Alias: Pan troglodytes, Chimpansee troglodytes

Top Publications

  1. Cáceres M, Thomas J. The gene of retroviral origin Syncytin 1 is specific to hominoids and is inactive in Old World monkeys. J Hered. 2006;97:100-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Syncytin 1 is indeed a hominoid-specific gene and illustrate the complex and dynamic process associated with the origin of new genes...
  2. Blaise S, de Parseval N, B nit L, Heidmann T. Genomewide screening for fusogenic human endogenous retrovirus envelopes identifies syncytin 2, a gene conserved on primate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13013-8 pubmed publisher
  3. de Groot N, Otting N, Doxiadis G, Balla Jhagjhoorsingh S, Heeney J, van Rood J, et al. Evidence for an ancient selective sweep in the MHC class I gene repertoire of chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11748-53 pubmed
    ..have a natural resistance to the development of AIDS, we hypothesize that the selective sweep was caused by the chimpanzee-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), the closest relative of HIV-1, or a closely related retrovirus...
  4. Elde N, Child S, Geballe A, Malik H. Protein kinase R reveals an evolutionary model for defeating viral mimicry. Nature. 2009;457:485-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Wildman D, Uddin M, Liu G, Grossman L, Goodman M. Implications of natural selection in shaping 99.4% nonsynonymous DNA identity between humans and chimpanzees: enlarging genus Homo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we compare approximately 90 kb of coding DNA nucleotide sequence from 97 human genes to their sequenced chimpanzee counterparts and to available sequenced gorilla, orangutan, and Old World monkey counterparts, and, on a more ..
  6. Adams E, Cooper S, Thomson G, Parham P. Common chimpanzees have greater diversity than humans at two of the three highly polymorphic MHC class I genes. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:410-24 pubmed
    ..having passed through a narrower population bottleneck than chimpanzees, and with pathogen-mediated selection having favored either preservation of A2 lineage alleles on the human line and/or their extinction on the chimpanzee line.
  7. Sawyer S, Wu L, Akey J, Emerman M, Malik H. High-frequency persistence of an impaired allele of the retroviral defense gene TRIM5alpha in humans. Curr Biol. 2006;16:95-100 pubmed
    ..The unexpectedly high frequency of an impaired retroviral restriction allele among humans is likely to have a significant impact on our ability to ward off future retroviral challenges. ..
  8. Song B, Javanbakht H, Perron M, Park D, Stremlau M, Sodroski J. Retrovirus restriction by TRIM5alpha variants from Old World and New World primates. J Virol. 2005;79:3930-7 pubmed
    ..b>Chimpanzee and orangutan TRIM5alpha proteins functionally resembled human TRIM5alpha, potently restricting infection by N-..
  9. Pavlicek A, Noskov V, Kouprina N, Barrett J, Jurka J, Larionov V. Evolution of the tumor suppressor BRCA1 locus in primates: implications for cancer predisposition. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2737-51 pubmed
    ..Previously, a rapidly evolving region with evidence of positive evolutionary selection in human and chimpanzee had been identified only in exon 11...

More Information


  1. Brass A, Huang I, Benita Y, John S, Krishnan M, Feeley E, et al. The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. Cell. 2009;139:1243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate immunity to at least three major human pathogens...
  2. Sawyer S, Emerman M, Malik H. Ancient adaptive evolution of the primate antiviral DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3G. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E275 pubmed
    ..Despite being only recently discovered, editing of RNA and DNA may thus represent an ancient form of host defense in primate genomes. ..
  3. Watanabe H, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Taylor T, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, et al. DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22. Nature. 2004;429:382-8 pubmed
    Human-chimpanzee comparative genome research is essential for narrowing down genetic changes involved in the acquisition of unique human features, such as highly developed cognitive functions, bipedalism or the use of complex language...
  4. Finch C, Stanford C. Meat-adaptive genes and the evolution of slower aging in humans. Q Rev Biol. 2004;79:3-50 pubmed
    The chimpanzee life span is shorter than that of humans, which is consistent with a faster schedule of aging...
  5. Herv C, Forrest G, L wer R, Griffiths D, Venables P. Conservation and loss of the ERV3 open reading frame in primates. Genomics. 2004;83:940-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In the chimpanzee, the protein sequence of Env is 98.18% identical to that of human. In other species the identity falls (93...
  6. Burki F, Kaessmann H. Birth and adaptive evolution of a hominoid gene that supports high neurotransmitter flux. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1061-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The amino acid changes responsible for the unique brain-specific properties of the enzyme derived from GLUD2 occurred during a period of positive selection after the duplication event...
