eye worm

Summary

Alias: Loa loa, Loa loa (Cobbold, 1864)

Top Publications

  1. Mogoung Wafo A, Nana Djeunga H, Domche A, Fossuo Thotchum F, Bopda J, Mbickmen Tchana S, et al. Prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection over twenty-three years in three communities of the Mbalmayo health district (Central Cameroon). BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19:146 pubmed publisher
    Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease due to Loa loa and transmitted to humans by tabanids of the genus Chrysops...
  2. Badia Rius X, Betts H, Molyneux D, Kelly Hope L. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp. in Central and West Africa: seeing the forest for the trees. Parasit Vectors. 2019;12:72 pubmed publisher
    Loiasis is caused by the filarial parasite Loa loa, which is widespread through Central and West Africa and largely confined the tropical equatorial rainforests...
  3. Fombad F, Njouendou A, Ndongmo P, Ritter M, Chunda V, Metuge H, et al. Effect of flubendazole on developing stages of Loa loa in vitro and in vivo: a new approach for screening filaricidal agents. Parasit Vectors. 2019;12:14 pubmed publisher
    ..This present study evaluated the effect of flubendazole (FLBZ) on the development of Loa loa L3 in vitro and in vivo. Infective stages of L...
  4. Akongwi M, Tih A, Nyongbela K, Samje M, Ghogomu R, Bodo B. Brevipedicelones D and E, Two C-O-C Flavonoid Dimmers from the Leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata and Anti-onchocercal Activity. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2019;9:61-68 pubmed publisher
    ..ochengi and Loa loa by 90% at this same concentration.
  5. Ngwewondo A, Wang M, Manfo F, Samje M, Ganin s J, Ndi E, et al. Filaricidal properties of Lantana camara and Tamarindus indica extracts, and Lantadene A from L. camara against Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12:e0006565 pubmed publisher
    ..only the first stage larvae-microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and is to be used cautiously in areas where Loa loa is prevalent because of severe adverse events observed with coinfected patients...
  6. Skou S, Simonsen O, Rasmussen S. Examination of muscle strength and pressure pain thresholds in knee osteoarthritis: test-retest reliability and agreement. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2015;38:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of muscle strength and PPTs in knee OA is reliable, but affected by the measurement error, which is important to consider when reporting the results of clinical trials and in clinical practice. ..
  7. Akue J, Eyang Assengone E, Dieki R. Loa loa infection detection using biomarkers: current perspectives. Res Rep Trop Med. 2018;9:43-48 pubmed publisher
    i>Loa loa is originally a restricted filarial worm from central Africa and some west African countries. However, numerous imported cases are being reported throughout the world due to human movement...
  8. Kelly Hope L, Hemingway J, Taylor M, Molyneux D. Increasing evidence of low lymphatic filariasis prevalence in high risk Loa loa areas in Central and West Africa: a literature review. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:349 pubmed publisher
    ..Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic ..
  9. Bennuru S, Pion S, Kamgno J, Wanji S, Nutman T. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3180 pubmed publisher
    ..MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml)...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Melo O, Mateu J, Melo C. Spatial generalised linear mixed models based on distances. Stat Methods Med Res. 2016;25:2138-2160 pubmed
    ..The method is illustrated through the analysis of the variation in the prevalence of Loa loa among a sample of village residents in Cameroon, where the explanatory variables included elevation, together ..
  2. Tritten L, O Neill M, Nutting C, Wanji S, Njouendoui A, Fombad F, et al. Loa loa and Onchocerca ochengi miRNAs detected in host circulation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2014;198:14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis enabled identification of twenty-two microRNA candidates of potential nematode origin in plasma from Loa loa-infected baboons and a further ten from the plasma of an Onchocerca ochengi-infected cow...
  3. Zofou D, Fombad F, Gandjui N, Njouendou A, Kengne Ouafo A, Chounna Ndongmo P, et al. Evaluation of in vitro culture systems for the maintenance of microfilariae and infective larvae of Loa loa. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:275 pubmed publisher
    ..vitro culture systems for drug screening against both microfilariae (mf) and infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Loa loa. In vitro culture conditions were evaluated by varying three basic culture media: Roswell Park Memorial Institute ..
