Spirochaetales

Summary

Alias: spirochetes, Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917

Top Publications

  1. Basile R, Rivera G, Del Rio L, de Bonis T, do Amaral G, Giangrecco E, et al. Anaphylactoid reaction caused by sodium ceftriaxone in two horses experimentally infected by Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:197 pubmed publisher
    ..It was administered 4.7 × 10(8) spirochetes intradermal and subcutaneous applications in both horses to evaluate clinical aspects of the Lyme disease, 95 ..
  2. Hutchinson M, Strohecker M, Simmons T, Kyle A, Helwig M. Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvan. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:693-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and one tick positive for A. phagocytophilum+Ba. microti. Infection rates for B. burgdorferi were lower in the western region of the state. Our findings substantiate that Lyme disease risk is high throughout Pennsylvania. ..
  3. Richer L, Potula H, Melo R, Vieira A, Gomes Solecki M. Mouse model for sublethal Leptospira interrogans infection. Infect Immun. 2015;83:4693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..which was followed by urinary shedding, body weight loss, hypothermia, and colonization of the kidney by live spirochetes 2 weeks after infection...
  4. Butler T. The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Accelerated phagocytosis of spirochetes by polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes before rise in cytokines is responsible for removal of organisms from the ..
  5. Buczek A, Ciura D, Bartosik K, ZajÄ…c Z, Kulisz J. Threat of attacks of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Lyme borreliosis within urban heat islands in south-western Poland. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:562 pubmed publisher
    ..The greatest effect of the environmental factors on ticks was found in the city park, where the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes is the highest as well.
  6. Jahfari S, Hofhuis A, Fonville M, van der Giessen J, van Pelt W, Sprong H. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0005042 pubmed publisher
    ..on molecular detection techniques, the probability of infection with a tick-borne pathogen other than Lyme spirochetes after a tick bite is roughly 2.4%, in the Netherlands...
  7. Crossland N, Alvarez X, Embers M. Late Disseminated Lyme Disease: Associated Pathology and Spirochete Persistence Posttreatment in Rhesus Macaques. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:672-682 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare morphologically intact spirochetes were observed in the brains of two treated rhesus macaques, the heart of one treated rhesus macaque, and ..
  8. Lin T, Gao L, Zhao X, Liu J, Norris S. Mutations in the Borrelia burgdorferi Flagellar Type III Secretion System Genes fliH and fliI Profoundly Affect Spirochete Flagellar Assembly, Morphology, Motility, Structure, and Cell Division. MBio. 2015;6:e00579-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In spiral-shaped organisms called spirochetes, flagella act like inboard motors and give the bacteria the ability to bore their way through dense materials (..
  9. Stone B, Russart N, Gaultney R, Floden A, Vaughan J, Brissette C. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B...

More Information

Publications234 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gasque P, Jaffar Bandjee M. The immunology and inflammatory responses of human melanocytes in infectious diseases. J Infect. 2015;71:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of entry for pathogens such as arboviruses (Chikungunya, Dengue) and bacteria (mycobacterium leprae, Leptospira spirochetes)...
  2. Szekeres S, Lügner J, Fingerle V, Margos G, Földvári G. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of East Saxony, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017;8:922-927 pubmed publisher
    ..s., one B. bavariensis and four B. miyamotoi infections were confirmed. Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was significantly higher in nymphs than in adults (p<0...
  3. Edwards M, Barbalato L, Makkapati A, Pham K, Bugbee L. Relatively low prevalence of Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6:812-9 pubmed publisher
    Several human pathogens are transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. These include the spirochetes that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) which is endemic to the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania...
  4. Kumar S, Caimano M, Anand A, Dey A, Hawley K, LeDoyt M, et al. Sequence Variation of Rare Outer Membrane Protein ?-Barrel Domains in Clinical Strains Provides Insights into the Evolution of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..OMP diversity and that recombination at OMP loci contributes to the evolutionary biology of syphilis spirochetes. These results also set the stage for topology-based analysis of antibody responses that promote clearance of <..
  5. Lane R, Mun J, Peribáñez M, Fedorova N. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..coriaceus sometimes acquires and transstadially passes Lyme disease group spirochetes. I. pacificus nymphs inhabiting a woodland nidus of B. burgdorferi and A...
  6. Esteve Gassent M, Smith T, Small C, Thomas D, Seshu J. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136707 pubmed publisher
    ..Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in ..
