Borrelia burgdorferi B31


Alias: Borrelia burgdorferi str. B31

Top Publications

  1. Xu H, He M, He J, Yang X. Role of the surface lipoprotein BBA07 in the enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2910-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we concluded that the surface lipoprotein BBA07 is produced during tick feeding and facilitates optimal transmission of B. burgdorferi from the tick vector to a mammalian host. ..
  2. Fisher M, Grimm D, Henion A, Elias A, Stewart P, Rosa P, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi sigma54 is required for mammalian infection and vector transmission but not for tick colonization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5162-7 pubmed
    ..However, sigma54 mutants did not enter the salivary glands during tick feeding, indicating that sigma54-regulated genes were involved in the transmission process. ..
  3. Motaleb M, Pitzer J, Sultan S, Liu J. A novel gene inactivation system reveals altered periplasmic flagellar orientation in a Borrelia burgdorferi fliL mutant. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that FliL is likely involved in coordinating or regulating the orientation of periplasmic flagella in B. burgdorferi. ..
  4. Lahdenne P, Porcella S, Hagman K, Akins D, Popova T, Cox D, et al. Molecular characterization of a 6.6-kilodalton Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane-associated lipoprotein (lp6.6) which appears to be downregulated during mammalian infection. Infect Immun. 1997;65:412-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that high-level expression of lp6.6 is associated with the arthropod phase of the spirochetal life cycle and that expression of the gene is downregulated during mammalian infection. ..
  5. Patton T, Dietrich G, Dolan M, Piesman J, Carroll J, Gilmore R. Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19536 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity. ..
  6. Ge Y, Old I, Saint Girons I, Charon N. Molecular characterization of a large Borrelia burgdorferi motility operon which is initiated by a consensus sigma70 promoter. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2289-99 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that these antigens are not favorable candidate reagents to be used in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. ..
  7. Hagman K, Yang X, Wikel S, Schoeler G, Caimano M, Radolf J, et al. Decorin-binding protein A (DbpA) of Borrelia burgdorferi is not protective when immunized mice are challenged via tick infestation and correlates with the lack of DbpA expression by B. burgdorferi in ticks. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4759-64 pubmed
    ..The failure of DbpA immunization to protect tick-challenged mice contradicts the results of earlier needle inoculation vaccination experiments and suggests that DbpA may not be suitable as a Lyme disease vaccine. ..
  8. Stevenson B, Tilly K, Rosa P. A family of genes located on four separate 32-kilobase circular plasmids in Borrelia burgdorferi B31. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:3508-16 pubmed
    We have identified four loci in Borrelia burgdorferi B31 that contain open reading frames capable of encoding six proteins that are related to the antigenic proteins OspE and OspF...
  9. Medrano M, Ding Y, Wang X, Lu P, Coburn J, Hu L. Regulators of expression of the oligopeptide permease A proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2653-9 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the factors involved in gene regulation in B. burgdorferi will help to identify coregulated proteins that may cooperate to allow the organism to survive in a specific environment. ..

More Information


  1. Gautam A, Hathaway M, McClain N, Ramesh G, Ramamoorthy R. Analysis of the determinants of bba64 (P35) gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi using a gfp reporter. Microbiology. 2008;154:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data indicate that RpoS is the sole determinant of differential bba64 expression in cultured spirochaetes. ..
  2. Akins D, Bourell K, Caimano M, Norgard M, Radolf J. A new animal model for studying Lyme disease spirochetes in a mammalian host-adapted state. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:2240-50 pubmed
    ..Cultivation of B. burgdorferi in rat peritoneal implants represents a novel system for studying Lyme disease spirochetes in a mammalian host-adapted state...
  3. Wang I, Dykhuizen D, Qiu W, Dunn J, Bosler E, Luft B. Genetic diversity of ospC in a local population of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Genetics. 1999;151:15-30 pubmed
    ..The variation represented by major ospC groups needs to be considered if the OspC protein is to be used as a serodiagnostic antigen or a vaccine. ..
  4. Sultan S, Pitzer J, Miller M, MOTALEB M. Analysis of a Borrelia burgdorferi phosphodiesterase demonstrates a role for cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate in motility and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:128-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an important connection between cyclic-di-GMP, B. burgdorferi motility and Lyme disease pathogenesis. A mechanism by which cyclic-di-GMP influences motility and infection is proposed. ..
