painted turtle


Alias: Chrysemys picta, Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783), Chrysemys picta Schneider, 1783, Testudo picta, Trachemys picta

Top Publications

  1. Valenzuela N, LeClere A, Shikano T. Comparative gene expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in Chrysemys picta and Apalone mutica turtles with temperature-dependent and genotypic sex determination. Evol Dev. 2006;8:424-32 pubmed
    ..for sexual differentiation common to both systems, Sf1, at male- and female-producing temperatures, in TSD (Chrysemys picta) and GSD turtles (Apalone mutica)...
  2. Valenzuela N, Literman R, Neuwald J, Mizoguchi B, Iverson J, Riley J, et al. Extreme thermal fluctuations from climate change unexpectedly accelerate demographic collapse of vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination. Sci Rep. 2019;9:4254 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use novel experiments exposing eggs of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta) to replicated profiles recorded in field nests plus mathematically-modified profiles of similar shape but ..
  3. Dong J, Jiang H, Xiong L, Zan J, Liu J, Yang M, et al. Detecting coevolution of positively selected in turtles sperm-egg fusion proteins. Mech Dev. 2019;156:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mutica, M. sinensis, Cistoclemmys flavomarginata, Platysternon megacephalum and Chrysemys picta bellii) were identified, amplified, and sequenced, and tissue-specific expression was analyzed in M. reevesii...
  4. McGaugh S, Schwanz L, Bowden R, Gonzalez J, Janzen F. Inheritance of nesting behaviour across natural environmental variation in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:1219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..the field heritability of two key components of nesting behaviour in a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination by applying the 'animal model' to a pedigree reconstructed from ..
  5. Spencer R, Janzen F. A novel hypothesis for the adaptive maintenance of environmental sex determination in a turtle. Proc Biol Sci. 2014;281:20140831 pubmed publisher
    ..We test this novel hypothesis using the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta), a species with TSD in which eggs hatch in late summer and hatchlings remain within nests until the ..
  6. Steffen J, Hultberg J, Drozda S. The effect of dietary carotenoid increase on painted turtle spot and stripe color. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;229:10-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a carotenoid addition experiment on male painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to determine if an increase in dietary carotenoids led to location-specific changes in painted turtle spot ..
  7. Rivera G, Rivera A, Blob R. Hydrodynamic stability of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta): effects of four-limbed rowing versus forelimb flapping in rigid-bodied tetrapods. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:1153-62 pubmed publisher to assess hydrodynamic stability during rectilinear swimming in the freshwater painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)...
  8. Roth T, Krochmal A. Of molecules, memories and migration: M1 acetylcholine receptors facilitate spatial memory formation and recall during migratory navigation. Proc Biol Sci. 2018;285: pubmed publisher
    ..of the formation and recollection of memories during navigation, we pharmacologically manipulated turtles (Chrysemys picta) that navigate long distances using precise, complex paths learned during a juvenile critical period...
  9. Liu X, Wang Y, Ouyang S, Zhu Y, Li W, Hong X, et al. Evolutionary conservation of transferrin genomic organization and expression characterization in seven freshwater turtles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;506:874-882 pubmed publisher
    ..mutica, Mauremys sinensis, Cyclemys dentate, Mauremyssi reevesi, Heosemys grandis, Trachemys scripta and Chrysemys picta. The isolated coding sequences of turtles' tf genes were 2118 bp or 2121 bp, encoding 706 or 707 amino acids...

More Information


  1. Reid B, Kass J, Wollney S, Jensen E, Russello M, Viola E, et al. Disentangling the genetic effects of refugial isolation and range expansion in a trans-continentally distributed species. Heredity (Edinb). 2019;122:441-457 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined patterns of genetic variability in the trans-continentally distributed painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)...
  2. Odegard D, Sonnenfelt M, Bledsoe J, Keenan S, Hill C, Warren D. Changes in the material properties of the shell during simulated aquatic hibernation in the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle. J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    Western painted turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii) tolerate anoxic submergence longer than any other tetrapod, surviving more than 170?days at 3°C...