  7. Zhang K, Liu J, Charon N, Li C. Hypothetical Protein BB0569 Is Essential for Chemotaxis of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 2015;198:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that BB0569 has a distinct role in chemotaxis that may be unique to spirochetes and represents a novel paradigm.
  8. Wagner B, Johnson J, Garcia Tapia D, Honsberger N, King V, Strietzel C, et al. Comparison of effectiveness of cefovecin, doxycycline, and amoxicillin for the treatment of experimentally induced early Lyme borreliosis in dogs. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:163 pubmed publisher
    ..However, each antibiotic tested was efficacious against B. burgdorferi as measured by a rapid elimination of spirochetes from the skin and reduced levels of circulating antibodies to B. burgdorferi...
  9. Korolev S, Zverkov O, Seliverstov A, Lyubetsky V. Ribosome reinitiation at leader peptides increases translation of bacterial proteins. Biol Direct. 2016;11:20 pubmed publisher
    ..A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes...
  10. Didyk Y, Blaňarová L, Pogrebnyak S, Akimov I, Petko B, Vichova B. Emergence of tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ricketsia raoultii and Babesia microti) in the Kyiv urban parks, Ukraine. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017;8:219-225 pubmed publisher
    ..Tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, were detected in ..
  11. DziÄ™giel B, Adaszek Å, Carbonero A, Łyp P, Winiarczyk M, DÄ™biak P, et al. Detection of canine vector-borne diseases in eastern Poland by ELISA and PCR. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1039-44 pubmed publisher
    ..For B. burgdorferi, the DNA of the spirochetes was detected in the blood of 20 dogs, while the presence of anti-B...
  12. Macdonald A, Hyon D, Brewington J, O Connor K, Swei A, Briggs C. Lyme disease risk in southern California: abiotic and environmental drivers of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) density and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto), and related spirochetes was not predicted by the abiotic conditions promoting I...
  13. Savage C, Jutras B, Bestor A, Tilly K, Rosa P, Tourand Y, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi SpoVG DNA- and RNA-Binding Protein Modulates the Physiology of the Lyme Disease Spirochete. J Bacteriol. 2018;200: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, spirochetes engineered to dysregulate spoVG exhibited physiological alterations.IMPORTANCEB...
  14. Venczel R, Knoke L, Pavlovic M, Dzaferovic E, Vaculova T, Silaghi C, et al. A novel duplex real-time PCR permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Infection. 2016;44:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA and of several species of relapsing fever spirochetes. Conventional PCR on recG and glpQ and sequencing of p41 PCR products were used to confirm the species ..
  15. Eisen L, Breuner N, Hojgaard A, Hoxmeier J, Pilgard M, Replogle A, et al. Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:239-242 pubmed publisher
    ..mayonii from infected mice and pass spirochetes to the nymphal stage (overall nymphal infection rates of 11.6 and 13.3%, respectively)...
  16. Honig V, Carolan H, Vavrušková Z, Massire C, Mosel M, Crowder C, et al. Broad-range survey of vector-borne pathogens and tick host identification of Ixodes ricinus from Southern Czech Republic. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2017;93: pubmed publisher
    ..Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes were the most common pathogen detected in the ticks; 21% of ticks were positive for a single genospecies and 2% ..
  17. Pisa D, Alonso R, Fernández Fernández A, Rabano A, Carrasco L. Polymicrobial Infections In Brain Tissue From Alzheimer's Disease Patients. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5559 pubmed publisher
    ..A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi. These structures were not found with a monoclonal antibody...
  18. Borchers A, Keen C, Huntley A, Gershwin M. Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun. 2015;57:82-115 pubmed publisher
    ..There is considerable data on spirochetes, including Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the original bacteria identified in this disease...
  19. Tayal S, Shaban F, Dasgupta K, Tabaqchali M. A case of syphilitic anal condylomata lata mimicking malignancy. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015;17:69-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A dense plasma cell infiltrate and numerous spirochetes visualised by immunostaining confirms condylomata lata...
  20. Oosting M, Buffen K, Cheng S, Verschueren I, Koentgen F, van de Veerdonk F, et al. Borrelia-induced cytokine production is mediated by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) but is Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 independent. Cytokine. 2015;76:465-472 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we assessed the role of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in the recognition process of Borrelia spirochetes. Using specific inhibitors against these receptors on human cells did not influenced cytokine production...
