N, McVey C, Bartlett N, Chen R, et al. Functional and structural studies of the vaccinia virus virulence factor N1 reveal a Bcl-2-like anti-apoptotic protein. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1656-66 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes many immunomodulatory proteins, including inhibitors of apoptosis and modulators of innate immune signalling...
  71. Arsenio J, Deschambault Y, Cao J. Antagonizing activity of vaccinia virus E3L against human interferons in Huh7 cells. Virology. 2008;377:124-32 pubmed publisher
    The E3L protein of vaccinia virus (VV) is well known for its capacity to evade cellular innate antiviral immunity related to interferon (IFN), for example PKR and RNaseL mediated antiviral activities...
  72. Cordeiro J, Guerra S, Arakawa Y, Dodding M, Esteban M, Way M. F11-mediated inhibition of RhoA signalling enhances the spread of vaccinia virus in vitro and in vivo in an intranasal mouse model of infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8506 pubmed publisher
    The cortical actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane represents a physical barrier that vaccinia virus has to overcome during its exit from an infected cell...
  73. White S, Jacobs B. The amino terminus of the vaccinia virus E3 protein is necessary to inhibit the interferon response. J Virol. 2012;86:5895-904 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a multifunctional protein, E3L, that is necessary for interferon (IFN) resistance in cells in culture...
  74. Kerr S, Smith G. Vaccinia virus DNA ligase is nonessential for virus replication: recovery of plasmids from virus-infected cells. Virology. 1991;180:625-32 pubmed
    The essentiality of the vaccinia virus DNA ligase gene, SalF 15R, for virus growth was tested by insertional mutagenesis. A plasmid containing E...
  75. Takahashi Nishimaki F, Funahashi S, Miki K, Hashizume S, Sugimoto M. Regulation of plaque size and host range by a vaccinia virus gene related to complement system proteins. Virology. 1991;181:158-64 pubmed
    A vaccinia virus variant, LC16m8, and its parental Lister (Elstree) strain (LO) were employed to identify the viral gene(s) responsible for plaque size and host range: the large-plaque-forming LO strain but not the small-plaque-forming ..
  76. Smith G, Chan Y, Howard S. Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near the right inverted terminal repeat. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 6):1349-76 pubmed publisher
    The nucleotide sequence of 42090 bp of vaccinia virus strain WR is presented...
  77. Perdiguero B, Lorenzo M, Blasco R. Vaccinia virus A34 glycoprotein determines the protein composition of the extracellular virus envelope. J Virol. 2008;82:2150-60 pubmed
    The outer envelope of the extracellular form of vaccinia virus contains five virus-encoded proteins, F13, A33, A34, A56, and B5, that, with the exception of A56, are implicated in virus egress or infectivity...
  78. Gammon D, Evans D. The 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is essential and plays a role in promoting virus genetic recombination. J Virol. 2009;83:4236-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of concatemeric recombinant molecules in vitro in a process that was catalyzed by the proofreading activity of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase...
  79. Howard S, Chan Y, Smith G. Vaccinia virus homologues of the Shope fibroma virus inverted terminal repeat proteins and a discontinuous ORF related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Virology. 1991;180:633-47 pubmed
    ..sequencing data from a region extending 35 kb inward from the right inverted terminal repeat (ITR) of the vaccinia virus (VV) genome established the presence of VV homologues of the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) ITR proteins...
  80. Zhou J, Crawford L, McLean L, Sun X, Stanley M, Almond N, et al. Increased antibody responses to human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus lacking serine protease inhibitor genes. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 9):2185-90 pubmed publisher
    The L1 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) driven by the vaccinia virus major late 4b gene promoter has been inserted into three different sites of the vaccinia virus genome...
  81. Ueda Y, Morikawa S, Matsuura Y. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding a surface antigen induced by vaccinia virus. Virology. 1990;177:588-94 pubmed
    The gene encoding the specific antigen (S antigen) induced on the surface of vaccinia virus-infected cells was mapped on the viral genome by the construction of recombinant viruses. The S gene is located in the 1...