  3. Riley J, Tattersall G, Litzgus J. Potential sources of intra-population variation in the overwintering strategy of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) hatchlings. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:4174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..One notable vertebrate model is Chrysemys picta, whose hatchlings display dichotomous overwintering strategies: some hatchlings spend their first winter ..
  4. Roth T, Krochmal A. Pharmacological evidence is consistent with a prominent role of spatial memory in complex navigation. Proc Biol Sci. 2016;283: pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that complex navigation is facilitated by spatial memory in a population of Chrysemys picta that navigate with extreme precision (±3.5 m) using specific routes that must be learned prior to age three...
  5. Badenhorst D, Hillier L, Literman R, Montiel E, Radhakrishnan S, Shen Y, et al. Physical Mapping and Refinement of the Painted Turtle Genome (Chrysemys picta) Inform Amniote Genome Evolution and Challenge Turtle-Bird Chromosomal Conservation. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:2038-50 pubmed publisher
    ..0.3 NCBI AHGY00000000.2) and develop a cytogenetic map of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta-CPI) genome, the first in turtles and in vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination...
  6. Fago A, Jensen F. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite: lessons from extreme animals. Physiology (Bethesda). 2015;30:116-26 pubmed publisher
    Among vertebrates able to tolerate periods of oxygen deprivation, the painted and red-eared slider turtles (Chrysemys picta and Trachemys scripta) and the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) are the most extreme and can survive even ..
  7. Smith D, Cooper M, Kosiara J, Lamberti G. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188:128 pubmed publisher
    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal ..
  8. Ossiboff R, Newton A, Seimon T, Moore R, McAloose D. Emydid herpesvirus 1 infection in northern map turtles (Graptemys geographica) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27:392-5 pubmed publisher
    ..system with the affected map turtle identified 4 asymptomatic, EmyHV-1 PCR-positive painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and 1 asymptomatic northern map turtle...
  9. Hogg D, Pamenter M, Dukoff D, Buck L. Decreases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species initiate GABA(A) receptor-mediated electrical suppression in anoxia-tolerant turtle neurons. J Physiol. 2015;593:2311-26 pubmed publisher
    ..hyper-excitability and cell death in mammalian brain but in the anoxia-tolerant western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) neuronal electrical activity is suppressed (i.e...
  10. Roth T, Krochmal A. The role of age-specific learning and experience for turtles navigating a changing landscape. Curr Biol. 2015;25:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that learning plays a role in the navigation of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) within a model of environmental change...
  11. Schwarze K, Singh A, Burmester T. The Full Globin Repertoire of Turtles Provides Insights into Vertebrate Globin Evolution and Functions. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:1896-913 pubmed publisher
    ..different turtle species: the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii)...
  12. Nathaniel T, Williams Hernandez A, Hunter A, Liddy C, Peffley D, Umesiri F, et al. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models. Brain Res Bull. 2015;114:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and ..
  13. Biggar K, Storey K. Low-temperature microRNA expression in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta during freezing stress. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3665-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, two freeze-responsive 'cryo-miRs' (cpm-miR-16 and cpm-miR-21) were found to have unique low-temperature mRNA targets enriched in biological processes that are known to be part of the stress response. ..
  14. Holthaus K, Strasser B, Sipos W, Schmidt H, Mlitz V, Sukseree S, et al. Comparative Genomics Identifies Epidermal Proteins Associated with the Evolution of the Turtle Shell. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:726-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The EDC of the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) comprises more than 100 genes, including at least 48 genes that encode proteins referred to as beta-..
  15. Roth T, Krochmal A, Gerwig W, Rush S, Simmons N, Sullivan J, et al. Using Pharmacological Manipulation and High-precision Radio Telemetry to Study the Spatial Cognition in Free-ranging Animals. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol was applied within a population of Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that has inhabited seasonally ephemeral water sources for ~100 years, moving between far-off sources using ..