  21. Breuner N, Hojgaard A, Replogle A, Boegler K, Eisen L. Transmission of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, by single transovarially-infected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9:1464-1467 pubmed publisher
    ..Because public health messaging for risk of exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes focuses on nymphal and female I...
  22. Wagemakers A, Oei A, Fikrig M, Miellet W, Hovius J. The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi is cultivable in a modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium, and is resistant to human complement. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:418 pubmed publisher
    ..with 10% fetal calf serum (MKP-F), and used standard non-laborious Borrelia culture methods to culture the spirochetes. Next, we assessed serum sensitivity by a direct killing assay and a growth inhibition assay...
  23. Barbosa A, Isaac L. Complement Immune Evasion by Spirochetes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2018;415:215-238 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several pathogens including spirochetes have developed several specialized mechanisms to evade the complement system, thereby contributing to survival ..
  24. Bauer W, Luthra A, Zhu G, Radolf J, Malkowski M, Caimano M. Structural characterization and modeling of the Borrelia burgdorferi hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 periplasmic sensor: A system for sensing small molecules associated with tick feeding. J Struct Biol. 2015;192:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spirochetes lacking either Hk1 or Rrp1 are virulent in mice but destroyed within feeding ticks...
  25. Naj X, Linder S. Actin-Dependent Regulation of Borrelia burgdorferi Phagocytosis by Macrophages. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2017;399:133-154 pubmed publisher
    ..cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes. These processes are based on closely controlled rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, which enables the ..
  26. Jolivet Gougeon A, Bonnaure Mallet M. Treponema, Iron and Neurodegeneration. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;: pubmed
    b>Spirochetes are suspected to be linked to the genesis of neurological diseases, including neurosyphillis or neurodegeneration (ND)...
  27. Estrada Peña A, Álvarez Jarreta J, Cabezas Cruz A. Reservoir and vector evolutionary pressures shaped the adaptation of Borrelia. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    The life cycle of spirochetes of the genus Borrelia includes complex networks of vertebrates and ticks...
  28. Norris S. Catching up with Lyme Disease Antigenic Variation Computationally. Trends Microbiol. 2018;26:644-645 pubmed publisher
    The spirochetes that cause Lyme disease have an elaborate antigenic variation system that produces millions of variants, thus evading the immune response. Verhey et al...
  29. Sarkar J, MILLER D, Oliver L, Marconi R. The Treponema denticola PAS Domain-Containing Histidine Kinase Hpk2 Is a Heme Binding Sensor of Oxygen Levels. J Bacteriol. 2018;200: pubmed publisher
    ..the bacterial population transitions from Gram-positive bacteria to predominantly Gram-negative anaerobes and spirochetes, dramatic changes occur in the physiological and immunological environment at diseased sites...
  30. Sano Y, Okamoto Shibayama K, Tanaka K, Ito R, Shintani S, Yakushiji M, et al. Dentilisin involvement in coaggregation between Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. Anaerobe. 2014;30:45-50 pubmed publisher
    Periodontitis arises from a biofilm consisting of gram-negative anaerobic rods and spirochetes. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, termed the Red complex, have been co-isolated with high frequency ..
  31. Morgan A, Wang X. Structural mechanisms underlying sequence-dependent variations in GAG affinities of decorin binding protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin. Biochem J. 2015;467:439-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities...
  32. Tateishi Y, Takahashi M, Horiguchi S, Funata N, Koizumi K, Okudela K, et al. Clinicopathologic study of intestinal spirochetosis in Japan with special reference to human immunodeficiency virus infection status and species types: analysis of 5265 consecutive colorectal biopsies. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:13 pubmed publisher
    ..All pathology slides were reviewed by two pathologists. The length of the spirochetes was measured using a digital microscope. Causative species were identified by polymerase chain reaction...
  33. Bastaki J. Necrotizing tonsillitis caused by group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. Ear Nose Throat J. 2015;94:E1-3 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, pseudomembranous and necrotizing tonsillitis are usually caused by fusiform bacilli and spirochetes. Here we report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of necrotizing tonsillitis caused by group C beta-..
  34. Ziganshin A, Schmidt T, Lv Z, Liebetrau J, Richnow H, Kleinsteuber S, et al. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems. Bioresour Technol. 2016;217:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention...
