rat

Summary

Alias: rats, Rattus

Top Publications

  1. Aal Aaboda M, Alhaddad H, Osowik F, Nauli S, Sari Y. Effects of (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male, alcohol-preferring rats. J Neurosci Res. 2015;93:930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in ..
  2. Kahya M, NazıroÄŸlu M, Övey Ä. Modulation of Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Ca2+ Entry Through TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion and Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats by Melatonin and Selenium. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:2345-2360 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stress in the hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-eight rats were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control...
  3. Bird A, Greatorex S, Reser D, Lavery G, Cole T. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase HSD1L is localised to the pituitary-gonadal axis of primates. Endocr Connect. 2017;6:489-499 pubmed publisher
    ..primate, sheep, pig and many other higher organisms, whereas an orthologue is absent in the genomes of mouse, rat and rabbit...
  4. Areias M, Prada P. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in the amygdala: influences on food intake. Behav Brain Res. 2015;282:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpressed PKCθ in the CeA (central nucleus of amygdala) of rats increases weight gain, food intake, insulin resistance and hepatic triglycerides content...
  5. Fukuda N, Naito S, Masukawa D, Kaneda M, Miyamoto H, Abe T, et al. Expression of ocular albinism 1 (OA1), 3, 4- dihydroxy- L-phenylalanine (DOPA) receptor, in both neuronal and non-neuronal organs. Brain Res. 2015;1602:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that OA1 mediates DOPA-induced depressor response in rat nucleus tractus solitarii. However, the distribution and function of OA1 in other regions are largely unknown...
  6. Liu J, Zhou Z, Zhang W, Bell M, Waalkes M. Changes in hepatic gene expression in response to hepatoprotective levels of zinc. Liver Int. 2009;29:1222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the basis of Zn-induced generalised hepatoprotective effects. Rats and mice were given Zn at known hepatoprotective levels (100 mumol ZnCl2/kg/day, s.c...
  7. Zhang X, Zhang J, Chen X, Hu Q, Wang M, Jin R, et al. Reactive oxygen species-induced TXNIP drives fructose-mediated hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;22:848-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rats were fed a 10% fructose diet for 8 weeks and treated with allopurinol and quercetin during the last 4 weeks...
  8. Golbar H, Izawa T, Wijesundera K, Bondoc A, Tennakoon A, Kuwamura M, et al. Depletion of Hepatic Macrophages Aggravates Liver Lesions Induced in Rats by Thioacetamide (TAA). Toxicol Pathol. 2016;44:246-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated immunophenotypes of macrophages in liver injury induced in rats by thioacetamide (TAA; 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) after hepatic macrophage depletion; hepatic macrophages were ..
  9. Kubota K, Fukue H, Sato H, Hashimoto K, Fujikane A, Moriyama H, et al. The Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Hachimijiogan Elicits Neurite Outgrowth Effects in PC12 Cells and Improves Cognitive in AD Model Rats via Phosphorylation of CREB. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:850 pubmed publisher
    ..that HJG exerts neurotrophic factor-like effects to ameliorate memory impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD) model rats. First, we describe that HJG acts to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line) like ..
  10. Luan Y, Chao S, Ju Z, Wang J, Xue X, Qi T, et al. Therapeutic effects of baicalin on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting inflammatory response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;26:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS AND RESULTS: Our research showed that compared with MCT-induced PAH model rats, rats administered intragrastically with 100mg/kg baicalin showed the following after two weeks: the right ..

Detail Information

Publications248 found, 100 shown here

  1. Aal Aaboda M, Alhaddad H, Osowik F, Nauli S, Sari Y. Effects of (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male, alcohol-preferring rats. J Neurosci Res. 2015;93:930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in ..
  2. Kahya M, NazıroÄŸlu M, Övey Ä. Modulation of Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Ca2+ Entry Through TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion and Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats by Melatonin and Selenium. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:2345-2360 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stress in the hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-eight rats were divided into six groups. The first group was used as control...
