sea cucumbers


Alias: sea cucumbers, holothurians, Holothuroidea, Holothurioidea

Top Publications

  1. Zhang X, Zhang P, Li C, Li Y, Jin C, Zhang W. Characterization of two regulators of the TNF-α signaling pathway in Apostichopus japonicus: LPS-induced TNF-α factor and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 2. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;48:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..After challenging the sea cucumbers with Vibrio splendidus, the expression levels of AjLITAF and AjBIRC2 in coelomocytes were increased by 2...
  2. Huo D, Sun L, Li X, Ru X, Liu S, Zhang L, et al. Differential Expression of miRNAs in the Respiratory Tree of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Under Hypoxia Stress. G3 (Bethesda). 2017;7:3681-3692 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation and molecular adaptive mechanisms in sea cucumbers under hypoxia stress.
  3. Li C, Xu D. Understanding microRNAs regulation in heat shock response in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;81:214-220 pubmed publisher
    ..we made a correlation analysis between remarkable miRNAs and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in sea cucumbers under HS. We identified 17 key miRNA-target pairs potentially regulated HSR of sea cucumbers...
  4. Xu D, Sun L, Liu S, Zhang L, Yang H. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and their association with heat-resistance. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;41:428-36 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This is the first demonstration of SNPs related to heat-resistance in A. japonicus and supports the use of SNP markers in the selective breeding of sea cucumbers.
  5. Wang J, Ren T, Han Y, Zhao Y, Liao M, Wang F, et al. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.
  6. Wang Y, Chen G, Li K, Sun J, Song J, Zhan Y, et al. A novel MKK gene (AjMKK3/6) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: Identification, characterization and its response to pathogenic challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;61:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..splendidus infection, respectively. In general, the current study will enrich our knowledge of characterizations and immno-functions of MKK3/6 in sea cucumbers.
  7. Xu D, Zhou S, Sun L. RNA-seq based transcriptional analysis reveals dynamic genes expression profiles and immune-associated regulation under heat stress in Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;78:169-176 pubmed publisher
    ..Then we focused on the changing of immune system under HS in sea cucumbers. Key immune-associated genes were involved in heat stress response, which were classified into six groups: ..
  8. Li K, Liu L, Shang S, Wang Y, Zhan Y, Song J, et al. cDNA cloning, expression and immune function analysis of a novel Rac1 gene (AjRac1) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;69:218-226 pubmed publisher
    ..With attempt to clarify characters and functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers, full length cDNA of a Rac1 homolog in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjRac1) was cloned by ..
  9. Li X, Jing K, Wang X, Li Y, Zhang M, Li Z, et al. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;48:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection.

More Information

Publications144 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhu A, Chen M, Zhang X, Storey K. Gene structure, expression, and DNA methylation characteristics of sea cucumber cyclin B gene during aestivation. Gene. 2016;594:82-88 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers. We found that the cyclin B promoter contains a CpG island, three CCAAT-boxes and three cell cycle gene ..
  2. Li C, Zhao Y, Liu T, Huang J, Zhang Q, Liu B, et al. The distribution and function characterization of the i type lysozyme from Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;74:419-425 pubmed publisher an important innate immunity factor and plays a key defense role during host-pathogen interactions in sea cucumbers. From the radius of the antimicrobial zone, it was determined that the non-fusion Aj-iLys exerted a remarkable ..
  3. He L, Zhang P, Huang J, Zhu F, Danchin A, Wang Y. The Enigmatic Genome of an Obligate Ancient Spiroplasma Symbiont in a Hadal Holothurian. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84: pubmed publisher
    ..b>IMPORTANCE Sea cucumbers are major inhabitants in hadal trenches...
  4. Marques J, Vilanova E, Mourao P, Fernàndez Busquets X. Marine organism sulfated polysaccharides exhibiting significant antimalarial activity and inhibition of red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24368 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have explored the antiplasmodial capacity of heparin-like sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumbers Ludwigothurea grisea and Isostichopus badionotus, from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis, and from the ..