  5. Sze C, Morado D, Liu J, Charon N, Xu H, Li C. Carbon storage regulator A (CsrA(Bb)) is a repressor of Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin protein FlaB. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:851-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that CsrA(Bb) specifically regulates the periplasmic flagellar synthesis by inhibiting translation initiation of the flaB transcript. ..
  6. Lagal V, Portnoi D, Faure G, Postic D, Baranton G. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto invasiveness is correlated with OspC-plasminogen affinity. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:645-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the correlation between ospC polymorphism and Borrelia invasiveness in humans is linked, at least in part, to differences in OspC affinity for plasminogen. ..
  7. Wood E, Tamborero S, Mingarro I, Esteve Gassent M. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein that binds integrin ?3?1. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:3320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. ..
  8. Brissette C, Haupt K, Barthel D, Cooley A, Bowman A, Skerka C, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi infection-associated surface proteins ErpP, ErpA, and ErpC bind human plasminogen. Infect Immun. 2009;77:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasminogen and factor H bound simultaneously and did not compete for binding to ErpP, indicating separate binding sites for both host ligands and the ability of the borrelial surface proteins to bind both host proteins. ..
  9. Li X, Pal U, Ramamoorthi N, Liu X, Desrosiers D, Eggers C, et al. The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:694-710 pubmed
    ..Dps is critical for spirochaete persistence within ticks, and strategies to interfere with Dps could potentially reduce Borrelia populations in nature and thereby influence the incidence of Lyme disease. ..
  10. Xu Q, Seemanaplli S, McShan K, Liang F. Increasing the interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with decorin significantly reduces the 50 percent infectious dose and severely impairs dissemination. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4272-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the study highlights the importance of controlling surface antigen expression in the infectivity, dissemination, tissue colonization, pathogenicity, and persistence of B. burgdorferi during mammalian infection. ..
  11. Rogers E, Marconi R. Delineation of species-specific binding properties of the CspZ protein (BBH06) of Lyme disease spirochetes: evidence for new contributions to the pathogenesis of Borrelia spp. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5272-81 pubmed
  12. Feng S, Hodzic E, Stevenson B, Barthold S. Humoral immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi N40 decorin binding proteins during infection of laboratory mice. Infect Immun. 1998;66:2827-35 pubmed
    ..DNA amplification and serology suggest that DbpB and DbpA are likely to have homologs throughout the B. burgdorferi sensu lato family, but they are likely to be heterogeneous. ..
  13. Blevins J, Hagman K, Norgard M. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:82 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted. ..
  14. Rogers E, Terekhova D, Zhang H, Hovis K, Schwartz I, Marconi R. Rrp1, a cyclic-di-GMP-producing response regulator, is an important regulator of Borrelia burgdorferi core cellular functions. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:1551-73 pubmed publisher
  15. Brissette C, Bykowski T, Cooley A, Bowman A, Stevenson B. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA antigen binds host fibronectin. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2802-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We also confirmed that RevA is produced during mammalian infection but not during colonization of vector ticks and determined that revA transcription is controlled through a mechanism distinct from that of BBK32. ..
  16. Gilmore R, Kappel K, Johnson B. Molecular characterization of a 35-kilodalton protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, an antigen of diagnostic importance in early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:86-91 pubmed
    ..Southern blotting revealed a chromosomal location for this gene; and it was specific for B. burgdorferi, B. afzellii, and B. garinii but not for B. hermsii, B. coriaciae, or B. turicatae. ..
  17. Banik S, Terekhova D, Iyer R, Pappas C, Caimano M, Radolf J, et al. BB0844, an RpoS-regulated protein, is dispensable for Borrelia burgdorferi infectivity and maintenance in the mouse-tick infectious cycle. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that BB0844 is not required for spirochete viability, pathogenicity, or maintenance in the tick vector or the mammalian host. At present, a defined role for BB0844 in B. burgdorferi cannot be ascertained. ..
  18. Jutras B, Verma A, Adams C, Brissette C, Burns L, Whetstine C, et al. BpaB and EbfC DNA-binding proteins regulate production of the Lyme disease spirochete's infection-associated Erp surface proteins. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:778-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods demonstrated that BpaB functions as a repressor of erp transcription, while EbfC functions as an antirepressor...