  16. Warren D, Jackson D. The metabolic consequences of repeated anoxic stress in the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;203:1-8 pubmed publisher
    The painted turtle is known for its extreme tolerance to anoxia, but it is unknown whether previous experience with anoxic stress might alter physiological performance during or following a test bout of anoxia...
  17. Wiebler J, Kumar M, Muir T. Daily thermal fluctuations to a range of subzero temperatures enhance cold hardiness of winter-acclimated turtles. J Comp Physiol B. 2017;187:1163-1172 pubmed publisher
    ..Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) overwintering in their natal nests experience substantial thermal variation in winter, and recently, it was ..
  18. Jandegian C, Deem S, Bhandari R, Holliday C, Nicks D, Rosenfeld C, et al. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;216:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine ..
  19. Manshack L, Conard C, Bryan S, Deem S, Holliday D, Bivens N, et al. Transcriptomic alterations in the brain of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) developmentally exposed to bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol. Physiol Genomics. 2017;49:201-215 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we treated painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) at developmental stage 17, incubated at 26°C (male-inducing temperature), with 1) BPA (1 ..
  20. Héritier L, Verneau O, Smith K, Coetzer C, du Preez L. Demonstrating the value and importance of combining DNA barcodes and discriminant morphological characters for polystome taxonomy (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). Parasitol Int. 2018;67:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..with Polystomoides oris, which was collected from the pharyngeal cavity of the American painted turtle Chrysemys picta and two undescribed species, both collected from the pharyngeal cavity of the American slider Trachemys ..
  21. Camarata T, Howard A, Elsey R, Raza S, O Connor A, Beatty B, et al. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153422 pubmed publisher nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others...
  22. Manshack L, Conard C, Johnson S, Alex J, Bryan S, Deem S, et al. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A and ethinyl estradiol on spatial navigational learning and memory in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Horm Behav. 2016;85:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we sought to determine whether developmental exposure of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) to BPA and EE2 results in sex-dependent behavioral changes...
  23. Warner D, Miller D, Bronikowski A, Janzen F. Decades of field data reveal that turtles senesce in the wild. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:6502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..contrary to current thinking, both reproduction and survival decline with adult age in the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, based on data spanning >20 y from a wild population...
  24. Montiel E, Badenhorst D, Tamplin J, Burke R, Valenzuela N. Discovery of the youngest sex chromosomes reveals first case of convergent co-option of ancestral autosomes in turtles. Chromosoma. 2017;126:105-113 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analyses show that GIN-X/Y is homologous to chromosome 4 of Chrysemys picta (CPI) painted turtles, chromosome 5 of Gallus gallus chicken, and thus to the X/Y sex chromosomes of ..
  25. Fanter C, Campbell K, Warren D. The effects of pH and Pi on tension and Ca2+ sensitivity of ventricular myofilaments from the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:4234-4241 pubmed publisher
    ..submergence affect contractility in ventricular muscle of the anoxia-tolerant Western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii Skinned multicellular preparations were exposed to six treatments with physiologically relevant ..
  26. Polich R, Bodensteiner B, Adams C, Janzen F. Effects of augmented corticosterone in painted turtle eggs on offspring development and behavior. Physiol Behav. 2018;183:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta. We exposed C...
  27. Young V, Vest K, Rivera A, Espinoza N, Blob R. One foot out the door: limb function during swimming in terrestrial versus aquatic turtles. Biol Lett. 2017;13: pubmed publisher
    ..Terrapene carolina) and two semi-aquatic emydid species: sliders (Trachemys scripta) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). We identified different kinematic patterns between limbs...
  28. Durso A, Mullin S. Ontogenetic shifts in the diet of plains hog-nosed snakes (Heterodon nasicus) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Zoology (Jena). 2017;120:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..sexlineatus) and their eggs to an adult diet predominantly (44-56%) composed of eggs of the aquatic turtles Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina, with a contribution from toads (Anaxyrus sp.; 6-27%) during their adolescent years...
  29. Jackson D, Crocker C, Ultsch G. Bone and shell contribution to lactic acid buffering of submerged turtles Chrysemys picta bellii at 3 degrees C. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;278:R1564-71 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 1.0%) fell significantly. We conclude that bone, as well as shell, accumulate lactate when plasma lactate is elevated, and that both export sodium carbonate, as well as calcium and magnesium carbonates, to supplement ECF buffering...