  5. Mu C, Wang R, Li T, Li Y, Tian M, Jiao W, et al. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Cha. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016;18:485-99 pubmed publisher
    ..1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm ..
  6. Lv Z, Zhang Z, Wei Z, Li C, Shao Y, Zhang W, et al. HMGB3 modulates ROS production via activating TLR cascade in Apostichopus japonicus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;77:128-137 pubmed publisher
    ..5% in the AjHMGB3 overexpressed group and depressed by 28.2% in the AjHMGB3 knock-down group. Our present findings collectively suggested that AjHMGB3 acted as an NF-?B activator and produced ROS production in sea cucumbers.
  7. Zhan Y, Wang Y, Li K, Song J, Chang Y. A novel p38 MAPK gene in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Ajp38) is associated with the immune response to pathogenic challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;81:250-259 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide more information about the characteristics and immune functions of the p38 homolog in sea cucumbers.
  8. Valcarcel J, Novoa Carballal R, Pérez Martín R, Reis R, Vázquez J. Glycosaminoglycans from marine sources as therapeutic agents. Biotechnol Adv. 2017;35:711-725 pubmed publisher
    ..Also displaying antiviral and anti-metastatic properties, a rare CS with fucosylated branches isolated from sea cucumbers is an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent...
  9. Barzkar N, Attaran Fariman G, Taheri A. Proximate composition and mineral contents in the body wall of two species of sea cucumber from Oman Sea. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Atomic absorption spectrophotometry of the ashes indicated the body wall of two species of sea cucumbers contained higher amounts of both macro minerals (92.5 mg/100 g Mg in S. horrens and 115 mg/100 g Mg in H...
  10. Xing L, Sun L, Liu S, Li X, Zhang L, Yang H. De Novo assembly and comparative transcriptome analyses of purple and green morphs of Apostichopus japonicus during body wall pigmentation process. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2018;28:151-161 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will provide valuable information for future genetic studies on sea cucumbers elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying pigmentation, and may support the culture of desirable color ..
  11. Zhang L, Feng Q, Sun L, Ding K, Huo D, Fang Y, et al. Differential gene expression in the intestine of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) under low and high salinity conditions. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2018;25:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The osmosis-specific DEGs identified in this study of A. japonicus will be important targets for further studies to understand the biochemical mechanisms involved with the adaption of sea cucumbers to changes in salinity.
  12. Shao Y, Che Z, Xing R, Wang Z, Zhang W, Zhao X, et al. Divergent immune roles of two fucolectin isoforms in Apostichopus japonicus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2018;89:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study provides evidence supporting that AjFTL-1 and AjFTL-2 play diverse roles in the innate immune defense of sea cucumbers toward bacterial infection.
  13. Lv M, Chen H, Shao Y, Li C, Xu W, Zhang W, et al. miR-137 modulates coelomocyte apoptosis by targeting 14-3-3ζ in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;67:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and Aj14-3-3ζ were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumbers, suggesting a positive regulatory interaction...
  14. Huo D, Jiang X, Wu X, Ren C, Yu Z, Liu J, et al. First echinoderm trehalase from a tropical sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota): Molecular cloning and mRNA expression in different tissues, embryonic and larval stages, and under a starvation challenge. Gene. 2018;665:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study provided the first evidence for trehalase in echinoderms and showed that this enzyme was potentially linked to a trehalose metabolic pathway in sea cucumbers.
  15. Pomin V. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22:4166-76 pubmed
    ..This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic ..
  16. Zhang Z, Xing R, Lv Z, Shao Y, Zhang W, Zhao X, et al. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed Lactococcus garviaeae could be an indicative of skin ulceration syndrome in farmed sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;80:148-154 pubmed publisher
    ..garvieae were investigated by qPCR, and were found to be significantly induced (P?<?0.05) in diseased sea cucumbers as compared to healthy ones. All our results supported that L...
  17. Vasconcelos A, Pomin V. The Sea as a Rich Source of Structurally Unique Glycosaminoglycans and Mimetics. Microorganisms. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..mimetics are the sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans found in brown, red and green algae, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. For adequate visualization, representations of all discussed molecules are given in both Haworth projections ..
