purple sea urchin


Alias: purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson, 1857)

Top Publications

  1. Shipp L, Hamdoun A. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG "multidrug efflux" transporters...
  2. Manzoni M, Colombi P, Papini N, Rubaga L, Tiso N, Preti A, et al. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of sialidases from zebrafish (Danio rerio). Biochem J. 2007;408:395-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the redundancy of sialidases together with their expression profile and their activity exerted on gangliosides of living cells indicate the biological relevance of this class of enzymes in zebrafish...
  3. Hardin P, Angerer L, Hardin S, Angerer R, Klein W. Spec2 genes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Structure and differential expression in embryonic aboral ectoderm cells. J Mol Biol. 1988;202:417-31 pubmed
    Members of the Spec gene family are expressed during embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The family encodes proteins related to the calmodulin/troponin C/myosin light chain group of calcium binding ..
  4. Galindo B, Moy G, Vacquier V. A third sea urchin sperm receptor for egg jelly module protein, suREJ2, concentrates in the plasma membrane over the sperm mitochondrion. Dev Growth Differ. 2004;46:53-60 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we describe the sequence, domain structure and localization of suREJ2 and speculate on its possible function. ..
  5. Pancer Z, Rast J, Davidson E. Origins of immunity: transcription factors and homologues of effector genes of the vertebrate immune system expressed in sea urchin coelomocytes. Immunogenetics. 1999;49:773-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the vertebrate immune system has evolved by inserting new genes into old gene regulatory networks dedicated to immunity. ..
  6. Pancer Z. Dynamic expression of multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich genes in coelomocytes of the purple sea urchin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13156-61 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms controlling SRCR gene expression and the functional significance of this dynamic system await elucidation. ..
  7. Rast J, Pancer Z, Davidson E. New approaches towards an understanding of deuterostome immunity. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000;248:3-16 pubmed
  8. Kenny A, Kozlowski D, Oleksyn D, Angerer L, Angerer R. SpSoxB1, a maternally encoded transcription factor asymmetrically distributed among early sea urchin blastomeres. Development. 1999;126:5473-83 pubmed
    ..This factor is the earliest known spatially restricted regulator of transcription along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo. ..
  9. Terwilliger D, Clow L, Gross P, Smith L. Constitutive expression and alternative splicing of the exons encoding SCRs in Sp152, the sea urchin homologue of complement factor B. Implications on the evolution of the Bf/C2 gene family. Immunogenetics. 2004;56:531-43 pubmed
    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a non-adaptive immune system including elements homologous to C3 and factor B (Bf) of the vertebrate complement system...

More Information


  1. Wei Z, Angerer L, Gagnon M, Angerer R. Characterization of the SpHE promoter that is spatially regulated along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 1995;171:195-211 pubmed
    ..embryo is established, we have begun to examine the regulatory apparatus of the gene encoding the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus hatching enzyme (SpHE)...
  2. Vicogne J, Pin J, Lardans V, Capron M, Noël C, Dissous C. An unusual receptor tyrosine kinase of Schistosoma mansoni contains a Venus Flytrap module. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2003;126:51-62 pubmed
    ..The preferential localization of SmRTK-1 in sporocyst germinal cells and ovocytes could be in favor of its function in schistosome growth and differentiation...
  3. Ransick A, Rast J, Minokawa T, Calestani C, Davidson E. New early zygotic regulators expressed in endomesoderm of sea urchin embryos discovered by differential array hybridization. Dev Biol. 2002;246:132-47 pubmed
  4. Dheilly N, Nair S, Smith L, Raftos D. Highly variable immune-response proteins (185/333) from the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: proteomic analysis identifies diversity within and between individuals. J Immunol. 2009;182:2203-12 pubmed publisher
    185/333 genes and transcripts from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, predict high levels of amino acid diversity within the encoded proteins...
  5. Neill A, Moy G, Vacquier V. Polycystin-2 associates with the polycystin-1 homolog, suREJ3, and localizes to the acrosomal region of sea urchin spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;67:472-7 pubmed
    ..The low cation selectivity of PC2 channels would explain data indicating that Na(+) and Ca(2+) may enter sea urchin sperm through the same channel during the acrosome reaction. ..