  19. Russell T, Johnson B. Lyme disease spirochaetes possess an aggrecan-binding protease with aggrecanase activity. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our studies provide the first evidence that B.?burgdorferi possess proteolytic activity which may contribute to the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis...
  20. Shi Y, Xu Q, Seemanapalli S, McShan K, Liang F. The dbpBA locus of Borrelia burgdorferi is not essential for infection of mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6509-12 pubmed
  21. Clifton D, Nolder C, Hughes J, Nowalk A, Carroll J. Regulation and expression of bba66 encoding an immunogenic infection-associated lipoprotein in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:243-58 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a primary role for BBA66 in Bb transmission and infection. ..
  22. Dunham Ems S, Caimano M, Eggers C, Radolf J. Borrelia burgdorferi requires the alternative sigma factor RpoS for dissemination within the vector during tick-to-mammal transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002532 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that spirochetes default to an RpoS-independent program for round body formation upon sensing that the energetics for transmission are unfavorable...
  23. Pal U, Li X, Wang T, Montgomery R, Ramamoorthi N, Desilva A, et al. TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi. Cell. 2004;119:457-68 pubmed
    ..Identification of an I. scapularis receptor for B. burgdorferi is the first step toward elucidating arthropod ligands that are required for survival of spirochetes in nature. ..
  24. Ge Y, Old I, Girons I, Charon N. The flgK motility operon of Borrelia burgdorferi is initiated by a sigma 70-like promoter. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 5):1681-90 pubmed
    ..Because a sigma 70-like promoter rather than a unique flagellar sigma factor is involved in the later stage of flagellar assembly, the regulation of B. burgdorferi flagellar genes is evidently different from that of other bacteria. ..
  25. Bunikis J, Garpmo U, Tsao J, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour A. Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe. Microbiology. 2004;150:1741-55 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. It is concluded that B. burgdorferi and B. afzelii have greater genetic diversity than had previously been estimated, and that the IGS locus alone is sufficient for strain typing and phylogenetic studies...
  26. Ge Y, Charon N. An unexpected flaA homolog is present and expressed in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:552-6 pubmed
    ..Immunoblots using anti-FlaA serum from Treponema pallidum and a lysate of B. burgdorferi showed strong reactivity to a protein of 38.0 kDa, which is consistent with the expression of flaA in growing cells. ..
  27. Stewart P, Thalken R, Bono J, Rosa P. Isolation of a circular plasmid region sufficient for autonomous replication and transformation of infectious Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:714-21 pubmed
    ..Additionally, infectious B. burgdorferi was also successfully transformed by pBSV2, indicating that infectious strains of this important human pathogen can now be genetically manipulated. ..
  28. Dobrikova E, Bugrysheva J, Cabello F. Two independent transcriptional units control the complex and simultaneous expression of the bmp paralogous chromosomal gene family in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:370-8 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. These results indicate that the bmp family constitutes a good model for the investigation of complex regulation of chromosomal gene expression in this bacteria. ..
  29. Xu Q, McShan K, Liang F. Identification of an ospC operator critical for immune evasion of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:220-31 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. ..
  30. Lenhart T, Akins D. Borrelia burgdorferi locus BB0795 encodes a BamA orthologue required for growth and efficient localization of outer membrane proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:692-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our structural, cellular localization and functional data are consistent with the characteristics of other BamA proteins, indicating that BB0795 is a B. burgdorferi BamA orthologue. ..
  31. Ouyang Z, Blevins J, Norgard M. Transcriptional interplay among the regulators Rrp2, RpoN and RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi. Microbiology. 2008;154:2641-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Although several known B. burgdorferi virulence determinants were regulated by the RpoN-RpoS pathway, a defined function has yet to be ascribed to most of the genes substantially regulated by Rrp2, RpoN and RpoS. ..
  32. Lybecker M, Abel C, Feig A, Samuels D. Identification and function of the RNA chaperone Hfq in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:622-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Hfq plays a key role in the regulation of pathogenicity factors in B. burgdorferi and we hypothesize that the spirochete has a complex Hfq-dependent sRNA network. ..