  18. Li Y, Kikuchi M, Li X, Gao Q, Xiong Z, Ren Y, et al. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1395-1402 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown...
  19. Correia da Silva M, Sousa E, Pinto M, Kijjoa A. Anticancer and cancer preventive compounds from edible marine organisms. Semin Cancer Biol. 2017;46:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..eel and also fish protein hydrolysates), mollusks (mussel, oyster, clams and abalone), as well as from sea cucumbers on the in vivo/in vitro anticancer/antitumor activities can, in part, support the health benefits of these ..
  20. Mourão P, Vilanova E, Soares P. Unveiling the structure of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2018;50:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This constitutes an outstanding example of the potential of NMR in studying the chemical aspects of complex carbohydrates. ..
  21. Nishikawa Y, Furukawa A, Shiga I, Muroi Y, Ishii T, Hongo Y, et al. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135701 pubmed publisher
    ..They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids...
  22. Chai T, Law Y, Wong F, Kim S. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review. Mar Drugs. 2017;15: pubmed publisher
    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides...
  23. Li S, Li J, Mao G, Hu Y, Ye X, Tian D, et al. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides from Isostichopus badionotus regulates lipid disorder in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;201:634-642 pubmed publisher
    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) and its depolymerized derivative (DfCS), prepared from sea cucumbers, are well-known for their anticoagulant activity. However, their other functional activities are poorly understood...
  24. Lv M, Chen H, Shao Y, Li C, Zhang W, Zhao X, et al. miR-92a regulates coelomocytes apoptosis in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus via targeting Aj14-3-3? in vivo. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;69:211-217 pubmed publisher
    ..and Aj14-3-3? protein were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumbers. Over-expression of miR-92a by injection of miR-92a agomir significantly depressed the mRNA and protein ..
  25. Wang Z, Zhang H, Yuan W, Gong W, Tang H, Liu B, et al. Antifungal nortriterpene and triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. Food Chem. 2012;132:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a nortriterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. These compounds showed potent antifungal activities in the in vitro biotest...
  26. Li S, Li J, Zhi Z, Wei C, Wang W, Ding T, et al. Macromolecular properties and hypolipidemic effects of four sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;173:330-337 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that structural characteristics, including side branch and sulfation pattern can affect the chain conformation of polysaccharides, which determine their physicochemical properties and hypolipidemic activity. ..
  27. Marquet N, Hubbard P, Da Silva J, Afonso J, Canario A. Chemicals released by male sea cucumber mediate aggregation and spawning behaviours. Sci Rep. 2018;8:239 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of pheromones in sea cucumbers offers a new ecological perspective and may have practical applications for their aquaculture.
  28. Liu X, Hao J, Shan X, Zhang X, Zhao X, Li Q, et al. Antithrombotic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and their depolymerized fragments from two sea cucumbers. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;152:343-350 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results proposed a new point of view to understand the structure-activity relationship of FCS as alternative agents. ..
  29. Xue Z, Li H, Wang X, Li X, Liu Y, Sun J, et al. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;44:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized...
  30. Thandar A. Biodiversity and distribution of the southern African sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa. 2015;4058:341-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The origin of the endemic component is obscure but surmised that it is perhaps also of Indo-Pacific origin with negligible contribution from the Atlantic. ..
  31. Ustyuzhanina N, Fomitskaya P, Gerbst A, Dmitrenok A, Nifantiev N. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:770-87 pubmed publisher
    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, ..
  32. Li Q, Ren Y, Liang C, Qiao G, Wang Y, Ye S, et al. Regeneration of coelomocytes after evisceration in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;76:266-271 pubmed publisher
    ..Evisceration causes higher mortality and lower yield. Along with the visceral regeneration process, sea cucumbers also regenerate coelomocytes in order to recover immune function. In this study, evisceration of A...
  33. Prata J, Manso C, Christoffersen M. Aspidochirotida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the northeast coast of Brazil. Zootaxa. 2014;3889:127-50 pubmed publisher
    This is a taxonomic work on the aspidochirotid sea cucumbers from shallow waters in Northeast Brazil. We studied 165 specimens, classified into 2 families, 3 genera, 7 subgenera and 9 species...