  6. Sweet H, Gehring M, Ettensohn C. LvDelta is a mesoderm-inducing signal in the sea urchin embryo and can endow blastomeres with organizer-like properties. Development. 2002;129:1945-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that expression of LvDelta is sufficient to endow blastomeres with the ability to function as a vegetal organizing center and to coordinate the development of a complete pluteus larva. ..
  7. Brooks J, Wessel G. The major yolk protein in sea urchins is a transferrin-like, iron binding protein. Dev Biol. 2002;245:1-12 pubmed
    ..Here we present the primary structure of MYP as predicted from cDNAs of two sea urchins species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus...
  8. Howard E, Newman L, Oleksyn D, Angerer R, Angerer L. SpKrl: a direct target of beta-catenin regulation required for endoderm differentiation in sea urchin embryos. Development. 2001;128:365-75 pubmed
    ..SpKrl negatively regulates expression of the animalizing transcription factor, SpSoxB1. We propose that SpKrl functions in patterning the vegetal domain by suppressing animal regulatory activities. ..
  9. Illies M, Peeler M, Dechtiaruk A, Ettensohn C. Identification and developmental expression of new biomineralization proteins in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:419-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies new proteins that may regulate the process of biomineralization in this tractable model system...
  10. Wessel G, Berg L, Adelson D, Cannon G, McClay D. A molecular analysis of hyalin--a substrate for cell adhesion in the hyaline layer of the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 1998;193:115-26 pubmed
    ..Partial hyalin cDNAs were identified from two sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus, by screening expression libraries with monoclonal antibodies to hyalin...
  11. Martinez P, Lee J, Davidson E. Complete sequence of SpHox8 and its linkage in the single Hox gene cluster of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. J Mol Evol. 1997;44:371-7 pubmed
    SpHox8 is the paralog group 8 Hox gene of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This identification follows from an analysis of the sequence of the complete open reading frame of a late-gastrula-stage cDNA clone; from direct linkage to adjacent ..
  12. Terwilliger D, Buckley K, Mehta D, Moorjani P, Smith L. Unexpected diversity displayed in cDNAs expressed by the immune cells of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Physiol Genomics. 2006;26:134-44 pubmed
    ..Two 185/333 genes, identified in the partially assembled Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, have two exons...
  13. Aguilera L, Galindo B, S nchez D, Santill n M. What is the core oscillator in the speract-activated pathway of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm flagellum?. Biophys J. 2012;102:2481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..from a mathematical modeling perspective, that the reported speract-activated signaling pathway in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (speract being a sperm-activating peptide specific to this species) has the necessary elements to ..
  14. Jacobs H, Posakony J, Grula J, Roberts J, Xin J, Britten R, et al. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in the nuclear genome of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. J Mol Biol. 1983;165:609-32 pubmed
  15. Poustka A, Kuhn A, Radosavljevic V, Wellenreuther R, Lehrach H, Panopoulou G. On the origin of the chordate central nervous system: expression of onecut in the sea urchin embryo. Evol Dev. 2004;6:227-36 pubmed
    We identified a transcription factor of the onecut class in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus that represents an ortholog of the mammalian gene HNF6, the founding member of the onecut class of proteins...
  16. Minokawa T, Rast J, Arenas Mena C, Franco C, Davidson E. Expression patterns of four different regulatory genes that function during sea urchin development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:449-56 pubmed
    The spatial and temporal expression patterns of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genes encoding four different transcription factors, viz...
  17. Bachman E, McClay D. Molecular cloning of the first metazoan beta-1,3 glucanase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6808-13 pubmed
    ..sequences were obtained from beta-1,3 glucanase that had been purified from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the gene was cloned by PCR using oligonucleotides deduced from the peptide sequences...
  18. Stevens M, Dhillon J, Miller C, Messier Solek C, Majeske A, Zuelke D, et al. SpTie1/2 is expressed in coelomocytes, axial organ and embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and is an orthologue of vertebrate Tie1 and Tie2. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:884-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that SpTie1/2 may be involved in the proliferation of sea urchin immune cells in both adults and embryos...
  19. Levitan D, Stapper A. Simultaneous positive and negative frequency-dependent selection on sperm bindin, a gamete recognition protein in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Evolution. 2010;64:785-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored how variation in sperm bindin influences reproductive success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus during group spawning in the sea...