  33. Maruskova M, Esteve Gassent M, Sexton V, Seshu J. Role of the BBA64 locus of Borrelia burgdorferi in early stages of infectivity in a murine model of Lyme disease. Infect Immun. 2008;76:391-402 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi in select tissues. Infectivity analysis of the BBA64 mutant suggests that B. burgdorferi may utilize multiple determinants to establish infection in mammalian hosts. ..
  34. Guo B, Brown E, Dorward D, Rosenberg L, Hook M. Decorin-binding adhesins from Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:711-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Dbps are adhesins of the MSCRAMM (microbial surface component-recognizing adhesive matrix molecule) family, which mediate B. burgdorferi attachment to the extracellular matrix of the host. ..
  35. Li X, Neelakanta G, Liu X, Beck D, Kantor F, Fish D, et al. Role of outer surface protein D in the Borrelia burgdorferi life cycle. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4237-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that B. burgdorferi can compensate for the lack of OspD in both ticks and mice and that OspD may have a nonessential, secondary, role in B. burgdorferi persistence within I. scapularis. ..
  36. Nichols T, Whitehouse C, Austin F. Transcriptional analysis of a superoxide dismutase gene of Borrelia burgdorferi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;183:37-42 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. A transcriptional start site of this operon, containing -10 and -35 regions of a sigma(70)-type promoter, was mapped to 100 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of secA. ..
  37. Mouw K, Rice P. Shaping the Borrelia burgdorferi genome: crystal structure and binding properties of the DNA-bending protein Hbb. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1319-30 pubmed
    ..Defining these binding characteristics may help to uncover additional roles for Hbb in Borrelia DNA metabolism as well as further our understanding of the mechanism of indirect readout. ..
  38. Toledo A, Coleman J, Kuhlow C, Crowley J, Benach J. The enolase of Borrelia burgdorferi is a plasminogen receptor released in outer membrane vesicles. Infect Immun. 2012;80:359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this immunogenic plasminogen receptor released in outer membrane vesicles could be responsible for external proteolysis in the pericellular environment and have roles in nutrition and in enhancing dissemination. ..
  39. Ouyang Z, Narasimhan S, Neelakanta G, Kumar M, Pal U, Fikrig E, et al. Activation of the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway during the enzootic life cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:44 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi. Our study demonstrates that the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway is initially activated during the tick transmission of B. burgdorferi to its mammalian host, and is sustained during mammalian infection. ..
  40. Fischer J, LeBlanc K, Leong J. Fibronectin binding protein BBK32 of the Lyme disease spirochete promotes bacterial attachment to glycosaminoglycans. Infect Immun. 2006;74:435-41 pubmed
    ..This GAG-binding activity of BBK32 is apparently independent of fibronectin recognition, because exogenous heparin had no effect on BBK32-mediated bacterial binding to fibronectin. ..
  41. Stevenson B, Miller J. Intra- and interbacterial genetic exchange of Lyme disease spirochete erp genes generates sequence identity amidst diversity. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:309-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also found the first evidence of large-scale genetic exchanges between Lyme disease spirochetes in nature, including the apparent transfer of an entire cp32 plasmid between two different bacteria...
  42. Archambault L, Linscott J, Swerdlow N, Boyland K, Riley E, Schlax P. Translational efficiency of rpoS mRNA from Borrelia burgdorferi: effects of the length and sequence of the mRNA leader region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that translational regulation of gene expression in B. burgdorferi may be an important mechanism for responding to environmental signals important in the enzootic cycle. ..
  43. Bryksin A, Godfrey H, Carbonaro C, Wormser G, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Cabello F. Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA, BmpB, and BmpD proteins are expressed in human infection and contribute to P39 immunoblot reactivity in patients with Lyme disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:935-40 pubmed
    ..This suggests that at least three of the four Bmp proteins are expressed by B. burgdorferi in infected patients and that specific antibodies to them are likely to be present in the P39 band in some patients. ..
  44. Norris S, Carter C, Howell J, Barbour A. Low-passage-associated proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi B31: characterization and molecular cloning of OspD, a surface-exposed, plasmid-encoded lipoprotein. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4662-72 pubmed
    ..Further study of these and other polypeptides associated with low-passage strains may lead to identification of B. burgdorferi gene products required for infection and pathogenesis in mammalian hosts...