  7. Rajalingam R, Parham P, Abi Rached L. Domain shuffling has been the main mechanism forming new hominoid killer cell Ig-like receptors. J Immunol. 2004;172:356-69 pubmed
    ..Other KIR genes represent recombinant forms present in a minority of species, often only one, as exemplified by 8 of the 11 gorilla KIR genes. ..
  8. Bonnaud B, Bouton O, Oriol G, Cheynet V, Duret L, Mallet F. Evidence of selection on the domesticated ERVWE1 env retroviral element involved in placentation. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..substitutions and indels was analyzed within all human HERV-W elements and along the ERVWE1 orthologous loci in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon...
  9. Zhang J, Rosenberg H. Diversifying selection of the tumor-growth promoter angiogenin in primate evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:438-45 pubmed polymorphism, which may have resulted from a recent selective sweep of a charge-altering substitution in chimpanzee evolution...
  10. Del Pero M, Boniotto M, Zuccon D, Cervella P, Spano A, Amoroso A, et al. Beta-defensin 1 gene variability among non-human primates. Immunogenetics. 2002;53:907-13 pubmed
    ..Compared with these taxa, hylobatids and cercopithecids exhibit 3-4 amino acid substitutions, some of which increase the net charge of the active molecule. ..
  11. Ortiz M, Bleiber G, Martinez R, Kaessmann H, Telenti A. Patterns of evolution of host proteins involved in retroviral pathogenesis. Retrovirology. 2006;3:11 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong sequence conservation of the TRIM19/PML sequences among primates suggests that this gene does not play a role in antiretroviral defense...
  12. Winter H, Langbein L, Krawczak M, Cooper D, Jave Suarez L, Rogers M, et al. Human type I hair keratin pseudogene phihHaA has functional orthologs in the chimpanzee and gorilla: evidence for recent inactivation of the human gene after the Pan-Homo divergence. Hum Genet. 2001;108:37-42 pubmed
    ..Large-scale genotyping of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla DNAs revealed the homozygous presence of the phihHaA nonsense mutation in humans of different ..
  13. Fullerton S, Clark A, Weiss K, Nickerson D, Taylor S, Stengard J, et al. Apolipoprotein E variation at the sequence haplotype level: implications for the origin and maintenance of a major human polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:881-900 pubmed
    ..0005+/-0.0003. Sequence analysis of the chimpanzee APOE gene showed that it was most closely related to human epsilon4-type haplotypes, differing from the human ..
  14. Wyckoff G, Wang W, Wu C. Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature. 2000;403:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..evolution of male reproductive genes is observable in primates and is quite notable in the lineages to human and chimpanzee. Nevertheless, rapid evolution by itself is not necessarily an indication of positive darwinian selection; ..
  15. Cooper S, Adams E, Wells R, Walker C, Parham P. A major histocompatibility complex class I allele shared by two species of chimpanzee. Immunogenetics. 1998;47:212-7 pubmed
    ..Discovery of identical [1101 base pairs (bp)] coding regions at the MHC class I C locus in Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, chimpanzee species that diverged approximately 2...
  16. Lim E, Malik H, Emerman M. Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:7124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined evolutionary and functional studies have allowed us to reconstruct the host-pathogen interactions that have shaped Tetherin and its lentivirus-encoded antagonists...
  17. Whitfield L, Lovell Badge R, Goodfellow P. Rapid sequence evolution of the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. Nature. 1993;364:713-5 pubmed
    ..The high degree of sequence divergence and the frequency of non-synonymous mutations suggest either that the majority of the coding sequence has no functional significance or that directional selection has occurred. ..
  18. Sugawara T, Go Y, Udono T, Morimura N, Tomonaga M, Hirai H, et al. Diversification of bitter taste receptor gene family in western chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:921-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the sequences of all 28 putative functional chimpanzee T2R genes (cT2Rs) in 46 western chimpanzees to compare the intraspecies variations in chimpanzees to those ..
  19. Patel M, Loo Y, Horner S, Gale M, Malik H. Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001282 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses also provide a means by which primates might clear infections by extant hepaciviruses like HCV...
  20. Marques A, Dupanloup I, Vinckenbosch N, Reymond A, Kaessmann H. Emergence of young human genes after a burst of retroposition in primates. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e357 pubmed
  21. Hughes J, Skaletsky H, Pyntikova T, Minx P, Graves T, Rozen S, et al. Conservation of Y-linked genes during human evolution revealed by comparative sequencing in chimpanzee. Nature. 2005;437:100-3 pubmed
    ..Here we find, by systematically comparing the DNA sequences of unique, Y-linked genes in chimpanzee and human, which diverged about six million years ago, evidence that in the human lineage, all such genes were ..