  4. Ateba Ngoa U, Mombo Ngoma G, Zettlmeissl E, van der Vlugt L, de Jong S, de Jong S, et al. CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ cells in cord blood of neonates born from filaria infected mother are negatively associated with CD4+Tbet+ and CD4+RORγt+ T cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114630 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, 30 pregnant women were examined for the presence of microfilaria of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in peripheral blood...
  5. Lv Z, Wu Z, Zhang L, Ji P, Cai Y, Luo S, et al. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research. Parasitol Res. 2015;114:399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E...
  6. Richardson E, Luo R, Fink D, Nutman T, Geisse J, Barry M. Transient facial swellings in a patient with a remote African travel history. J Travel Med. 2012;19:183-5 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of Loa loa infection in a patient, 21 years after visiting an endemic area for only 4 days...
  7. Che J, Nmorsi O, Nkot B, Isaac C, Okonkwo B. Chemokines responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria and co-infections among rural Cameroonians. Parasitol Int. 2015;64:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean CXCL5 level was higher in malaria sole infection than co-infections with HIV and Loa loa. Also, there was a raised mean level of malaria+HIV co-infection for CXCL9...
  8. Bakajika D, Nigo M, Lotsima J, Masikini G, Fischer K, Lloyd M, et al. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91:1142-1148 pubmed publisher
    ..Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for ..
  9. Tallon L, Liu X, Bennuru S, Chibucos M, Godinez A, Ott S, et al. Single molecule sequencing and genome assembly of a clinical specimen of Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:788 pubmed publisher
    ..nematodes that infect humans are Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca, and Mansonella ozzardi, of which three have published draft genome ..
  10. Bulman C, Bidlow C, Lustigman S, Cho Ngwa F, Williams D, Rascón A, et al. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0003534 pubmed publisher
    ..ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing ..
  11. Njambe Priso G, Lissom A, Ngu L, Nji N, Tchadji J, Tchouangueu T, et al. Filaria specific antibody response profiling in plasma from anti-retroviral naïve Loa loa microfilaraemic HIV-1 infected people. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18:160 pubmed publisher
    In West and Central Africa areas of endemic Loa loa infections overlap with regions of high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections...
  12. Pion S, Chesnais C, Bopda J, Louya F, Fischer P, Majewski A, et al. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92:959-66 pubmed publisher
    ..LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia...
  13. Wanji S, Eyong E, Tendongfor N, Ngwa C, Esuka E, Kengne Ouafo A, et al. Parasitological, Hematological and Biochemical Characteristics of a Model of Hyper-microfilariaemic Loiasis (Loa loa) in the Baboon (Papio anubis). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0004202 pubmed publisher
    Loiasis, a filarial infection caused by Loa loa usually thought to cause relatively minor morbidity, can cause serious and often fatal reactions in patients carrying very high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae (mf) following ..
  14. Wanji S, Kengne Ouafo J, Esum M, Chounna P, Adzemye B, Eyong J, et al. Relationship between oral declaration on adherence to ivermectin treatment and parasitological indicators of onchocerciasis in an area of persistent transmission despite a decade of mass drug administration in Cameroon. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:667 pubmed publisher
    ..confounding factor for onchocerciasis elimination precisely in rain forest areas where transmission continues and Loa loa co-exists with Onchocerca volvulus...
  15. Zhao Y, Alexander B, Bailey J, Welch L, Greene M, Vauthrin M, et al. Therapeutic apheresis using a mononuclear cell program to lower the microfilaria burden of a 23-year-old African woman with loiasis. J Clin Apher. 2017;32:200-202 pubmed publisher
    Apheresis has been used to lower the parasite burden of patients with Loa loa infection, but there are no reports regarding how to do this using modern, continuous flow equipment with a currently available program...
  16. Yaari M, Doron Faigenboim A, Koltai H, Salame L, Glazer I. Transcriptome analysis of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema. Int J Parasitol. 2016;46:83-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those, 60.8% aligned to the vertebrate parasites including Ascaris suum, Loa loa, and Brugia malayi, 23.3% aligned to bacteriovores, mostly from the genus Caenorhabditis, and 1% aligned to EPNs...