  30. Twyman H, Valenzuela N, Literman R, Andersson S, Mundy N. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles. Proc Biol Sci. 2016;283: pubmed publisher
  31. Hawrysh P, Miles A, Buck L. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel occurs independently of PKC? in turtle brain. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;200:44-53 pubmed publisher
    Neurons from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) are remarkably resilient to anoxia...
  32. Marquez E, Traylor Knowles N, Novillo Villajos A, Callard I. Novel cDNA sequences of aryl hydrocarbon receptors and gene expression in turtles (Chrysemys picta and Pseudemys scripta) exposed to different environments. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;154:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult turtles exposed to the MP environment showed significantly decreased brain AHR2. The painted turtle AHR is the first complete reptile AHR cDNA sequence...
  33. Valenzuela N. Relic thermosensitive gene expression in a turtle with genotypic sex determination. Evolution. 2008;62:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from an expression study of a gene involved in early gonadogenesis in GSD (Apalone mutica) and TSD (Chrysemys picta) turtles, support the hypothesis that Wt1 in A. mutica displays such a relic thermal sensitivity...
  34. Liu C, Bonaventure P, Lee G, Nepomuceno D, Kuei C, Wu J, et al. GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids L-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:911-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that L-Trp and L-Phe are candidate physiologic ligands for GPR139, and we hypothesize that this receptor may act as a sensor to detect dynamic changes of L-Trp and L-Phe in the brain. ..
  35. Valenzuela N. Evolution of the gene network underlying gonadogenesis in turtles with temperature-dependent and genotypic sex determination. Integr Comp Biol. 2008;48:476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Dax1 (the dosage-sensitive sex-reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital on the X chromosome gene in the turtles Chrysemys picta (TSD) and Apalone mutica (GSD). No differential Dax1 expression was detected in C...
  36. Marquez E, Traylor Knowles N, Novillo Villajos A, Callard I. Cloning of estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase cDNAs and gene expression in turtles (Chrysemys picta and Pseudemys scripta) exposed to different environments. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;154:213-25 pubmed publisher
    Reproductive changes have been observed in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) from a site with known contamination located on Cape Cod, MA, USA...
  37. LeMoine C, Lougheed S, Moyes C. Modular evolution of PGC-1alpha in vertebrates. J Mol Evol. 2010;70:492-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest modular evolution of the PGC-1alpha protein in vertebrates that could allow for lineage-specific divergences in the coactivating capabilities of this regulator. ..
  38. Krivoruchko A, Storey K. Activation of antioxidant defenses in response to freezing in freeze-tolerant painted turtle hatchlings. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:662-8 pubmed publisher
    Hatchlings of the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta marginata can endure long-term freezing of their extracellular body fluids...
  39. Valenzuela N. Multivariate expression analysis of the gene network underlying sexual development in turtle embryos with temperature-dependent and genotypic sex determination. Sex Dev. 2010;4:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..the regulation of the gene network underlying sexual development in turtles with temperature-dependent (TSD; Chrysemys picta) and genotypic sex determination (GSD; Apalone mutica)...
  40. Valenzuela N, Shikano T. Embryological ontogeny of aromatase gene expression in Chrysemys picta and Apalone mutica turtles: comparative patterns within and across temperature-dependent and genotypic sex-determining mechanisms. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:55-62 pubmed
    ..of aromatase expression in turtles possessing genotypic sex determination (GSD) (Apalone mutica) and TSD (Chrysemys picta) incubated under identical conditions...
  41. Sparkman A, Schwartz T, Madden J, Boyken S, Ford N, Serb J, et al. Rates of molecular evolution vary in vertebrates for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a pleiotropic locus that regulates life history traits. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;178:164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data propose new insights into the molecular co-evolution of IGF-1 and its receptors, and ultimately the evolution of IGF-1's role in regulating life-history traits across vertebrates. ..