  3. Bird A, Greatorex S, Reser D, Lavery G, Cole T. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase HSD1L is localised to the pituitary-gonadal axis of primates. Endocr Connect. 2017;6:489-499 pubmed publisher
    ..primate, sheep, pig and many other higher organisms, whereas an orthologue is absent in the genomes of mouse, rat and rabbit...
  4. Areias M, Prada P. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in the amygdala: influences on food intake. Behav Brain Res. 2015;282:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpressed PKCθ in the CeA (central nucleus of amygdala) of rats increases weight gain, food intake, insulin resistance and hepatic triglycerides content...
  5. Fukuda N, Naito S, Masukawa D, Kaneda M, Miyamoto H, Abe T, et al. Expression of ocular albinism 1 (OA1), 3, 4- dihydroxy- L-phenylalanine (DOPA) receptor, in both neuronal and non-neuronal organs. Brain Res. 2015;1602:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that OA1 mediates DOPA-induced depressor response in rat nucleus tractus solitarii. However, the distribution and function of OA1 in other regions are largely unknown...
  6. Liu J, Zhou Z, Zhang W, Bell M, Waalkes M. Changes in hepatic gene expression in response to hepatoprotective levels of zinc. Liver Int. 2009;29:1222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the basis of Zn-induced generalised hepatoprotective effects. Rats and mice were given Zn at known hepatoprotective levels (100 mumol ZnCl2/kg/day, s.c...
  7. Zhang X, Zhang J, Chen X, Hu Q, Wang M, Jin R, et al. Reactive oxygen species-induced TXNIP drives fructose-mediated hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;22:848-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rats were fed a 10% fructose diet for 8 weeks and treated with allopurinol and quercetin during the last 4 weeks...
  8. Golbar H, Izawa T, Wijesundera K, Bondoc A, Tennakoon A, Kuwamura M, et al. Depletion of Hepatic Macrophages Aggravates Liver Lesions Induced in Rats by Thioacetamide (TAA). Toxicol Pathol. 2016;44:246-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated immunophenotypes of macrophages in liver injury induced in rats by thioacetamide (TAA; 300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) after hepatic macrophage depletion; hepatic macrophages were ..
  9. Kubota K, Fukue H, Sato H, Hashimoto K, Fujikane A, Moriyama H, et al. The Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Hachimijiogan Elicits Neurite Outgrowth Effects in PC12 Cells and Improves Cognitive in AD Model Rats via Phosphorylation of CREB. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:850 pubmed publisher
    ..that HJG exerts neurotrophic factor-like effects to ameliorate memory impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD) model rats. First, we describe that HJG acts to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line) like ..
  10. Luan Y, Chao S, Ju Z, Wang J, Xue X, Qi T, et al. Therapeutic effects of baicalin on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting inflammatory response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;26:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS AND RESULTS: Our research showed that compared with MCT-induced PAH model rats, rats administered intragrastically with 100mg/kg baicalin showed the following after two weeks: the right ..
  11. Abdel Moneim A. The neuroprotective effect of berberine in mercury-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2015;30:935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mg/kg bwt) induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress was examined in rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were injected with HgCl2 for 7 days...
  12. Shen W, Chen J, Yin J, Wang S. Selenium protects reproductive system and foetus development in a rat model of gestational lead exposure. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:773-80 pubmed
    ..Here we tested potential protective effects of selenium against gestational lead exposure. Pregnant SD rats were exposed to 200 mg/L of lead acetate (given with water), with or without sodium selenite supplementation (2-8 ..
  13. Zhao L, Xu J, Wang Q, Qian Z, Feng W, Yin X, et al. Protective effect of rhGLP-1 (7-36) on brain ischemia/reperfusion damage in diabetic rats. Brain Res. 2015;1602:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..against acute ischemia/reperfusion injuries induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was established by a combination of a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)..
  14. Choi Y, Yoon Y, Lee K, Kang Y, Lim D, Kwon S, et al. Orotic acid induces hypertension associated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Toxicol Sci. 2015;144:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, experimental induction of orotic aciduria in rats caused insulin resistance, measured as a 125% increase in the homeostasis model assessment, and hypertension, ..