  45. Smith A, Blevins J, Bachlani G, Yang X, Norgard M. Evidence that RpoS (sigmaS) in Borrelia burgdorferi is controlled directly by RpoN (sigma54/sigmaN). J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2139-44 pubmed
    ..However, evidence to support whether RpoN controls rpoS directly or, perhaps, indirectly via a transactivator has been lacking. Herein we provide biochemical and genetic evidence that RpoN directly controls rpoS in B. burgdorferi. ..
  46. Yang X, Lybecker M, Pal U, Alani S, Blevins J, Revel A, et al. Analysis of the ospC regulatory element controlled by the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4822-9 pubmed
    ..The implication of our findings to understanding how B. burgdorferi differentially regulates ospC and other ospC-like genes via the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway is discussed. ..
  47. Revel A, Blevins J, Almazan C, Neil L, Kocan K, De La Fuente J, et al. bptA (bbe16) is essential for the persistence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in its natural tick vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6972-7 pubmed
    ..Given Bb's absolute dependence on and intimate association with its arthropod and mammalian hosts, BptA should be considered a virulence factor critical for Bb's overall parasitic strategy. ..
  48. Patton T, Brandt K, Nolder C, Clifton D, Carroll J, Gilmore R. Borrelia burgdorferi bba66 gene inactivation results in attenuated mouse infection by tick transmission. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for BBA66 in facilitating B. burgdorferi dissemination and transmission from the tick vector to the mammalian host as part of the disease process for Lyme borreliosis. ..
  49. Ramamoorthy R, Povinelli L, Philipp M T. Molecular characterization, genomic arrangement, and expression of bmpD, a new member of the bmp class of genes encoding membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 1996;64:1259-64 pubmed
    ..The bmpD gene was found to be conserved in representative members of the three species of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex, suggesting that it serves an important biological function in the spirochete. ..
  50. Sadziene A, Rosa P, Thompson P, Hogan D, Barbour A. Antibody-resistant mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi: in vitro selection and characterization. J Exp Med. 1992;176:799-809 pubmed
    ..Class IV mutants were likewise resistant only to selecting antibody, but in this case the selecting antibody still bound in Western blots. ..
  51. Ouyang Z, Kumar M, Kariu T, Haq S, Goldberg M, Pal U, et al. BosR (BB0647) governs virulence expression in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus not only has elucidated another key virulence gene of Bb, but also provides new insights into a previously unknown layer of gene regulation governing RpoS in Bb. ..
  52. Hyde J, Shaw D, Smith Iii R, Trzeciakowski J, SKARE J. The BosR regulatory protein of Borrelia burgdorferi interfaces with the RpoS regulatory pathway and modulates both the oxidative stress response and pathogenic properties of the Lyme disease spirochete. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1344-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that BosR is required for resistance to oxidative stressors and provides a regulatory response that is necessary for B. burgdorferi pathogenesis. ..
  53. Coleman J, Katona L, Kuhlow C, Toledo A, Okan N, Tokarz R, et al. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon) proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000676 pubmed publisher
    ..Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host. ..
  54. Kumar M, Yang X, Coleman A, Pal U. BBA52 facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi transmission from feeding ticks to murine hosts. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1084-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish that BBA52 facilitates vector-host transitions by the pathogen and therefore is a potential antigenic target for interference with transmission of B. burgdorferi from ticks to mammalian hosts. ..
  55. Sze C, Li C. Inactivation of bb0184, which encodes carbon storage regulator A, represses the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that CsrA(Bb) may influence the infectivity of B. burgdorferi via regulation of acetate metabolism and subsequent activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway. ..
  56. Margolis N, Hogan D, Tilly K, Rosa P. Plasmid location of Borrelia purine biosynthesis gene homologs. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6427-32 pubmed
    ..The unique plasmid location of these and perhaps other housekeeping genes may be a consequence of the segmented genomes in borreliae and reflect the need to adapt to both the arthropod and mammalian environments. ..
  57. Samuels D, Mach K, Garon C. Genetic transformation of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi with coumarin-resistant gyrB. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6045-9 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi. The coumermycin A1-resistant gyrB marker and genetic transformation can now be applied toward dissecting the physiology and pathogenesis of the Lyme disease agent on a molecular genetic level. ..
  58. Stevenson B, Bono J, Schwan T, Rosa P. Borrelia burgdorferi erp proteins are immunogenic in mammals infected by tick bite, and their synthesis is inducible in cultured bacteria. Infect Immun. 1998;66:2648-54 pubmed
    ..Several of the B31 Erp proteins were also recognized by antibodies from patients with Lyme disease and may prove to be useful antigens for diagnostic testing or as components of a protective vaccine. ..