  22. de Groot N, Garcia C, Verschoor E, Doxiadis G, Marsh S, Otting N, et al. Reduced MIC gene repertoire variation in West African chimpanzees as compared to humans. Mol Biol Evol. 2005;22:1375-85 pubmed
    ..The present population study illustrates that all chimpanzee haplotypes sampled possess the hybrid MICA/B gene...
  23. Angata T, Margulies E, Green E, Varki A. Large-scale sequencing of the CD33-related Siglec gene cluster in five mammalian species reveals rapid evolution by multiple mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13251-6 pubmed
    ..Nonsynonymous differences between human and chimpanzee orthologs showed uneven distribution between the two beta sheets of the Sia-recognition domain, suggesting ..
  24. Zhang C, de Silva S, Wang J, Wu L. Co-evolution of primate SAMHD1 and lentivirus Vpx leads to the loss of the vpx gene in HIV-1 ancestor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37477 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) were derived from SIVs that infected chimpanzee (SIVcpz) and sooty mangabey (SIVsm), respectively...
  25. Zhang J. Evolution of the human ASPM gene, a major determinant of brain size. Genetics. 2003;165:2063-70 pubmed
  26. Wang Y, Su B. Molecular evolution of microcephalin, a gene determining human brain size. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1131-7 pubmed
    ..The codon-based neutrality test also indicated the signal of positive selection on five individual amino acid sites of microcephalin, which may contribute to brain enlargement during primate evolution and human origin. ..
  27. Evans P, Anderson J, Vallender E, Choi S, Lahn B. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of microcephalin, a gene controlling human brain size. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1139-45 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that genes regulating brain size during development may have the general propensity to contribute to brain evolution in primates and particularly humans. ..
  28. Messier W, Stewart C. Episodic adaptive evolution of primate lysozymes. Nature. 1997;385:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Both adaptive episodes were followed by episodes of negative selection. Thus this approach can detect adaptive and purifying episodes, and localize them to specific lineages during protein evolution...
  29. Revol de Mendoza A, Esquivel Escobedo D, Martínez Dávila I, Saldaña H. Expansion and divergence of the GH locus between spider monkey and chimpanzee. Gene. 2004;336:185-93 pubmed
    ..comprising the GH loci of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), a New-World primate, and of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), an ape...
  30. Kjeldbjerg A, Villesen P, Aagaard L, Pedersen F. Gene conversion and purifying selection of a placenta-specific ERV-V envelope gene during simian evolution. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:266 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the placenta-specific expression of the human and baboon ENVV1 and ENVV2 envelope genes, these data provide strong evidence of a beneficial role for the host. ..
  31. Hallast P, Rull K, Laan M. The evolution and genomic landscape of CGB1 and CGB2 genes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;260-262:2-11 pubmed
    ..While the function of these genes is not yet known, they are strongly conserved between human and chimpanzee and exhibit three-fold lower diversity than LHB across human populations with no mutations that would disrupt ..
  32. Fairbanks D, Maughan P. Evolution of the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:12 pubmed
    ..This article compares the NANOG gene and its pseudogenes in the human and chimpanzee genomes and derives an evolutionary history of this pseudogene family...
  33. de Parseval N, Diop G, Blaise S, Helle F, Vasilescu A, Matsuda F, et al. Comprehensive search for intra- and inter-specific sequence polymorphisms among coding envelope genes of retroviral origin found in the human genome: genes and pseudogenes. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:117 pubmed
    ..It also provides new tools to elucidate the possible role of endogenous envelope proteins as susceptibility factors in a number of pathologies where HERVs have been suspected to be involved. ..
  34. Wang P, Page D. Functional substitution for TAF(II)250 by a retroposed homolog that is expressed in human spermatogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:2341-6 pubmed
    ..The observation that TAF1L can functionally replace TAF(II)250 provides experimental support for the hypothesis that during male meiosis, autosomes provide cellular functions usually supplied by the X chromosome in somatic cells...
  35. Zhang J, Webb D, Podlaha O. Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example. Genetics. 2002;162:1825-35 pubmed
    ..Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary ..
  36. Enard W, Przeworski M, Fisher S, Lai C, Wiebe V, Kitano T, et al. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature. 2002;418:869-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We sequenced the complementary DNAs that encode the FOXP2 protein in the chimpanzee, gorilla, orang-utan, rhesus macaque and mouse, and compared them with the human cDNA...