  15. Henning E, Ruetzler C, Gaudinski M, Hu T, Latour L, Hallenbeck J, et al. Feridex preloading permits tracking of CNS-resident macrophages after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:1229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, spontaneously hypertensive rats were preloaded with Feridex 7 days before stroke, permitting the labeling of bone-marrow-derived macrophages...
  16. Granold M, Moosmann B, Staib Lasarzik I, Arendt T, del Rey A, Engelhard K, et al. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex. Redox Biol. 2015;4:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in ..
  17. Grzelka K, Kurowski P, Gawlak M, Szulczyk P. Noradrenaline Modulates the Membrane Potential and Holding Current of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Pyramidal Neurons via ?1-Adrenergic Receptors and HCN Channels. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:341 pubmed publisher
    ..pyramidal neurons was recorded in perforated-patch and classical whole-cell configurations in slices from young rats. Application of noradrenaline (NA), a neurotransmitter with affinity for all types of adrenergic receptors, evoked ..
  18. Hou M, Chen Z, Li L, Wang P, Qie M. [Studies on the lymphatic tropism and lymph cells apoptosis of cisplatin-nano carbon suspension in the rats]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2014;49:847-51 pubmed
    To research the lymphatic tropism and lymph cell apoptosis of cisplatin-nano carbon suspension in rats with the aim of proposing a new way for chemotherapy. A total of 72 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups...
  19. Lin C, Yang C, Hsiao L, Chen S, Yang C. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction by Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-3 Suppresses Interleukin-1?-Mediated Neuroinflammation. Front Mol Neurosci. 2017;10:387 pubmed publisher
    ..and protection against interleukin (IL)-1?-induced inflammatory responses have not been fully elucidated in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1)...
  20. Imboden H, Patil J, Nussberger J, Nicoud F, Hess B, Ahmed N, et al. Endogenous angiotensinergic system in neurons of rat and human trigeminal ganglia. Regul Pept. 2009;154:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)- and cathepsin D-mRNA, and the presence of Ang II and substance P in the rat and human trigeminal ganglia...
  21. Kim H, Leeds P, Chuang D. The HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate, stimulates neurogenesis in the ischemic brain. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1226-40 pubmed publisher
    ..incorporation of bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the SVZ, DG, striatum, and frontal cortex in the ischemic brain of rats subjected to permanent cerebral ischemia...
  22. Iliff J, Wang R, Zeldin D, Alkayed N. Epoxyeicosanoids as mediators of neurogenic vasodilation in cerebral vessels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We first traced these fibers by retrograde labeling in the rat to trigeminal ganglia (TG) and sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG)...
  23. Kawasaki M, Ponzio T, Yue C, Fields R, Gainer H. Neurotransmitter regulation of c-fos and vasopressin gene expression in the rat supraoptic nucleus. Exp Neurol. 2009;219:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..deliver putative agonists and antagonists over the SON unilaterally, and use the contralateral SON in the same rat, exposed only to vehicle solutions, as the control SON...
  24. Rapoport S, Basselin M, Kim H, Rao J. Bipolar disorder and mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers. Brain Res Rev. 2009;61:185-209 pubmed publisher
    ..It is based on evidence that chronic administration of lithium, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, or lamotrigine to rats downregulated AA turnover in brain phospholipids, formation of prostaglandin E(2), and/or expression of AA cascade ..
  25. Bilbao M, Di Yorio M, Galarza R, Varone C, Faletti A. Regulation of the ovarian oxidative status by leptin during the ovulatory process in rats. Reproduction. 2015;149:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we performed both in vivo and in vitro assays using ovaries of immature rats primed with gonadotropins to induce ovulation...
  26. Evuarherhe O, Leggett J, Waite E, Kershaw Y, Atkinson H, Lightman S. Organizational role for pubertal androgens on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity to testosterone in the male rat. J Physiol. 2009;587:2977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of androgens on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in basal and stress conditions in adult male rats is well documented. Major sex-related neuroendocrine changes take place during puberty...
  27. Chen W, Wei S, Yu Y, Xue H, Yao F, Zhang M, et al. Pretreatment of rats with increased bioavailable berberine attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via down regulation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;779:80-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rats treated with HGSD, SC and saline for 7 days then subjected to cerebral ischemia reperfusion by middle cerebral ..