  20. Multerer K, Smith L. Two cDNAs from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, encoding mosaic proteins with domains found in factor H, factor I, and complement components C6 and C7. Immunogenetics. 2004;56:89-106 pubmed
    ..Purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, homologues of complement C3 (SpC3) and factor B (SpBf) have been identified, suggesting the presence ..
  21. Poustka A, Groth D, Hennig S, Thamm S, Cameron A, Beck A, et al. Generation, annotation, evolutionary analysis, and database integration of 20,000 unique sea urchin EST clusters. Genome Res. 2003;13:2736-46 pubmed
    ..have analyzed a total of 107,283 cDNA clones of libraries that span the development of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Normalization by oligonucleotide fingerprinting, EST sequencing and sequence clustering resulted in ..
  22. Lee P, Davidson E. Expression of Spgatae, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ortholog of vertebrate GATA4/5/6 factors. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;5:161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Towards the end of embryogenesis, expression in the hindgut decreases. The terminal pattern of expression is in midgut plus coelomic pouches...
  23. Buckley K, Smith L. Extraordinary diversity among members of the large gene family, 185/333, from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the immune response of the purple sea urchin appears to be more complex than previously believed...
  24. Monti E, Bassi M, Bresciani R, Civini S, Croci G, Papini N, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of NEU4, the fourth member of the human sialidase gene family. Genomics. 2004;83:445-53 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis demonstrated the association of NEU4 with the inner cell membranes. ..
  25. Fugmann S, Messier C, Novack L, Cameron R, Rast J. An ancient evolutionary origin of the Rag1/2 gene locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3728-33 pubmed
    ..a closely linked pair of genes, SpRag1L and SpRag2L, from an invertebrate, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) with similarity in both sequence and genomic organization to the vertebrate Rag1 and Rag2 genes...
  26. Rizzo F, Fernandez Serra M, Squarzoni P, Archimandritis A, Arnone M. Identification and developmental expression of the ets gene family in the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). Dev Biol. 2006;300:35-48 pubmed publisher
    A systematic search in the available scaffolds of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome has revealed that this sea urchin has 11 members of the ets gene family...
  27. Whalen K, Reitzel A, Hamdoun A. Actin polymerization controls the activation of multidrug efflux at fertilization by translocation and fine-scale positioning of ABCB1 on microvilli. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3663-72 pubmed publisher
  28. Monti E, Bassi M, Papini N, Riboni M, Manzoni M, Venerando B, et al. Identification and expression of NEU3, a novel human sialidase associated to the plasma membrane. Biochem J. 2000;349:343-51 pubmed
    ..8. Immunofluorescence staining of the transfected COS7 cells demonstrated the protein's localization in the plasma membrane. ..
  29. Lee J, Shott R, Rose S, Thomas T, Britten R, Davidson E. Sea urchin actin gene subtypes. Gene number, linkage and evolution. J Mol Biol. 1984;172:149-76 pubmed
    The actin gene family of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus was analyzed by the genome blot method, using subcloned probes specific to the 3' terminal non-translated actin gene sequence, intervening sequence and coding region ..
  30. Smith L, Chang L, Britten R, Davidson E. Sea urchin genes expressed in activated coelomocytes are identified by expressed sequence tags. Complement homologues and other putative immune response genes suggest immune system homology within the deuterostomes. J Immunol. 1996;156:593-602 pubmed
    ..Many of the ESTs identified in this study represent the types of genes expected to be used in lower deuterostome immune functions...
  31. Li X, Chuang C, Mao C, Angerer L, Klein W. Two Otx proteins generated from multiple transcripts of a single gene in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 1997;187:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, an orthodenticle-related protein called SpOtx is believed to direct the activation of the aboral ..
  32. Hamill D, Suprenant K. Characterization of the sea urchin major vault protein: a possible role for vault ribonucleoprotein particles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Dev Biol. 1997;190:117-28 pubmed
    ..Based on their copurification and intracellular distribution, vaults may be involved in the nucleocytoplasmic transport of ribosomes and/or mRNA...
  33. Haley S, Wessel G. The cortical granule serine protease CGSP1 of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is autocatalytic and contains a low-density lipoprotein receptor-like domain. Dev Biol. 1999;211:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We used this finding to identify a cDNA clone from a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus ovary cDNA library that encodes a 581-amino-acid-residue protein that we refer to as cortical granule ..