  35. Kuo J, Warner T, Munson E, Nardelli D, Schell R. Arthritis is developed in Borrelia-primed and -infected mice deficient of interleukin-17. Pathog Dis. 2016;74: pubmed publisher
    ..and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were primed with heat-inactivated Borrelia and then infected with viable spirochetes 3 weeks later...
  36. Colombo V, Gamietea I, Loffler S, Brihuega B, Beldomenico P. New host species for Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Vet Microbiol. 2018;215:90-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil, suggesting that these rodents might be involved in the transmission of spirochetes in other regions...
  37. Kelly A, Raffel S, Fischer R, Bellinghausen M, Stevenson C, Schwan T. First isolation of the relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia hermsii, from a domestic dog. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A clinically ill dog in Washington, USA, was spirochetemic upon examination. Spirochetes were isolated from the dog's serum and examined by PCR and multi-locus sequence typing...
  38. Wang Y, Kern A, Boatright N, Schiller Z, Sadowski A, Ejemel M, et al. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With OspA-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Protects Mice Against Tick Transmission of Lyme Disease Spirochetes. J Infect Dis. 2016;214:205-11 pubmed publisher
    Tick transmission of Borrelia spirochetes to humans results in significant morbidity from Lyme disease worldwide...
  39. Verdugo C, Jiménez O, Hernández C, Álvarez P, Espinoza A, González Acuña D. Infection with Borrelia chilensis in Ixodes stilesi ticks collected from Pudu puda deer. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017;8:733-740 pubmed publisher
    Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex spirochetes, which are maintained in transmission cycles among vertebrates and Ixodes ticks...
  40. Li S, Wang M, Ojcius D, Zhou B, Hu W, Liu Y, et al. Leptospira interrogans infection leads to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion from a human macrophage cell line through reactive oxygen species and cathepsin B mediated-NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Microbes Infect. 2018;20:254-260 pubmed publisher
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Although there is a large diversity of clinical signs and symptoms, a severe inflammatory response is common to all leptospirosis patients...
  41. Ayoade F, Mada P, Joel Chandranesan A, Alam M. Sporotrichoid Skin Infection Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Kidney Transplant Patient. Diseases. 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..of Nocardia skin involvement, can mimic other conditions, including those caused by fungi, mycobacteria, spirochetes, parasites and other bacteria...
  42. Lehmann J, Matthias M, Vinetz J, Fouts D. Leptospiral pathogenomics. Pathogens. 2014;3:280-308 pubmed publisher
    Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira, is a zoonosis with important impacts on human and animal health worldwide...
  43. Dyer A, Brown G, Stejskal L, Laity P, Bingham R. The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning β-barrel. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    The deep evolutionary history of the Spirochetes places their branch point early in the evolution of the diderms, before the divergence of the present day Proteobacteria...
  44. Fietz J, Langer F, Havenstein N, Matuschka F, Richter D. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks ..
  45. Jacek E, Tang K, Komorowski L, Ajamian M, Probst C, Stevenson B, et al. Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease. J Immunol. 2016;196:1036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite their strong immunogenicity, the target epitopes were inaccessible to Abs on intact spirochetes, suggesting a lack of direct immunoprotective effect...
  46. Levett P. Systematics of leptospiraceae. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;387:11-20 pubmed publisher
    Leptospires are spirochetes that may be free-living saprophytes found in freshwater or may cause acute or chronic infection of animals...
  47. Moon K, Zhao X, Manne A, Wang J, Yu Z, Liu J, et al. Spirochetes flagellar collar protein FlbB has astounding effects in orientation of periplasmic flagella, bacterial shape, motility, and assembly of motors in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2016;102:336-348 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike externally flagellated bacteria, spirochetes possess a unique periplasmic flagellar structure called the collar...
  48. Casanovas Massana A, Pedra G, Wunder E, Diggle P, Begon M, Ko A. Quantification of Leptospira interrogans Survival in Soil and Water Microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84: pubmed publisher
    ..b>IMPORTANCE Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that primarily affects impoverished populations worldwide...
  49. Szekeres S, Coipan E, Rigó K, Majoros G, Jahfari S, Sprong H, et al. Eco-epidemiology of Borrelia miyamotoi and Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in a popular hunting and recreational forest area in Hungary. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:309 pubmed publisher
    ..miyamotoi and 6.6 % (skin) and 2.2 % (spleen) for B. burgdorferi s.l. Relapsing fever spirochetes were detected in Apodemus flavicollis males, B. burgdorferi s.l. in Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus samples...