  28. Winiarska K, Jarzyna R, Dzik J, Jagielski A, Grabowski M, Nowosielska A, et al. ERK1/2 pathway is involved in renal gluconeogenesis inhibition under conditions of lowered NADPH oxidase activity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;81:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In the in vivo experiments, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a well established model of diabetes type 2, were treated with apocynin solution in drinking water...
  29. Jennische E, Eriksson C, Lange S, Trybala E, Bergström T. The anterior commissure is a pathway for contralateral spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 after olfactory tract infection. J Neurovirol. 2015;21:129-47 pubmed publisher
    ..as a model of infection and tropism of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), the causative agent of HSE, in the CNS of rats. Rats were instilled with HSV-1 in the right nostril and sacrificed 1-6 days post-infection, and tissues were ..
  30. Zwang N, Hoffert J, Pisitkun T, Moeller H, Fenton R, Knepper M. Identification of phosphorylation-dependent binding partners of aquaporin-2 using protein mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1540-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytosol from inner medullary collecting ducts isolated from rat kidneys was incubated with "bait" peptides, representing the COOH-terminal AQP2 tail in its nonphosphorylated and ..
  31. Keppeke G, Andrade L, Grieshaber S, Chan E. Microinjection of specific anti-IMPDH2 antibodies induces disassembly of cytoplasmic rods/rings that are primarily stationary and stable structures. Cell Biosci. 2015;5:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Several cell types, including mouse embryonic stem cells, and cell lines, such as mouse 3 T3 and rat NRK, naturally present RR structures, while other cells can present RR when treated with compounds interfering with ..
  32. Sun Q, He F, Li M, Li G, Lu A. [Effects of exercise and diet intervention on oxidative stress in insulin resistant rat]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2014;43:885-9 pubmed
    ..the effects of exercise, diet and their combination intervention on oxidative stress of insulin resistance rat. Establish obesity-induced insulin resistance rat models. Obesity was assessed by the body weight and lipid ratio...
  33. Nam H, Na E, Lee E, Kwon Y, Kim H. Antiepileptic and Neuroprotective Effects of Oleamide in Rat Striatum on Kainate-Induced Behavioral Seizure and Excitotoxic Damage via Calpain Inhibition. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:817 pubmed publisher
    ..KA-induced epileptic rats were produced by an intrastriatal injection of KA (5 nmole). Oral administration of oleamide (0...
  34. Berna M, Tapia J, Sancho V, Thill M, Pace A, Hoffmann K, et al. Gastrointestinal growth factors and hormones have divergent effects on Akt activation. Cell Signal. 2009;21:622-38 pubmed publisher
    ..this area, in this study the effects of GI growth factors and hormones/neurotransmitters were investigated in rat pancreatic acinar cells which are high responsive to these agents...
  35. Kubesova A, Tejkalová H, Syslova K, Kacer P, Vondrousova J, Tylš F, et al. Biochemical, histopathological and morphological profiling of a rat model of early immune stimulation: relation to psychopathology. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0115439 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study of adult male Wistar rats we examined the brain and plasma levels of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin), their metabolites, the levels of the ..
  36. Guo P, Hu S. Thalidomide alleviates postoperative pain and spatial memory deficit in aged rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;95:583-588 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of thalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, on POCD in aged rats, and also explored the underlying mechanisms...
  37. Zhang S, Liu B, Fan Z, Wang D, Liu Y, Li J, et al. Targeted inhibition of survivin with YM155 promotes apoptosis of hypoxic human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the upregulation of voltage-dependent K⁺ channels. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:3415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, survivin, has been observed to be upregulated in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of chronic hypoxia-induced PH rats. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of sepantronium bromide (YM155), a selective ..
  38. Yu C, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Zong Y, Chen Y, Du X, et al. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13: pubmed publisher
    ..This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE)...
  39. Abdukeyum G, Owen A, Larkin T, McLennan P. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat. J Clin Med. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA); sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA); or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF) enriched diets ..