  34. Rogers G, Hart C, Wedaman K, Scholey J. Identification of kinesin-C, a calmodulin-binding carboxy-terminal kinesin in animal (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) cells. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:1-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of this novel calmodulin-binding motor in sea urchin embryos suggests that it plays a critical role in Ca(2+)-dependent events during early sea urchin development. ..
  35. Smith L, Shih C, Dachenhausen S. Coelomocytes express SpBf, a homologue of factor B, the second component in the sea urchin complement system. J Immunol. 1998;161:6784-93 pubmed
    ..been cloned and sequenced from an LPS-activated coelomocyte cDNA library from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain structure show significant similarity to the vertebrate Bf/..
  36. Haley S, Wessel G. Regulated proteolysis by cortical granule serine protease 1 at fertilization. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2084-92 pubmed
    ..protease, cortical granule serine protease 1 (CGSP1), has been identified in the cortical granules of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs, and here we examined the regulation of the protease activity and tested potential target ..
  37. Gauss R, Seifert R, Kaupp U. Molecular identification of a hyperpolarization-activated channel in sea urchin sperm. Nature. 1998;393:583-7 pubmed
    ..Because of their sequence and functional properties, Ih channels form a class of their own within the superfamily of voltage-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels. ..
  38. Riek R, Pr cheur B, Wang Y, Mackay E, Wider G, G ntert P, et al. NMR structure of the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) metallothionein MTA. J Mol Biol. 1999;291:417-28 pubmed publisher
    The three-dimensional structure of [(113)Cd7]-metallothionein-A (MTA) of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus was determined by homonuclear(1)H NMR experiments and heteronuclear [(1)H, (113)Cd]-correlation spectroscopy...
  39. Giacopuzzi E, Barlati S, Preti A, Venerando B, Monti E, Borsani G, et al. Gallus gallus NEU3 sialidase as model to study protein evolution mechanism based on rapid evolving loops. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Giving the peculiar organization of the loop region identified in Gg NEU3, this protein can be considered of particular interest in such evolutionary studies and to get deeper insights in sialidase evolution. ..
  40. Coffman J, Kirchhamer C, Harrington M, Davidson E. SpRunt-1, a new member of the runt domain family of transcription factors, is a positive regulator of the aboral ectoderm-specific CyIIIA gene in sea urchin embryos. Dev Biol. 1996;174:43-54 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with reference to known features of the runt domain family of transcription factors. ..
  41. Wikramanayake A, Peterson R, Chen J, Huang L, Bince J, McClay D, et al. Nuclear beta-catenin-dependent Wnt8 signaling in vegetal cells of the early sea urchin embryo regulates gastrulation and differentiation of endoderm and mesodermal cell lineages. Genesis. 2004;39:194-205 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that SpWnt8, a Wnt8 homolog from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is zygotically activated specifically in 16-cell-stage micromeres in a nuclear beta-catenin-dependent ..
  42. Terwilliger D, Buckley K, Brockton V, Ritter N, Smith L. Distinctive expression patterns of 185/333 genes in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: an unexpectedly diverse family of transcripts in response to LPS, beta-1,3-glucan, and dsRNA. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:16 pubmed
    ..Individual sea urchins were challenged with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (lipopolysaccharide, beta-1,3-glucan, or double stranded RNA), and changes in the 185/333 message repertoire were followed over time...
  43. Hwang S, Partin J, Lennarz W. Characterization of a homolog of human bone morphogenetic protein 1 in the embryo of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Development. 1994;120:559-68 pubmed
    ..Two models for the possible function of suBMP in spiculogenesis in the sea urchin embryo are discussed...
  44. Illies M, Peeler M, Dechtiaruk A, Ettensohn C. Cloning and developmental expression of a novel, secreted frizzled-related protein from the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Mech Dev. 2002;113:61-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the cloning of a novel SFRP (suSFRP1) from the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. SuSFRP1 contains a putative signal sequence, four cysteine-rich domains and a single Ig domain...
  45. George N, Killian C, Wilt F. Characterization and expression of a gene encoding a 30.6-kDa Strongylocentrotus purpuratus spicule matrix protein. Dev Biol. 1991;147:334-42 pubmed
    ..We describe here the isolation and characterization of several cDNA clones that encode a single 30.6-kDa Strongylocentrotus purpuratus spicule matrix protein designated SM30...