  59. Guo B, Norris S, Rosenberg L, Hook M. Adherence of Borrelia burgdorferi to the proteoglycan decorin. Infect Immun. 1995;63:3467-72 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that decorin may mediate the adherence of B. burgdorferi to collagen fibers in skin and other tissues. ..
  60. Lovrich S, Callister S, DuChateau B, Lim L, Winfrey J, Day S, et al. Abilities of OspA proteins from different seroprotective groups of Borrelia burgdorferi to protect hamsters from infection. Infect Immun. 1995;63:2113-9 pubmed
    ..The induction of protective antibodies against other B. burgdorferi proteins may be necessary to insure a comprehensive Lyme disease vaccine. ..
  61. Behera A, Durand E, Cugini C, Antonara S, Bourassa L, Hildebrand E, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi BBB07 interaction with integrin alpha3beta1 stimulates production of pro-inflammatory mediators in primary human chondrocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:320-31 pubmed
    ..In summary, we have identified a B. burgdorferi protein, BBB07, that interacts with integrin alpha(3)beta(1) and stimulates production of pro-inflammatory mediators in primary human chondrocyte cells. ..
  62. Qiu W, Schutzer S, Bruno J, Attie O, Xu Y, Dunn J, et al. Genetic exchange and plasmid transfers in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto revealed by three-way genome comparisons and multilocus sequence typing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14150-5 pubmed
    ..Frequent recombination implies a potential for rapid adaptive evolution and a possible polygenic basis of B. burgdorferi pathogenicity. ..
  63. Cordes F, Roversi P, Kraiczy P, Simon M, Brade V, Jahraus O, et al. A novel fold for the factor H-binding protein BbCRASP-1 of Borrelia burgdorferi. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:276-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report the atomic structure for the key FHL-1- and FH-binding protein BbCRASP-1 and reveal a homodimer that presents a novel target for drug design. ..
  64. Brooks C, Vuppala S, Jett A, Akins D. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins. Infect Immun. 2006;74:296-304 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi, indicating that these newly identified outer surface proteins are prime candidates for analysis as second-generation Lyme disease vaccinogens. ..
  65. Eggers C, Caimano M, Clawson M, Miller W, Samuels D, Radolf J. Identification of loci critical for replication and compatibility of a Borrelia burgdorferi cp32 plasmid and use of a cp32-based shuttle vector for the expression of fluorescent reporters in the lyme disease spirochaete. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:281-95 pubmed
    ..In addition to enhancing our understanding of B. burgdorferi plasmid biology, our results further the development of genetic systems for dissecting pathogenic mechanisms in Lyme disease...
  66. Barthold S, Hodzic E, Tunev S, Feng S. Antibody-mediated disease remission in the mouse model of lyme borreliosis. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4817-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Arp and DbpA antibodies may be active as disease-resolving components in immune serum but antibody against other antigens may be involved in reductions of spirochetes in tissues. ..
  67. Feng S, Hodzic E, Barthold S. Lyme arthritis resolution with antiserum to a 37-kilodalton Borrelia burgdorferi protein. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4169-73 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi isolates but hybridized with those isolates only under very-low-stringency conditions. Arp antiserum reacted against proteins of similar size in a wide range of B. burgdorferi isolates. ..
  68. Mulay V, Caimano M, Iyer R, Dunham Ems S, Liveris D, Petzke M, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi bba74 is expressed exclusively during tick feeding and is regulated by both arthropod- and mammalian host-specific signals. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2783-94 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi transitions between its arthropod vector and mammalian host. ..
  69. Kraiczy P, Seling A, Brissette C, Rossmann E, Hunfeld K, Bykowski T, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 (CspZ) as a serological marker of human Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:484-91 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi type strain B31 BbCRASP-2, consistent with the high percentage of serologically positive patients. These data indicate that BbCRASP-2 may be valuable for use in a widely effective serological assay. ..
  70. Roberts W, Mullikin B, Lathigra R, Hanson M. Molecular analysis of sequence heterogeneity among genes encoding decorin binding proteins A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5275-85 pubmed
    ..The observation of individual dbpA alleles with sequence elements characteristic of more than one B. burgdorferi sensu lato species was consistent with a role for genetic recombination in the generation of dbpA diversity...