  37. Khakoo S, Rajalingam R, Shum B, Weidenbach K, Flodin L, Muir D, et al. Rapid evolution of NK cell receptor systems demonstrated by comparison of chimpanzees and humans. Immunity. 2000;12:687-98 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, the structure and class I specificity of chimpanzee KIR and CD94:NKG2 receptors were determined and compared to their human counterparts...
  38. Martinez Arias R, Calafell F, Mateu E, Comas D, Andres A, Bertranpetit J. Sequence variability of a human pseudogene. Genome Res. 2001;11:1071-85 pubmed
    ..glucocerebrosidase pseudogene (psGBA) for 100 human chromosomes from worldwide populations, as well as for four chimpanzee and four gorilla chromosomes...
  39. Dorus S, Evans P, Wyckoff G, Choi S, Lahn B. Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study showcases the intimate relationship between sexual selection and the molecular evolution of reproductive genes...
  40. Zhang J, Webb D. Evolutionary deterioration of the vomeronasal pheromone transduction pathway in catarrhine primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8337-41 pubmed
  41. Evans P, Anderson J, Vallender E, Gilbert S, Malcom C, Dorus S, et al. Adaptive evolution of ASPM, a major determinant of cerebral cortical size in humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the lineage from the last human/chimpanzee ancestor to humans shows an excess of non-synonymous over synonymous substitutions, which is a signature of ..
  42. Clark A, Glanowski S, Nielsen R, Thomas P, Kejariwal A, Todd M, et al. Inferring nonneutral evolution from human-chimp-mouse orthologous gene trios. Science. 2003;302:1960-3 pubmed
    Even though human and chimpanzee gene sequences are nearly 99% identical, sequence comparisons can nevertheless be highly informative in identifying biologically important changes that have occurred since our ancestral lineages diverged...
  43. Ye C, Li Y, Shi P, Zhang Y. Molecular evolution of growth hormone gene family in old world monkeys and hominoids. Gene. 2005;350:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results disclosed the complex history of the primate growth hormone gene family and raised intriguing questions on the consequences of these evolutionary events...
  44. Laguette N, Rahm N, Sobhian B, Chable Bessia C, M nch J, Snoeck J, et al. Evolutionary and functional analyses of the interaction between the myeloid restriction factor SAMHD1 and the lentiviral Vpx protein. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct evolutionary signature of SAMHD1 sheds light on the development of its antiviral specificity...
  45. Wu D, Irwin D, Zhang Y. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002379 pubmed publisher
    ..we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence...
  46. Sch tzl H, Da Costa M, Taylor L, Cohen F, Prusiner S. Prion protein gene variation among primates. J Mol Biol. 1995;245:362-74 pubmed
    ..Alignment of primate and other mammalian PrP sequences suggests that codons between 90 and 130 have a profound influence on the transmissibility of prions from one species to another...
  47. Mallet F, Bouton O, Prudhomme S, Cheynet V, Oriol G, Bonnaud B, et al. The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such functions were also shown to be preserved in the orthologous loci isolated from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon...
  48. Jeffreys A, Ritchie A, Neumann R. High resolution analysis of haplotype diversity and meiotic crossover in the human TAP2 recombination hotspot. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:725-33 pubmed
  49. Blaise S, Ruggieri A, Dewannieux M, Cosset F, Heidmann T. Identification of an envelope protein from the FRD family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-FRD) conferring infectivity and functional conservation among simians. J Virol. 2004;78:1050-4 pubmed
    ..The functional characterization of the identified envelopes is strongly indicative of an ancestral retrovirus infection and endogenization, with some of the envelope functions subsequently retained in evolution...
  50. Sawyer S, Emerman M, Malik H. Discordant evolution of the adjacent antiretroviral genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in mammals. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e197 pubmed publisher
    ..Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution...
  51. Gasper J, Swanson W. Molecular population genetics of the gene encoding the human fertilization protein zonadhesin reveals rapid adaptive evolution. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observe adaptive evolution in haplotypes segregating for a frameshift mutation that was previously thought to indicate that ZAN was a potential pseudogene...
  52. Ohkura S, Yap M, Sheldon T, Stoye J. All three variable regions of the TRIM5alpha B30.2 domain can contribute to the specificity of retrovirus restriction. J Virol. 2006;80:8554-65 pubmed
    ..2 core structure. It is hypothesized that these three loops form a binding surface for virus and that evolutionary changes in any one of the loops can alter restriction specificity...