  34. Elphick M. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44492 pubmed publisher
    ..contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea)...
  35. Zhao Y, Yuan L, Wan J, Sun Z, Wang Y, Sun H. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;49:237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B...
  36. Ba H, Yao F, Yang L, Qin T, Luan H, Li Z, et al. Identification and expression patterns of extracellular matrix-associated genes fibropellin-ia and tenascin involved in regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Gene. 2015;565:96-105 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers have a strong regenerative capacity. Many important genes involved in the molecular mechanism of regeneration and associated with intercellular signaling pathways of regeneration have been identified...
  37. Jia Z, Cong P, Zhang H, Song Y, Li Z, Xu J, et al. Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for High-Throughput Molecular Profiling of Sea Cucumber Cerebrosides. Lipids. 2015;50:667-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Very little is known about the method for high-throughput molecular profiling of cerebrosides in sea cucumbers. In this study, cerebrosides from four species of edible sea cucumbers, specifically, Apostichopus japonicas, ..
  38. Khotimchenko Y. Pharmacological Potential of Sea Cucumbers. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..activity exerted by biologically active compounds isolated from sea cucumbers belonging to the class of Holothuroidea, phylum Echinodermata...
  39. Janakiram N, Mohammed A, Bryant T, Lightfoot S, Collin P, Steele V, et al. Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8:327-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice...
  40. Hoekstra L, Moroz L, Heyland A. Novel insights into the echinoderm nervous system from histaminergic and FMRFaminergic-like cells in the sea cucumber Leptosynapta clarki. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44220 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemistry against FMRFamide and histamine to describe the neural organization in juvenile and adult sea cucumbers. Histaminergic- and FMRFaminergic-like immunoreactivity is reported in several distinct cell types throughout ..
  41. Iken K, Konar B, Benedetti Cecchi L, Cruz Motta J, Knowlton A, Pohle G, et al. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13845 pubmed publisher
    ..m(2) quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2)...
  42. Honey Escandón M, Arreguín Espinosa R, Solís Marín F, Samyn Y. Biological and taxonomic perspective of triterpenoid glycosides of sea cucumbers of the family Holothuriidae (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;180:16-39 pubmed publisher
    ..discovery of saponins in sea cucumbers, more than 150 triterpene glycosides have been described for the class Holothuroidea. The family Holothuriidae has been increasingly studied in search for these compounds...
  43. Thandar A, Mjobo S. On some sea cucumbers from Ghana (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) with descriptions of a new genus and one new species. Zootaxa. 2014;3900:243-54 pubmed publisher
    This paper reports on some sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) in the collections of the NHMUK, taken off the coast of Ghana. Most result from collections around Accra during the years 1949-52. A couple of other species are included...
  44. Martins L, Souto C. Taxonomic review of four western Atlantic dendrochirotids (Holothuroidea) with the description of a new Brazilian cucumariid species and designation of neotypes. Zootaxa. 2015;3919:362-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose the synonymization of Euthyonidiella dentata with Euthyonidiella occidentalis comb. nov., designate a neotype for this species and for Thandarum manoelina, and describe a new species of the genus Cucumaria from Brazil. ..
  45. Silchenko A, Kalinovsky A, Avilov S, Andryjaschenko P, Dmitrenok P, Yurchenko E, et al. Structures and biological activities of cladolosides C3, E1, E2, F1, F2, G, H1 and H2, eight triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii with one known and four new carbohydrate chains. Carbohydr Res. 2015;414:22-31 pubmed publisher in 4, 5, 7 and 8 has never been earlier found in carbohydrate chains of triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers. The carbohydrate chains with xylose in the fifth position of pentaosides and hexaosides are also very unusual ..
  46. Xia C, Zhang D, Ma C, Zhou J, He S, Su X. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;51:229-239 pubmed publisher
    ..and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers...