  40. Ferland G, Doucet I, Mainville D. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood. Nutrients. 2016;8:141 pubmed publisher
    ..of phylloquinone (K₁) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K₁ diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood...
  41. Ando M, Matsumoto T, Taguchi K, Kobayashi T. Poly (I:C) impairs NO donor-induced relaxation by overexposure to NO via the NF-kappa B/iNOS pathway in rat superior mesenteric arteries. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;112:553-566 pubmed publisher
    ..I (RIG-I)] affected nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-related vascular relaxation, one of the major cascades of relaxation, in rat superior mesenteric arteries...
  42. Liu Q, Pan C, Hishimoto A, Li C, Xi Z, Llorente Berzal A, et al. Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 gene): identification of novel human and rodent CB2 isoforms, differential tissue expression and regulation by cannabinoid receptor ligands. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Species comparison found that the CB2 gene of human, rat and mouse genomes deviated in their gene structures and isoform expression patterns...
  43. Lacorte L, Rinaldi J, Justulin L, Delella F, Moroz A, Felisbino S. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:538-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl2 diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (..
  44. Moallem E, Koren E, Ulmansky R, Pizov G, Barlev M, Barenholz Y, et al. A liposomal steroid nano-drug for treating systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2016;25:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..over that of free glucocorticoids (non-liposomal) in the autoimmune diseases, including the adjuvant arthritis rat model and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model...
  45. Fu Z, Wang M, Gucek M, Zhang J, Wu J, Jiang L, et al. Milk fat globule protein epidermal growth factor-8: a pivotal relay element within the angiotensin II and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 signaling cascade mediating vascular smooth muscle cells invasion. Circ Res. 2009;104:1337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study to analyze aortic proteins from young (8 months) and old (30 months) rats and identified 50 proteins that significantly change in abundance with aging...
  46. Wei X, Yan J, Tillu D, Asiedu M, Weinstein N, Melemedjian O, et al. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:1054-64 pubmed publisher
    ..both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections...
  47. Ai W, Li J, Lin S, Li W, Liu C, Lv W. R-Smad signaling-mediated VEGF expression coordinately regulates endothelial cell differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:1320-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we studied the role of the TGF-β superfamily in EC differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced by Smad2/3 and Smad1/5/8 signaling...
  48. Suzuki J, Dezawa M, Kitada M. Prolonged but non-permanent expression of a transgene in ependymal cells of adult rats using an adenovirus-mediated transposon gene transfer system. Brain Res. 2017;1675:20-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We injected these adenoviruses into the lateral ventricles of adult rats to assess the duration of transgene expression, by which adenoviruses selectively infected to ependymal cells ..
  49. Fine J, Forsberg A, Stroebel B, Faltesek K, Verden D, Hamel K, et al. Intranasal deferoxamine affects memory loss, oxidation, and the insulin pathway in the streptozotocin rat model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2017;380:164-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical induction of the model included ICV injections of either STZ or citrate buffer (sham in rats), which were treated IN with either saline or DFO (n=10-15/group)...
  50. Cao Y, Cao X, Liu X. Expression of cholecystokinin2-receptor in rat and human L cells and the stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by gastrin treatment. Acta Histochem. 2015;117:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..labeling was utilized to assess the intracellular localization of CCK2R and GLP-1 in L cells harvested from rat colon tissue. Our results showed that CCK2R was expressed in both the human L cell line and the rat L cells...
  51. Grati M, Chakchouk I, Ma Q, Bensaïd M, DeSmidt A, Turki N, et al. A missense mutation in DCDC2 causes human recessive deafness DFNB66, likely by interfering with sensory hair cell and supporting cell cilia length regulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunofluorescence on rat inner ear neuroepithelia, DCDC2a was found to localize to the kinocilia of sensory hair cells and the primary cilia ..
  52. Yerra V, Kumar A. Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Abates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Neuronal Injury in Experimental Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Effects on Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Autophagy and Neuroinflammation. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:2301-2312 pubmed publisher
    ..A769662 (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (250-270 g) for 2 weeks after 6 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ) injection (55 mg/kg, i.p.)...