  50. Jorge S, Monte L, De Oliveira N, Collares T, Roloff B, Gomes C, et al. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. Curr Microbiol. 2015;71:496-500 pubmed publisher
    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars...
  51. Clegg S, Carter S, Birtles R, Brown J, Hart C, Evans N. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pathogenic Treponemes Isolated from Cloven-Hoofed Animals and Comparison to Treponemes Isolated from Humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:4523-4536 pubmed publisher
    ..The fastidiousness of these spirochetes has previously precluded studies investigating within-phylogroup genetic diversity...
  52. Leclercq A, Cinotti E, Labeille B, Cribier B, Biron A, Vermersch C, et al. [The role of reflectance confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of secondary syphilis of the vulva and anus: A first case report]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2016;143:687-690 pubmed publisher
    ..ano-genital lesions enabled us to identify hyper-reflective elongated rods in the papillary dermis suggesting spirochetes. The diagnosis was confirmed by TPHA and VDRL as well as immunohistological examination...
  53. Kumarihamy K, Ralapanawa D, Jayalath W. Co-existent facial palsy and myocarditis in a 50-year old farmer diagnosed with probable leptospirosis: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:26 pubmed publisher
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira...
  54. Newman E, Eisen L, Eisen R, Fedorova N, Hasty J, Vaughn C, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118146 pubmed publisher
    ..the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.
  55. Takezawa T, Hayashi S, Adachi Y, Sunada K, Hayashi Y, Nishimura N, et al. Human intestinal spirochetosis in an immunocompromised host: evaluation of eradication therapy by endoscopy, histopathology and bacteriology. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2012;5:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A histopathological examination identified intestinal colonization by spirochetes, and Brachyspira pilosicoli was isolated from biopsy specimens, indicating a diagnosis of HIS...
  56. Carrasco S, Troxell B, Yang Y, Brandt S, Li H, Sandusky G, et al. Outer surface protein OspC is an antiphagocytic factor that protects Borrelia burgdorferi from phagocytosis by macrophages. Infect Immun. 2015;83:4848-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that phagocytosis of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ospC mutant spirochetes by murine peritoneal macrophages and human THP-1 macrophage-like cells, but not in PMN-HL60, was significantly ..
  57. MOTALEB M, Liu J, Wooten R. Spirochetal motility and chemotaxis in the natural enzootic cycle and development of Lyme disease. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015;28:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..in some organisms, the highly orchestrated synthesis, regulation, and assembly of periplasmic flagella in spirochetes are just being delineated...
  58. Lin Y, Chen Y, Smith T, Karna S, Seshu J. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Metabolic and Virulence Attributes of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    ..levels of rpoS and ospC were elevated on supplementation of SCFAs compared to those of untreated spirochetes. Immunoblot analysis revealed elevated levels of RpoS, OspC, and DbpA with increased levels of SCFAs...
  59. Bibi F, Yasir M, Sohrab S, Azhar E, Al Qahtani M, Abuzenadah A, et al. Link between chronic bacterial inflammation and Alzheimer disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2014;13:1140-7 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that bacteria including spirochetes have the potential to initiate cascade of events, leading to inflammatory condition of the central nervous ..
  60. Hammer C, Wanitchakool P, Sirianant L, Papiol S, Monnheimer M, Faria D, et al. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity. Mol Med. 2015;21:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca(2+) signals, which may delay spirochete ..
  61. Wolgemuth C. Flagellar motility of the pathogenic spirochetes. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;46:104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Of mammalian pathogens, some of the most invasive come from a group of bacteria known as the spirochetes, which cause diseases, such as syphilis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever and leptospirosis...
  62. Melaun C, Zotzmann S, Santaella V, Werblow A, Zumkowski Xylander H, Kraiczy P, et al. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:256-63 pubmed publisher
    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex...
  63. Moon K, Hobbs G, Motaleb M. Borrelia burgdorferi CheD Promotes Various Functions in Chemotaxis and the Pathogenic Life Cycle of the Spirochete. Infect Immun. 2016;84:1743-1752 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse-tick-mouse infection assays indicated that CheD is dispensable for acquisition or transmission of spirochetes; however, the viability of cheD mutants in ticks is marginally reduced compared to that of the wild-type or ..