  47. Sun J, Zhang L, Pan Y, Lin C, Wang F, Yang H. Effect of water temperature on diel feeding, locomotion behaviour and digestive physiology in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    ..Regardless of water temperature, sea cucumbers appeared to be nocturnal and their peak feeding activity occurred at 00:00 h to 04:00 h...
  48. Bahrami Y, Zhang W, Chataway T, Franco C. Structure elucidation of five novel isomeric saponins from the viscera of the sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. Mar Drugs. 2014;12:4439-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni...
  49. Bahrami Y, Franco C. Structure elucidation of new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A, B, C, D, and E, and non-acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides F and G, from the viscera of the sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:597-617 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity...
  50. Thandar A. Trachythyoneflaccida, a new sea cucumber species from southern Angola (Echinodermata:Holothuroidea:Dendrochirotida:Cucumariidae) with key to the genus. Zootaxa. 2013;3693:395-400 pubmed
    ..The new species appears most closely related to the subantarctic T. bouvatensis (Ludwig & Heding, 1935) and to the Brazilian T. crassipeda Cherbonnier, 1965. A key is provided to all species currently classified in this genus. ..
  51. Sun Y, Du X, Li S, Wen Z, Li Y, Li X, et al. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C...
  52. Wei Z, Yi L, Xu W, Zhou H, Zhang Y, Zhang W, et al. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance...
  53. Yang W, Cai Y, Yin R, Lin L, Li Z, Wu M, et al. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;115:1055-1062 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality.
  54. Wu M, Xu L, Zhao L, Xiao C, Gao N, Luo L, et al. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:2063-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea...
  55. Janakiram N, Mohammed A, Rao C. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:2909-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases...
  56. Mena Bueno S, Atanasova M, Fernández Trasancos Ã, Paradela Dobarro B, Bravo S, Álvarez E, et al. Sea cucumbers with an anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells and subcutaneous but not on epicardial adipose tissue. Food Funct. 2016;7:953-63 pubmed publisher
    ..forskali decreased ICAM-1 expression in SAT (p < 0.05). No effect was observed on EAT. these results suggest that sea cucumber extracts might be used for the prevention of endothelial cells and SAT inflammation. ..
  57. Díaz Balzac C, Lázaro Peña M, Vázquez Figueroa L, Díaz Balzac R, Garcia Arraras J. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151129 pubmed publisher
    ..labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles...
  58. Demeuldre M, Hennebert E, Bonneel M, Lengerer B, Van Dyck S, Wattiez R, et al. Mechanical adaptability of sea cucumber Cuvierian tubules involves a mutable collagenous tissue. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:2108-2119 pubmed publisher
    Despite their soft body and slow motion, sea cucumbers present a low predation rate, reflecting the presence of efficient defence systems. For instance, members of the family Holothuriidae rely on Cuvierian tubules for their defence...
  59. Thandar A. Two new subfamilies, three new species and a new subspecies of dendrochirotid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa. 2017;4365:410-420 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition a new subfamily Hemithyoninae is proposed for Hemithyone semperi (Bell), also placed in the Thyoninae till now. ..
  60. Martins L, Tavares M. New species of the genera Havelockia and Thyone (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) and first record of T. crassidisca from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa. 2018;4407:553-542 pubmed publisher
    ..Havelockia mansoae sp. nov. is distinctive in having two pillared body wall tables with four-holed discs and introvert with plates. This is the first record of the genus Havelockia from Brazilian waters. ..
  61. Li L, Liu X, Wang H, Wang L, Han B, Chang Y, et al. Molecular characterization and expression of NLRP10 in the antibacterial host defense of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Gene. 2018;675:110-118 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of AjNLRP10 in the respiratory tree and intestines of sea cucumbers with skin ulceration syndrome were increased by 4-fold and 2...
  62. Osse M, Hamel J, Mercier A. Markers of oil exposure in cold-water benthic environments: Insights and challenges from a study with echinoderms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;156:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..GPx activity was detected in the pyloric caecum, stomach, and gonad of sea stars, the intestine and gonad of sea cucumbers, and the gonad of brittle stars and sea urchins. No seasonal variation in baseline GPx activity occurred...