  53. Gutiérrez Lara E, Navarrete Vazquez G, Sánchez López A, Centurión D. Pharmacological evaluation of metformin and N-benzylbiguanide, a novel analogue of metformin, on the vasopressor responses to adrenergic system stimulation in pithed rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;814:313-323 pubmed publisher
    ..of the agonists noradrenaline (?1/2), methoxamine (?1) and UK 14,304 (?2) in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance chronically pretreated with either metformin or EGL-6M (N-benzylbiguanide),..
  54. Yousefifard M, NasiriNezhad F, Shardi Manaheji H, Janzadeh A, Hosseini M, Keshavarz M. Human bone marrow-derived and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells for alleviating neuropathic pain in a spinal cord injury model. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;7:36 pubmed publisher
    ..A compression model was used to induce SCI in a rat model. A week after SCI, about 1 million cells were transplanted into the spinal cord...
  55. Wang H, Morales M. Pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei contain distinct populations of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:340-58 pubmed publisher
  56. Taylor J, Miller B, Gray K, Scott R, Catherino W, Segars J. The mechanism responsible for the supraphysiologic gonadotropin surge in females treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and primed with GnRH antagonist. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..gonadotropin release from the pituitary induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in female rats primed with GnRH antagonist. Controlled experimental intervention. Government research facility...
  57. Rosenberg H, Dyer K, Domachowske J. Respiratory viruses and eosinophils: exploring the connections. Antiviral Res. 2009;83:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in response to natural RSV infection; this has been modeled experimentally, primarily in inbred mice and cotton rats. Eosinophils are recruited to the lung tissue in response to formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens in humans ..
  58. Bai L, Mei X, Wang Y, Yuan Y, Bi Y, Li G, et al. The Role of Netrin-1 in Improving Functional Recovery through Autophagy Stimulation Following Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:350 pubmed publisher
    ..by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (AMPK/mTOR) signaling pathway in rats following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated...
  59. Wang M, Li W, Wang X, Yang D, Wang Z, Wang L. CaMKII is involved in subcellular Ca2+ redistribution-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to apoptosis in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells exposed to lead. Oncotarget. 2017;8:91162-91173 pubmed publisher
    ..proved that subcellular Ca2+ redistribution is involved in Pb-induced apoptosis in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells, but the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated...
  60. Stout M, Nyska A, Collins B, Witt K, Kissling G, Malarkey D, et al. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chromium picolinate monohydrate administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 2 years. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:729-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and carcinogenicity, the NTP conducted studies of the monohydrate form (CPM) in groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed in feed to concentrations of 0, 2000, 10,000 or 50,000 ppm for 2 years; exposure ..
  61. Kiyatkin E, Sharma H. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier depends on brain temperature. Neuroscience. 2009;161:926-39 pubmed publisher
    ..in several brain structures (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus) of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats (50 mg/kg i.p.), which were passively warmed to different levels of brain temperature (32-42 degrees C)...
  62. Wang T, Wei Z, Dou Y, Yang Y, Leng D, Kong L, et al. Intestinal interleukin-10 mobilization as a contributor to the anti-arthritis effect of orally administered madecassoside: a unique action mode of saponin compounds with poor bioavailability. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;94:30-8 pubmed publisher
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    ..b>Rats were trained to lever-press for intravenous cocaine (2 weeks) and then underwent extinction training (saline ..
  89. Tiernan C, Edwin E, Hawong H, Ríos Cabanillas M, Goudreau J, Atchison W, et al. Methylmercury impairs canonical dopamine metabolism in rat undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells by indirect inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Toxicol Sci. 2015;144:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..and examine potential mechanisms by which MeHg inhibits the DA metabolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in rat undifferentiated PC12 cells...
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  91. Pershad Y, Govindan S, Hara A, Borad M, Bekaii Saab T, Wallace A, et al. Using Naïve Bayesian Analysis to Determine Imaging Characteristics of KRAS Mutations in Metastatic Colon Cancer. Diagnostics (Basel). 2017;7: pubmed publisher
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    ..Differently in rat and mice, the frequency of clear cells did not increase in the epididymis cauda, whereas the proportion of ..