  46. Oliveri P, Walton K, Davidson E, McClay D. Repression of mesodermal fate by foxa, a key endoderm regulator of the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2006;133:4173-81 pubmed
    ..component of the endoderm specification subcircuit of the endomesoderm gene regulatory network in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo...
  47. Smith L, Britten R, Davidson E. SpCoel1: a sea urchin profilin gene expressed specifically in coelomocytes in response to injury. Mol Biol Cell. 1992;3:403-14 pubmed
    ..copy gene that is specifically expressed in most of the coelomocytes of the adult purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The 4-kb transcript from this gene has a relatively short (426 nucleotide) open reading frame (ORF) ..
  48. Oliveri P, Carrick D, Davidson E. A regulatory gene network that directs micromere specification in the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 2002;246:209-28 pubmed
    ..This network is a subelement of the overall endomesoderm specification network of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo...
  49. Mengerink K, Moy G, Vacquier V. suREJ3, a polycystin-1 protein, is cleaved at the GPS domain and localizes to the acrosomal region of sea urchin sperm. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:943-8 pubmed
    ..Localization of suREJ3 to the acrosomal region provides the first suggestion for the role of a polycystin-1 protein (components of nonselective cation channels) in a specific cellular process. ..
  50. Dobias S, Zhao A, Tan H, Bell J, Maxson R. SpHbox7, a new Abd-B class homeobox gene from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: insights into the evolution of hox gene expression and function. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..we describe the isolation, sequences analysis and spatiotemporal expression pattern of a sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) Abd-B-like gene, designated SpHbox7...
  51. Moy G, Mendoza L, Schulz J, Swanson W, Glabe C, Vacquier V. The sea urchin sperm receptor for egg jelly is a modular protein with extensive homology to the human polycystic kidney disease protein, PKD1. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:809-17 pubmed
    ..The lesion in cellular physiology resulting from mutations in the PKD1 protein remains unknown. The homology between REJ modules of the sea urchin REJ and human PKD1 suggests that PKD1 could be involved in ionic regulation. ..
  52. Tu Q, Brown C, Davidson E, Oliveri P. Sea urchin Forkhead gene family: phylogeny and embryonic expression. Dev Biol. 2006;300:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 23 fox gene subclasses identified in vertebrate genomes, the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome has orthologues of all but four (E, H, R and S). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that one S...
  53. Jin J, Li X, Gygi S, Harper J. Dual E1 activation systems for ubiquitin differentially regulate E2 enzyme charging. Nature. 2007;447:1135-8 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal unexpected complexity in the pathways that control the conjugation of ubiquitin, in which dual E1s orchestrate the charging of distinct cohorts of E2s. ..
  54. Leaf D, Anstrom J, Chin J, Harkey M, Showman R, Raff R. Antibodies to a fusion protein identify a cDNA clone encoding msp130, a primary mesenchyme-specific cell surface protein of the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 1987;121:29-40 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the expression of msp130 by indirect immunofluorescence staining of embryos and by immunoblots using fusion protein antibodies shows that the msp130 protein is first detectable soon after primary mesenchyme cell ingression...
  55. Tweedie S, Charlton J, Clark V, Bird A. Methylation of genomes and genes at the invertebrate-vertebrate boundary. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:1469-75 pubmed
  56. Girard J, Tenthorey J, Morgan D. An E2 accessory domain increases affinity for the anaphase-promoting complex and ensures E2 competition. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The UBA domain is required for normal Ubc1 function and E2 competition in vivo. Thus, the UBA domain of Ubc1 ensures efficient polyubiquitination of substrate by balancing Ubc1 affinity with that of Ubc4. ..
  57. Carpenter C, Bruskin A, Spain L, Eldon E, Klein W. The 3' untranslated regions of two related mRNAs contain an element highly repeated in the sea urchin genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:7829-42 pubmed
    ..The element is present at 2000 to 3000 copies per genome and may be transcribed at some sites other than those coding for the Spec1 and Spec2 genes. The possible function and evolutionary origin of the repetitive element is discussed...
  58. Ferkowicz M, Stander M, Raff R. Phylogenetic relationships and developmental expression of three sea urchin Wnt genes. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the view that sea urchin Wnt genes exhibit many conserved aspects and at least three orthologs are developmentally regulated in both indirect- and direct-developing sea urchin embryos...