  17. Bouyou Akotet M, Owono Medang M, Mawili Mboumba D, Moussavou Boussougou M, Nzenze Afène S, Kendjo E, et al. The relationship between microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic loiasis involving co-infection with Mansonella perstans and clinical symptoms in an exposed population from Gabon. J Helminthol. 2016;90:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..perstans infection. The presence of adult eye worm migration as a strong predictor of high microfilaraemia density would obscure the real burden of L...
  18. Yong H, Eamsobhana P, Lim P, Razali R, Aziz F, Rosli N, et al. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis. Acta Trop. 2015;148:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus...
  19. Njouendou A, Fombad F, O Neill M, Zofou D, Nutting C, Ndongmo P, et al. Heterogeneity in the in vitro susceptibility of Loa loa microfilariae to drugs commonly used in parasitological infections. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:223 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of many anti-parasitic drugs often administered to Loa loa infected people are not well documented...
  20. Bah G, Tanya V, Makepeace B. Immunotherapy with mutated onchocystatin fails to enhance the efficacy of a sub-lethal oxytetracycline regimen against Onchocerca ochengi. Vet Parasitol. 2015;212:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..does not always break transmission in forest zones and is contraindicated in individuals heavily co-infected with Loa loa, while reports of reduced drug efficacy in Ghana and Cameroon may signal the development of resistance...
  21. Somarathne M, Gunawardene Y, Chandrasekharan N, Dassanayake R. Development of siRNA mediated RNA interference and functional analysis of novel parasitic nematode-specific protein of Setaria digitata. Exp Parasitol. 2018;186:42-49 pubmed publisher
    ..bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus...
  22. Wanji S, Amvongo Adjia N, Koudou B, Njouendou A, Chounna Ndongmo P, Kengne Ouafo J, et al. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0004184 pubmed publisher
    ..bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution. ..
  23. Drame P, Meng Z, Bennuru S, Herrick J, Veenstra T, Nutman T. Identification and Validation of Loa loa Microfilaria-Specific Biomarkers: a Rational Design Approach Using Proteomics and Novel Immunoassays. MBio. 2016;7:e02132-15 pubmed publisher
    Immunoassays are currently needed to quantify Loa loa microfilariae (mf)...
  24. D Ambrosio M, Bakalar M, Bennuru S, Reber C, Skandarajah A, Nilsson L, et al. Point-of-care quantification of blood-borne filarial parasites with a mobile phone microscope. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:286re4 pubmed publisher
    ..of ivermectin-associated serious adverse events, including death, in patients infected with the filarial parasite Loa loa. To safely administer ivermectin for onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis in regions co-endemic with L...
  25. Ojurongbe O, Akindele A, Adeleke M, Oyedeji M, Adedokun S, Ojo J, et al. Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis in rain forest communities in southwestern Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0003633 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 960 people were interviewed for history of eye worm using the WHO guidelines for rapid assessment...
  26. Pion S, Montavon C, Chesnais C, Kamgno J, Wanji S, Klion A, et al. Positivity of Antigen Tests Used for Diagnosis of Lymphatic Filariasis in Individuals Without Wuchereria bancrofti Infection But with High Loa loa Microfilaremia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95:1417-1423 pubmed
    ..Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L...
  27. Manego R, Mombo Ngoma G, Witte M, Held J, Gmeiner M, Gebru T, et al. Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:130 pubmed publisher
    ..Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections affecting the local population...
  28. Wanji S, Eyong E, Tendongfor N, Ngwa C, Esuka E, Kengne Ouafo A, et al. Ivermectin treatment of Loa loa hyper-microfilaraemic baboons (Papio anubis): Assessment of microfilarial load reduction, haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological changes following treatment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005576 pubmed publisher
    Individuals with high intensity of Loa loa are at risk of developing serious adverse events (SAEs) post treatment with ivermectin...
  29. Mbah G, Ayiseh R, Cho Ngwa F. Development and validation of an Onchocerca ochengi microfilarial hamster model for onchocerciasis drug screens. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:404 pubmed publisher
    ..is only microfilaricidal and has serious adverse effects in individuals co-infected with high loads of Loa loa microfilariae (mf), prompting the search for new and better drugs...
  30. Cho Ngwa F, Monya E, Azantsa B, Manfo F, Babiaka S, Mbah J, et al. Filaricidal activities on Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa, toxicity and phytochemical screening of extracts of Tragia benthami and Piper umbellatum. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:326 pubmed publisher
    ..observed when the lone recommended microfilaricide, ivermectin is administered to individuals co-infected with Loa loa. Therefore, there is the need for a safe and effective macrofilaricidal drug that will be able to cure the ..