  64. Wagemakers A, Visser M, De Wever B, Hovius J, van de Donk N, Hendriks E, et al. Case report: persistently seronegative neuroborreliosis in an immunocompromised patient. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18:362 pubmed publisher
    Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (B. b. sl) spirochetes can cause Lyme borreliosis, manifesting as localized infection (e.g. erythema migrans) or disseminated disease (e.g. Lyme neuroborreliosis)...
  65. Clegg S, Mansfield K, Newbrook K, Sullivan L, Blowey R, Carter S, et al. Isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from hoof lesions in Wild North American Elk (Cervus elaphus) in Washington State, USA. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..phylotypes: specifically, the Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochetes. The third treponeme culturable phylogroup (Treponema pedis), although detected by PCR, was not isolated...
  66. Zinicola M, Higgins H, Lima S, Machado V, Guard C, Bicalho R. Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Functional Genes and Microbiome Associated with Bovine Digital Dermatitis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133674 pubmed publisher
    ..Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla in the microbiome of HS, while Spirochetes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were highly abundant in ADD and IDD. T. denticola-like, T...
  67. Gryczyńska A, Welc Faleciak R. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016;70:381-394 pubmed
    ..7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing ..
  68. Carlsson H, Ekerfelt C, Henningsson A, Brudin L, Tjernberg I. Subclinical Lyme borreliosis is common in south-eastern Sweden and may be distinguished from Lyme neuroborreliosis by sex, age and specific immune marker patterns. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9:742-748 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole Borrelia spirochetes, strains B. afzelii ACA1 and B...
  69. Grygorczuk S, Osada J, Moniuszko A, Świerzbińska R, Kondrusik M, Zajkowska J, et al. Increased expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in the culture of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The cultures stimulated for 48h with live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii or B. afzelii spirochetes. Fraction of the apoptotic Th (CD3+CD4+) lymphocytes and expression of Fas in this cell population was measured ..
  70. Martins Pinheiro M, Schons Fonseca L, da Silva J, Domingos R, Momo L, Simões A, et al. Genomic survey and expression analysis of DNA repair genes in the genus Leptospira. Mol Genet Genomics. 2016;291:703-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and comprises saprophytic (L. biflexa), pathogenic (L. interrogans) and host-dependent (L...
  71. Cosate M, Siqueira G, de Souza G, Vasconcellos S, Nascimento A. Mammalian cell entry (Mce) protein of Leptospira interrogans binds extracellular matrix components, plasminogen and ?2 integrin. Microbiol Immunol. 2016;60:586-98 pubmed publisher
    A severe re-emergingzoonosis, leptospirosis, is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira...
  72. Xu H, Sultan S, Yerke A, Moon K, Wooten R, Motaleb M. Borrelia burgdorferi CheY2 Is Dispensable for Chemotaxis or Motility but Crucial for the Infectious Life Cycle of the Spirochete. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, while ?cheY2 spirochetes are able to survive normally in the Ixodes ticks, mice fed upon by the ?cheY2-infected ticks did not develop a ..
  73. Diaz P, Arnal J, Remesar S, Pérez Creo A, Venzal J, Vázquez López M, et al. Molecular identification of Borrelia spirochetes in questing Ixodes ricinus from northwestern Spain. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:615 pubmed publisher
    ..can transmit the causative agents of important human diseases such as Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by Borrelia spirochetes. In northern Spain, LB is considered endemic; recently, a significant increase of the annual incidence of LB ..
  74. Wills M, Kirby A, Lloyd V. Detecting the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ticks Using Nested PCR. J Vis Exp. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks...
  75. Batool M, Caoili S, Dangott L, Gerasimov E, Ionov Y, Piontkivska H, et al. Identification of Surface Epitopes Associated with Protection against Highly Immune-Evasive VlsE-Expressing Lyme Disease Spirochetes. Infect Immun. 2018;86: pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi surface, the spirochetes successfully evade antibodies primarily due to the VlsE-mediated antigenic variation...
  76. Barbour A, Bunikis J, Fish D, Hanincová K. Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:299 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of infection in the nymphs and the counts of spirochetes in infected ticks allometrically scaled with body mass with exponents of -0.28 and -0.29, respectively...
  77. Murat D, Hérisse M, Espinosa L, Bossa A, Alberto F, Wu L. Opposite and Coordinated Rotation of Amphitrichous Flagella Governs Oriented Swimming and Reversals in a Magnetotactic Spirillum. J Bacteriol. 2015;197:3275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking into consideration similar observations in spirochetes, bacteria possessing bipolar ribbons of periplasmic flagella, we propose a conserved motility paradigm for ..