  71. Sal M, Li C, Motalab M, Shibata S, Aizawa S, Charon N. Borrelia burgdorferi uniquely regulates its motility genes and has an intricate flagellar hook-basal body structure. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1912-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we also present evidence that the hook protein in B. burgdorferi forms a high-molecular-weight complex and that formation of this complex occurs in the periplasmic space. ..
  72. Shi Y, Xu Q, McShan K, Liang F. Both decorin-binding proteins A and B are critical for the overall virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the study results indicate that neither DbpA nor DbpB is essential for mammalian infection but that both are critical for the overall virulence of B. burgdorferi. ..
  73. Xu Q, McShan K, Liang F. Essential protective role attributed to the surface lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi against innate defences. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:15-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the study demonstrated that the surface lipoproteins provide B. burgdorferi with an essential protective function against host innate elimination. ..
  74. Battisti J, Bono J, Rosa P, Schrumpf M, Schwan T, Policastro P. Outer surface protein A protects Lyme disease spirochetes from acquired host immunity in the tick vector. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that OspA serves a critical antibody-shielding role during vector blood meal uptake from immune hosts and is not required for persistence in the tick vector. ..
  75. Weening E, Parveen N, Trzeciakowski J, Leong J, Hook M, Skare J. Borrelia burgdorferi lacking DbpBA exhibits an early survival defect during experimental infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5694-705 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi and are required for optimal resistance to both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms following needle inoculation. ..
  76. Xu Q, McShan K, Liang F. Modification of Borrelia burgdorferi to overproduce OspA or VlsE alters its infectious behaviour. Microbiology. 2008;154:3420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the study indicates that increasing production of OspA or invariant VlsE influences lipoprotein gene expression in the murine host and alters the infectious behaviour of B. burgdorferi. ..
  77. Hu L, Pratt S, Perides G, Katz L, Rogers R, Klempner M. Isolation, cloning, and expression of a 70-kilodalton plasminogen binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 1997;65:4989-95 pubmed
    ..coli (34% identity and 57% similarity), and, more generally, to the periplasmic oligopeptide binding family of proteins. ..
  78. Sultan S, Pitzer J, Boquoi T, Hobbs G, Miller M, Motaleb M. Analysis of the HD-GYP domain cyclic dimeric GMP phosphodiesterase reveals a role in motility and the enzootic life cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these phenotypes were restored when the mutant was complemented. Identification of this role of pdeB increases our understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling network in motility regulation and the life cycle of B. burgdorferi. ..
  79. Lybecker M, Samuels D. Temperature-induced regulation of RpoS by a small RNA in Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1075-89 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we postulate that DsrABb is a molecular thermometer regulating RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi. ..
  80. Bunikis J, Noppa L, Bergstrom S. Molecular analysis of a 66-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of Lyme disease Borrelia. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;131:139-45 pubmed
    ..Proteolytic cleavage patterns of p66 and a computer-predicted single trans-membrane helix suggested the presence of surface-exposed epitopes on the C-terminus. ..
  81. Parveen N, Leong J. Identification of a candidate glycosaminoglycan-binding adhesin of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1220-34 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi strain from which the cloned bgp sequence was obtained, and inhibited B. burgdorferi binding to purified GAGs and to cultured mammalian cells. Thus, Bgp is a strong candidate for a GAG-binding adhesin of B. burgdorferi. ..
  82. Kraiczy P, Hellwage J, Skerka C, Becker H, Kirschfink M, Simon M, et al. Complement resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with the expression of BbCRASP-1, a novel linear plasmid-encoded surface protein that interacts with human factor H and FHL-1 and is unrelated to Erp proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2421-9 pubmed the key molecule of the complement resistance of spirochetes, and (iii). is distinct from the Erp protein family. Thus, BbCRASP-1 most likely contributes to persistence of B. burgdorferi and to pathogenesis of Lyme disease. ..
  83. Marti Ras N, Postic D, Foretz M, Baranton G. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a bacterial species "made in the U.S.A."?. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:1112-7 pubmed
    ..We discuss the significance of these features and suggest that they might be evidence of the anteriority of North American B. burgdorferi strains. ..