  31. Kelly Hope L, Paulo R, Thomas B, Brito M, Unnasch T, Molyneux D. Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:172 pubmed publisher
    Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa...
  32. Geary T. A Step Toward Eradication of Human Filariases in Areas Where Loa Is Endemic. MBio. 2016;7:e00456-16 pubmed publisher
    ..of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria...
  33. Nzolo D, Anto F, Hailemariam S, Bakajika D, Muteba D, Makenga J, et al. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Following Ivermectin Mass Administration: A Descriptive Study Based on the Democratic Republic of Congo Pharmacovigilance System. Drugs Real World Outcomes. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..1%) had altered mental status. Of these, 23 (92.0%) satisfied the criteria for "probable/possible Loa loa encephalopathy temporally related to mectizan®" (PLERM)...
  34. Ta T, Moya L, Nguema J, Aparicio P, Miguel Oteo M, Cenzual G, et al. Geographical distribution and species identification of human filariasis and onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Acta Trop. 2018;180:12-17 pubmed publisher
    ..volvulus, two Mansonella streptocerca, seven Mansonella perstans and one Loa loa infections. PCR assays in blood detected 52 filariae-positive individuals (9.6%) which harboured M. perstans or L...
  35. Whittaker C, Walker M, Pion S, Chesnais C, Boussinesq M, Basanez M. The Population Biology and Transmission Dynamics of Loa loa. Trends Parasitol. 2018;34:335-350 pubmed publisher
    Endemic to Central Africa, loiasis - or African eye worm (caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa) - affects more than 10 million people...
  36. Drame P, Bennuru S, Nutman T. Discovery of Specific Antigens That Can Predict Microfilarial Intensity in Loa loa Infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2017;55:2671-2678 pubmed publisher
    Antigen-based immunoassays are currently needed for point-of-care quantification of Loa loa microfilariae (mf)...
  37. Wanji S, Amvongo Adjia N, Njouendou A, Kengne Ouafo J, Ndongmo W, Fombad F, et al. Further evidence of the cross-reactivity of the Binax NOW® Filariasis ICT cards to non-Wuchereria bancrofti filariae: experimental studies with Loa loa and Onchocerca ochengi. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:267 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations were demonstrated between ICT positivity and Loa loa microfilaraemia, but it was not clearly established if these false positive results were due to L...
  38. M Bondoukwe N, Kendjo E, Mawili Mboumba D, Koumba Lengongo J, Offouga Mbouoronde C, Nkoghe D, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa. Infect Dis Poverty. 2018;7:6 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (22.2%), predominated, whereas Plasmodium falciparum (18.8%), Loa loa (4.7%), and Mansonella perstans (1.1%) were less prevalent...
  39. Pion S, Chesnais C, Weil G, Fischer P, Missamou F, Boussinesq M. Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:763-769 pubmed publisher
    ..filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed...
  40. Colebunders R, Mandro M, Mokili J, Mucinya G, Mambandu G, Pfarr K, et al. Risk factors for epilepsy in Bas-Uélé Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a case-control study. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;49:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A Loa loa infestation was found in only one case and one control by PCR and Giemsa smear...
  41. Gedge L, Bettis A, Bradley M, Hollingsworth T, Turner H. Economic evaluations of lymphatic filariasis interventions: a systematic review and research needs. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:75 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most important identified research gaps was a lack of evaluation of new interventions specifically targeting areas co-endemic with onchocerciasis and Loa loa - which could become a major barrier to achieving elimination.
  42. Opoku N, Bakajika D, Kanza E, Howard H, Mambandu G, Nyathirombo A, et al. Single dose moxidectin versus ivermectin for Onchocerca volvulus infection in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomised, controlled, double-blind phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2018;392:1207-1216 pubmed publisher
    ..aged ≥12 years) with at least 10 Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae per mg skin who were not co-infected with Loa loa or lymphatic filariasis microfilaraemic...
  43. Dong Z, Yang T, Yang Y, Dou H, Chen G. DjhnRNPA2/B1-like gene is required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. Gene. 2017;633:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides basic data for the study of regenerative mechanism and stress responses in freshwater planarians. ..