  59. Exposito J, D Alessio M, Ramirez F. Novel amino-terminal propeptide configuration in a fibrillar procollagen undergoing alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:17404-8 pubmed
    We isolated overlapping cDNAs from embryonic libraries of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coding for a fibrillar procollagen (2 alpha chain) with a predicted molecular mass of about 320 kDa...
  60. Liao W, Fugmann S. Lectins identify distinct populations of coelomocytes in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187987 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescently-labeled lectins to determine differences in the glycosylation features on the surface of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coelomocytes by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry...
  61. Lun C, Schrankel C, Chou H, Sacchi S, Smith L. A recombinant Sp185/333 protein from the purple sea urchin has multitasking binding activities towards certain microbes and PAMPs. Immunobiology. 2016;221:889-903 pubmed publisher
    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a sophisticated innate immune system that responds to microbes effectively by swift expression of the highly diverse Sp185/333 gene family...
  62. Lin X, S derh ll K, S derh ll I. Invertebrate hematopoiesis: an astakine-dependent novel hematopoietic factor. J Immunol. 2011;186:2073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study of CHF may also shed light on the function of this untypical insulin growth factor binding protein motif located in the N-terminal of vertebrate CRIM1...
  63. Redruello B, Louro B, Anjos L, Silva N, Greenwell R, Canario A, et al. CRTAC1 homolog proteins are conserved from cyanobacteria to man and secreted by the teleost fish pituitary gland. Gene. 2010;456:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This will be essential to elucidate their respective biological roles...
  64. Ahier A, Rondard P, Gouignard N, Khayath N, Huang S, Trolet J, et al. A new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with a venus flytrap binding domain in insects and other invertebrates activated by aminoacids. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5651 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of RTKs specific for parasites and insect vectors raises new perspectives for the control of human parasitic and infectious diseases...
  65. Dos Santos S, Bardet C, Bertrand S, Escriva H, Habert D, Querat B. Distinct expression patterns of glycoprotein hormone-alpha2 and -beta5 in a basal chordate suggest independent developmental functions. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins would be active during embryonic development in a manner that does not require their heterodimerization...
  66. Giacopuzzi E, Bresciani R, Schauer R, Monti E, Borsani G. New insights on the sialidase protein family revealed by a phylogenetic analysis in metazoa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44193 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we further confirm findings on the catalytic residues and identified enzyme loop portions that behave as rapidly diverging regions and may be involved in the evolution of specific properties of sialidases...
  67. Swartz S, Reich A, Oulhen N, Raz T, Milos P, Campanale J, et al. Deadenylase depletion protects inherited mRNAs in primordial germ cells. Development. 2014;141:3134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the PGCs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus exhibit broad transcriptional repression, yet enrichment for a set of inherited mRNAs...
  68. Bekaert M, Ivanov I, Atkins J, Baranov P. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme finder (OAF): fast and reliable detection of antizymes with frameshifts in mRNAs. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008;9:178 pubmed publisher
    ..OAF outputs sequence annotations in fasta, genbank flat file or XML format. The OAF web interface and the source code are freely available at http://recode.ucc.ie/oaf/ and at a mirror site http://recode.genetics.utah.edu/oaf/...
  69. Mancias J, Goldberg J. The transport signal on Sec22 for packaging into COPII-coated vesicles is a conformational epitope. Mol Cell. 2007;26:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The concept of a conformational epitope as a transport signal suggests packaging mechanisms in which a coat is sensitive to the folded state of a cargo protein or the assembled state of a multiprotein complex...
  70. Fadl A, Mahfouz M, El Gamal M, Heyland A. New biomarkers of post-settlement growth in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Heliyon. 2017;3:e00412 pubmed publisher
    Some sea urchins, including the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, have been successfully used in aquaculture, but their slow growth and late reproduction are challenging to overcome when developing efficient ..
  71. Buckley K, Rast J. An Organismal Model for Gene Regulatory Networks in the Gut-Associated Immune Response. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1297 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying this theoretical framework to the free swimming, feeding larval stage of the purple sea urchin, it is possible to delineate the conserved regulatory circuitry that regulates the gut-associated immune ..
  72. Mengerink K, Vacquier V. An ATP-binding cassette transporter is a major glycoprotein of sea urchin sperm membranes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40729-34 pubmed
    ..Based on its relationship to subfamily A, suABCA is most likely involved in phospholipid or cholesterol transport. This is the first investigation of an ABC transporter in animal sperm...