  82. Earl P, Jones E, Moss B. Homology between DNA polymerases of poxviruses, herpesviruses, and adenoviruses: nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:3659-63 pubmed
    A 5400-base-pair segment of the vaccinia virus genome was sequenced and an open reading frame of 938 codons was found precisely where the DNA polymerase had been mapped by transfer of a phosphonoacetate-resistance marker...
  83. Engelstad M, Smith G. The vaccinia virus 42-kDa envelope protein is required for the envelopment and egress of extracellular virus and for virus virulence. Virology. 1993;194:627-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus gene B5R encodes a M(r) 42K glycoprotein that is expressed throughout infection and forms part of the envelope of extracellular virus...
  84. Almaz n F, Tscharke D, Smith G. The vaccinia virus superoxide dismutase-like protein (A45R) is a virion component that is nonessential for virus replication. J Virol. 2001;75:7018-29 pubmed publisher
    A characterization of the A45R gene from vaccinia virus (VV) strain Western Reserve is presented...
  85. Soulière M, Perreault J, Bisaillon M. Characterization of the vaccinia virus D10 decapping enzyme provides evidence for a two-metal-ion mechanism. Biochem J. 2009;420:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Decapping enzymes have been found in humans, plants and yeasts, and have been discovered more recently in vaccinia virus (D10 protein)...
  86. Boyd O, Turner P, Moyer R, Condit R, Moussatche N. The E6 protein from vaccinia virus is required for the formation of immature virions. Virology. 2010;399:201-11 pubmed publisher
    An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication...
  87. Gershon P, Ahn B, Garfield M, Moss B. Poly(A) polymerase and a dissociable polyadenylation stimulatory factor encoded by vaccinia virus. Cell. 1991;66:1269-78 pubmed
    ..No prokaryotic or eukaryotic homologs of either polypeptide were detected in sequence data bases, consistent with the absence of previously reported poly(A) polymerase genes from any source...
  88. Kotwal G, Moss B. Analysis of a large cluster of nonessential genes deleted from a vaccinia virus terminal transposition mutant. Virology. 1988;167:524-37 pubmed
    ..Moss, E. Winters, and J. A. Cooper (1981) J. Virol. 40, 387-395) attenuated variant of vaccinia virus strain WR and to examine the precise changes in the genome accompanying the deletion. The sequences of a 14...
  89. Hruby D, Maki R, Miller D, Ball L. Fine structure analysis and nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:3411-5 pubmed
    The thymidine kinase (ATP:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21) gene of vaccinia virus has previously been mapped near the middle of the viral DNA, within the 4...
  90. Osborne J, Da Silva M, Frace A, Sammons S, Olsen Rasmussen M, Upton C, et al. Genomic differences of Vaccinia virus clones from Dryvax smallpox vaccine: the Dryvax-like ACAM2000 and the mouse neurovirulent Clone-3. Vaccine. 2007;25:8807-32 pubmed
    Conventional vaccines used for smallpox eradication were often denoted one or another strain of Vaccinia virus (VACV), even though seed virus was sub-cultured multifariously, which rendered the virion population genetically heterogeneous...
  91. Sood C, Ward J, Moss B. Vaccinia virus encodes I5, a small hydrophobic virion membrane protein that enhances replication and virulence in mice. J Virol. 2008;82:10071-8 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus I5L open reading frame encodes a 79-amino-acid protein, with two predicted transmembrane domains, that is conserved among all sequenced members of the chordopoxvirus subfamily...
  92. Turner P, Moyer R. The vaccinia virus fusion inhibitor proteins SPI-3 (K2) and HA (A56) expressed by infected cells reduce the entry of superinfecting virus. Virology. 2008;380:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of mature virions of vaccinia virus (VV) to VV-infected cells was unaffected by SPI-3 or A56 on the surface of infected cells...