  78. Uhde M, Ajamian M, Li X, Wormser G, Marques A, Alaedini A. Expression of C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A in Early to Late Manifestations of Lyme Disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:1399-1404 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that circulating CRP and SAA levels are highest when the concentration of spirochetes is greatest in skin and/or blood and that levels decline after the dissemination of the organism to ..
  79. Schlachter S, Chan K, Marras S, Parveen N. Detection and Differentiation of Lyme Spirochetes and Other Tick-Borne Pathogens from Blood Using Real-Time PCR with Molecular Beacons. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1616:155-170 pubmed publisher
  80. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Gill J, Piesman J. Characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick Carios kelleyi. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:643-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spirochetes reactive with a Borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody were observed microscopically in the coxal fluid and ..
  81. Schramm F, Gauthier Clerc M, Fournier J, McCoy K, Barthel C, Postic D, et al. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5:939-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural ..
  82. Korenberg E, Kovalevskii Y, Gorelova N, Nefedova V. Comparative analysis of the roles of Ixodes persulcatus and I. trianguliceps ticks in natural foci of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in the Middle Urals, Russia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..afzelii), but the set of genogroups and genovariants of these spirochetes in I. trianguliceps proved to be far less diverse. According to the available data, this tick, compared to I...
  83. Lieskovská J, Páleníková J, Langhansová H, Campos Chagas A, Calvo E, Kotsyfakis M, et al. Tick sialostatins L and L2 differentially influence dendritic cell responses to Borrelia spirochetes. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:275 pubmed publisher
    ..DCs derived from bone-marrow by GM-CSF or Flt-3 ligand, were activated with Borrelia spirochetes or TLR ligands in the presence of 3 μM Sialo L and 3 μM Sialo L2...
  84. Caskey J, Embers M. Persister Development by Borrelia burgdorferi Populations In Vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:6288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we determined experimentally and mathematically that the spirochetes which persist posttreatment do not have a longer lag phase but exhibit a lower growth rate than untreated ..
  85. Krajacich B, Lopez J, Raffel S, Schwan T. Vaccination with the variable tick protein of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii protects mice from infection by tick-bite. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:546 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fevers of humans are caused by spirochetes that must adapt to both warm-blooded vertebrates and cold-blooded ticks...
  86. Jahfari S, Krawczyk A, Coipan E, Fonville M, Hovius J, Sprong H, et al. Enzootic origins for clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;49:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentiating between the spirochetes that only cause localized skin infection from those that cause disseminated infection, and tracing the group of ..
  87. Vk C, Ty L, Wf L, Ywy W, An S, S Z, et al. Leptospirosis in human: Biomarkers in host immune responses. Microbiol Res. 2018;207:108-115 pubmed publisher
    Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, which accounts for high morbidity and mortality globally...
  88. Høj L, Levy N, Baillie B, Clode P, Strohmaier R, Siboni N, et al. Crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster cf. solaris, have tissue-characteristic microbiomes with potential roles in health and reproduction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Body wall samples had high relative abundance (43-64% of reads) of spirochetes, likely corresponding to subcuticular symbionts reported from many echinoderms...
  89. Mukhacheva T, Kovalev S. Borrelia spirochetes in Russia: Genospecies differentiation by real-time PCR. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5:722-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis which is widespread in Russia. Nowadays, three clinically important B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B...
  90. Kasumba I, Bestor A, Tilly K, Rosa P. Use of an endogenous plasmid locus for stable in trans complementation in Borrelia burgdorferi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:1038-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, insertion of a selectable marker on lp25 could ensure its stable maintenance by spirochetes in culture...
  91. Cutler S. Relapsing Fever Borreliae: A Global Review. Clin Lab Med. 2015;35:847-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Transmitted by soft ticks or lice, these fascinating spirochetes have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to survive within their diverse environments.
  92. Showman A, Aranjuez G, Adams P, Jewett M. Gene bb0318 Is Critical for the Oxidative Stress Response and Infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2016;84:3141-3151 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi pathogenesis. No in vitro growth defect was observed for the ?bb0318 clone. However, the mutant spirochetes displayed reduced levels of survival when exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide or murine macrophages...