  63. Mashjoor S, Yousefzadi M. Holothurians antifungal and antibacterial activity to human pathogens in the Persian Gulf. J Mycol Med. 2017;27:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, ..
  64. Liu Y, Zhou Q, Xu J, Xue Y, Liu X, Wang J, et al. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations. Environ Geochem Health. 2016;38:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers...
  65. Yuan X, Shao S, Yang X, Yang D, Xu Q, Zong H, et al. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:8453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7...
  66. Wu N, Zhang Y, Ye X, Hu Y, Ding T, Chen S. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;147:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches...
  67. Barbaglio A, Tricarico S, Ribeiro A, Di Benedetto C, Barbato M, Dessì D, et al. Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of mechanically adaptable collagenous structures in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Zoology (Jena). 2015;118:147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to this, the connective tissues of echinoderms (sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers, etc...
  68. Santos G, Glauser B, Parreiras L, Vilanova E, Mourão P. Distinct structures of the α-fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfates do not affect their anticoagulant activity. Glycobiology. 2015;25:1043-52 pubmed publisher
    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) is a glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumbers. It has a backbone like that of mammalian chondroitin sulfate (4-β-d-GlcA-1→3-β-d-GalNAc-1)n but substituted at the 3rd position of the β-..
  69. Kikuchi M, Omori A, Kurokawa D, Akasaka K. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Dev Genes Evol. 2015;225:275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting ..
  70. Pan Y, Zhang L, Lin C, Sun J, Kan R, Yang H. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Physiol Behav. 2015;144:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19...
  71. Chen M, Zhu A, Storey K. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of intestinal phosphorylated proteins in active versus aestivating sea cucumbers. J Proteomics. 2016;135:141-150 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism in aestivation is known for some terrestrial aestivators but has never before been documented in sea cucumbers. The present study provides a global quantitative analysis of the role of reversible phosphorylation in sea ..
  72. Liu Q, Chai X, Tu J, Xin Z, Li C, Jiang S, et al. An adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene from Apostichopus japonicus; molecular cloning and expression analysis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and thermal stress. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;49:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is an important economic species in China. Here, a cDNA representing an ANT gene of A...
  73. Chen M, Li X, Zhu A, Storey K, Sun L, Gao T, et al. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2016;19:78-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after ..
  74. Guo Y, Ding Y, Xu F, Liu B, Kou Z, Xiao W, et al. Systems pharmacology-based drug discovery for marine resources: an example using sea cucumber (Holothurians). J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;165:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study established a novel strategy that could be used to explore specific active mechanisms and discover new drugs from marine sources. ..
  75. Reich M. A short biography of Hubert Ludwig and a note on the publication dates of his monograph Die Seewalzen (1889-1892). Zootaxa. 2015;4052:332-44 pubmed publisher
    The dates of publication of Hubert Ludwig's (1852-1913) comprehensive monograph Die Seewalzen [= Sea cucumbers] are reviewed...
  76. Elphick M, Achhala S, Martynyuk N. The evolution and diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59076 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification of SALMFamide genes in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (class Holothuroidea) and the starfish Patiria miniata (class Asteroidea)...
  77. Yuan X, Shao S, Dupont S, Meng L, Liu Y, Wang L. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Mar Pollut Bull. 2015;95:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..62 unit decrease in pH had relatively small effects on A. japonicus early life-history compared to other echinoderms, leading to a maximum of 6% decrease in post-fertilization success and subtle effects on growth and development. ..
  78. Liu Y, Zhou Q, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang J, et al. Enrichment, Distribution of Vanadium-Containing Protein in Vanadium-Enriched Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Ameliorative Effect on Insulin Resistance. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;171:167-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers are a potential source of natural organic vanadium that may improve insulin resistance. In this work, vanadium was accumulated rapidly in blood, body wall, and intestine by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus...