  44. Lagatie O, Merino M, Batsa Debrah L, Debrah A, Stuyver L. An isothermal DNA amplification method for detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection in skin biopsies. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:624 pubmed
    ..of cross-reactivity with the heterologous sequence from the closely related parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Loa loa and Brugia malayi demonstrated strong specificity, as none of these sequences was amplified...
  45. Chesnais C, Takougang I, Paguélé M, Pion S, Boussinesq M. Excess mortality associated with loiasis: a retrospective population-based cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:108-116 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2001, 3627 individuals living in 28 villages were examined for Loa loa infection. In 2016, these villages were revisited and the vital status was determined for 3301 individuals (91%)...
  46. Drame P, Montavon C, Pion S, Kubofcik J, Fay M, Nutman T. Molecular Epidemiology of Blood-Borne Human Parasites in a Loa loa-, Mansonella perstans-, and Plasmodium falciparum-Endemic Region of Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have conducted an assessment of infections with Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Plasmodium falciparum in eastern Cameroon using a highly ..
  47. Garofalo A, Kl ger S, Rowlinson M, Nirmalan N, Klion A, Allen J, et al. The FAR proteins of filarial nematodes: secretion, glycosylation and lipid binding characteristics. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;122:161-70 pubmed
  48. Chandler R. Serious Neurological Adverse Events after Ivermectin-Do They Occur beyond the Indication of Onchocerciasis?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..of these events has been debated in the literature, largely focusing on the role of concomitant infection with Loa loa versus the presence of mdr-1 gene variants in humans allowing ivermectin penetration into the central nervous ..
  49. Kelly Hope L, Stanton M, Zoure H, Kinvi B, Mikhailov A, Tekle A, et al. A practical approach for scaling up the alternative strategy for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Loa loa endemic countries - developing an action plan. Glob Health Res Policy. 2017;2:12 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-distribution of Loa loa in Central Africa poses a significant barrier to the expansion of the MDA due to risk of severe adverse ..
  50. O Neill M, Njouendou J, Dzimianski M, Burkman E, Ndongmo P, Kengne Ouafo J, et al. Potential Role for Flubendazole in Limiting Filariasis Transmission: Observations of Microfilarial Sensitivity. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018;98:21-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe complications after ivermectin (IVM) treatment of patients with high Loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. We examined the potential of FLBZ to rapidly kill L...
  51. Eyebe S, Sabbagh A, Pion S, Nana Djeunga H, Kamgno J, Boussinesq M, et al. Familial aggregation and heritability of Loa loa microfilaremia. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    For a given prevalence of Loa loa microfilaremia, the proportion of people with high densities varies significantly between communities...
  52. MONTOUR J, Lee D, Snider C, Jentes E, Stauffer W. Absence of Loa loa Microfilaremia among Newly Arrived Congolese Refugees in Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1833-1835 pubmed publisher
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that refugees at risk of Loa loa infection be tested for microfilaria before treatment with ivermectin...
  53. Globisch D, Eubanks L, Shirey R, Pfarr K, Wanji S, Debrah A, et al. Validation of onchocerciasis biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3436-3440 pubmed publisher
    ..further detail the specificity of NATOG in active onchocerciasis infections as well as the co-infecting parasites Loa loa and Mansonella perstans...
  54. McNulty S, Mullin A, Vaughan J, Tkach V, Weil G, Fischer P. Comparing the mitochondrial genomes of Wolbachia-dependent and independent filarial nematode species. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:145 pubmed publisher
    ..The mitochondrial genomes of 5 species of filarial nematodes, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Chandlerella quiscali, Loa loa, Onchocerca flexuosa, and Wuchereria bancrofti, were sequenced, annotated and compared with available ..
  55. Aiello F, Palma S, Varesi C, Cerulli A, Valente R, Aiello L. A rare case report of Loa loa ocular filariasis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:237-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of ocular worm treated surgically and confirmed by microbiological identification...
  56. Kamgno J, Pion S, Chesnais C, Bakalar M, D Ambrosio M, Mackenzie C, et al. A Test-and-Not-Treat Strategy for Onchocerciasis in Loa loa-Endemic Areas. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2044-2052 pubmed publisher
    ..because of the occurrence of serious adverse events, including death, in persons with high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae. The LoaScope, a field-friendly diagnostic tool to quantify L...