  79. Yang G, Tian X, Dong S, Peng M, Wang D. Effects of dietary Bacillus cereus G19, B. cereus BC-01, and Paracoccus marcusii DB11 supplementation on the growth, immune response, and expression of immune-related genes in coelomocytes and intestine of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Sel. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..four immune-related genes (Aj-p105, Aj-p50, Aj-rel, and Aj-lys) in coelomocytes and the intestine of juvenile sea cucumbers. One group was fed the basal diet (control group), while three other groups were fed the basal diet ..
  80. Moura R, Campos L, Esteves A. Hooked from the deep: a rare new species of Taeniogyrus (Holothuroidea, Chiridotidae) from the continental slope of Brazil, southwestern Atlantic. Zootaxa. 2015;3972:535-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Taeniogyrus furcipraeditus (Salvini-Plawen, 1972) from the Mediterranean Sea and Taeniogyrus havelockensis (Rao, 1975) from the Andaman Sea are proposed as new combinations. ..
  81. Yu H, Gao Q, Dong S, Lan Y, Ye Z, Wen B. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;50:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0...
  82. Silchenko A, Kalinovsky A, Avilov S, Andryjaschenko P, Dmitrenok P, Chingizova E, et al. Cladolosides I1, I2, J1, K1, K2 and L1, monosulfated triterpene glycosides with new carbohydrate chains from the sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii. Carbohydr Res. 2017;445:80-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Sulfated hexasaccharide carbohydrate chains were found in the sea cucumbers glycosides for the first time...
  83. Guo L, Gao Z, Zhang L, Guo F, Chen Y, Li Y, et al. Saponin-enriched sea cucumber extracts exhibit an antiobesity effect through inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity and upregulation of LXR-β signaling. Pharm Biol. 2016;54:1312-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers have been consumed as tonic, food, and nutrition supplements for many years...
  84. Bahrami Y, Franco C. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades. Mar Drugs. 2016;14: pubmed publisher
    ..Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones...
  85. Li Z, Ren T, Han Y, Jiang Z, Hu Y, Bai Z, et al. The Effects of Sub-lethal Dietary Mercury on Growth Performance, Bioaccumulation, and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2018;100:683-689 pubmed publisher
    Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83?±?0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468...
  86. Yu H, Gao Q, Dong S, Zhou J, Ye Z, Lan Y. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;54:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined...
  87. Vinnitskiy D, Ustyuzhanina N, Dmitrenok A, Shashkov A, Nifantiev N. Synthesis and NMR analysis of model compounds related to fucosylated chondroitin sulfates: GalNAc and Fuc(1 ? 6)GalNAc derivatives. Carbohydr Res. 2017;438:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..were synthesized as model compounds representing the fragments of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers. Per-O-acetylated 2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-D-glucopyranose was used as a key precursor for the preparation of ..
  88. Brown A, Wright R, Mevenkamp L, Hauton C. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;191:10-16 pubmed publisher
  89. Yu H, Zhang C, Gao Q, Dong S, Ye Z, Tian X. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). J Therm Biol. 2016;60:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively...
  90. Li C, Zhao M, Zhang C, Zhang W, Zhao X, Duan X, et al. miR210 modulates respiratory burst in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes via targeting Toll-like receptor. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;65:377-381 pubmed publisher
    ..ancient immune system with the recognition the economic values of several species in this phylum, especially sea cucumbers. Here, we reported a study in the innate immunity of a sea cucumber species (Apostichopus japonicus) in ..
  91. Mjobo S, Thandar A. A new genus and a new species in the sea cucumber subfamily Colochirinae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Cucumariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Zootaxa. 2016;4189:zootaxa.4189.1.8 pubmed publisher
    ..O. brunneus, O. planci and O. lacteus, but the soft nature of the body wall, shallow quadrilocular instead of deep trilocular baskets, and the presence of large knobbed plates in the anal region precludes its inclusion in this genus. ..
  92. Aminin D, Pislyagin E, Astashev M, Es kov A, Kozhemyako V, Avilov S, et al. Glycosides from edible sea cucumbers stimulate macrophages via purinergic receptors. Sci Rep. 2016;6:39683 pubmed publisher
    Since ancient times, edible sea cucumbers have been considered a jewel of the seabed and used in Asian folk medicine for stimulation of resistance against different diseases...