  53. Zelezetsky I, Pontillo A, Puzzi L, Antcheva N, Segat L, Pacor S, et al. Evolution of the primate cathelicidin. Correlation between structural variations and antimicrobial activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19861-71 pubmed
    ..The evolution of these peptides has thus resulted in distinct mechanisms of action that affect the direct antimicrobial activity and may also modulate accessory antimicrobial functions due to interactions with host cells. ..
  54. Osada N, Kusuda J, Hirata M, Tanuma R, Hida M, Sugano S, et al. Search for genes positively selected during primate evolution by 5'-end-sequence screening of cynomolgus monkey cDNAs. Genomics. 2002;79:657-62 pubmed
    ..The products of other candidate genes consisted of a cell-surface protein, a member of the lipocalin family, a nuclear transcription factor, and hypothetical proteins. ..
  55. Clark N, Swanson W. Pervasive adaptive evolution in primate seminal proteins. PLoS Genet. 2005;1:e35 pubmed publisher
    ..selection when comparing 161 human seminal fluid proteins and 2,858 prostate-expressed genes to those in chimpanzee. Seven of eight outstanding genes yielded statistically significant evidence of positive selection when analyzed ..
  56. Bashirova A, Wu L, Cheng J, Martin T, Martin M, Benveniste R, et al. Novel member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) gene family in primates. J Virol. 2003;77:217-27 pubmed
  57. Freimuth R, Wiepert M, Chute C, Wieben E, Weinshilboum R. Human cytosolic sulfotransferase database mining: identification of seven novel genes and pseudogenes. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4:54-65 pubmed
    ..SULT6B1 was also present in chimpanzee and gorilla, differing at only seven encoded amino-acid residues among the three species...
  58. Andres A, Soldevila M, Navarro A, Kidd K, Oliva B, Bertranpetit J. Positive selection in MAOA gene is human exclusive: determination of the putative amino acid change selected in the human lineage. Hum Genet. 2004;115:377-86 pubmed
    ..a population genetic analysis of the pattern of nucleotide variation in non-human species, including bonobo, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan...
  59. BETRAN E, Wang W, Jin L, Long M. Evolution of the phosphoglycerate mutase processed gene in human and chimpanzee revealing the origin of a new primate gene. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:654-63 pubmed
    ..We sequenced PGAM3 in chimpanzee and macaque and obtained polymorphism data for human coding region...
  60. Soto P, Stein L, Hurtado Ziola N, Hedrick S, Varki A. Relative over-reactivity of human versus chimpanzee lymphocytes: implications for the human diseases associated with immune activation. J Immunol. 2010;184:4185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that human T cells are more reactive than chimpanzee T cells to a wide variety of stimuli, including anti-TCR Abs of multiple isotypes, l-phytohemagglutin, ..
  61. Sawyer S, Wu L, Emerman M, Malik H. Positive selection of primate TRIM5alpha identifies a critical species-specific retroviral restriction domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2832-7 pubmed
    ..Our study highlights the power of evolutionary analyses, in which positive selection identifies not only the age of genetic conflict but also the interaction interface where this conflict plays out. ..
  62. Semple C, Maxwell A, Gautier P, Kilanowski F, Eastwood H, Barran P, et al. The complexity of selection at the major primate beta-defensin locus. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:32 pubmed
    ..Identification of these putatively functional sites has important implications for our understanding of beta-defensin function and for novel antibiotic design. ..
  63. Song B, Gold B, O hUigin C, Javanbakht H, Li X, Stremlau M, et al. The B30.2(SPRY) domain of the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha exhibits lineage-specific length and sequence variation in primates. J Virol. 2005;79:6111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent with a role for TRIM5alpha in innate immunity against retroviruses...
  64. Lim E, Fregoso O, McCoy C, Matsen F, Malik H, Emerman M. The ability of primate lentiviruses to degrade the monocyte restriction factor SAMHD1 preceded the birth of the viral accessory protein Vpx. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that vpr neofunctionalized to degrade SAMHD1 even prior to the birth of a separate vpx gene, thereby initiating an evolutionary arms race with SAMHD1...
  65. Hanlon C, Rubinsztein D. Arginine residues at codons 112 and 158 in the apolipoprotein E gene correspond to the ancestral state in humans. Atherosclerosis. 1995;112:85-90 pubmed
    ..All were similar to apo E4. This suggests that apo E4 is the ancestral allele and that apo E2 and apo E3 arose after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages.
  66. Hopkins W, Donaldson Z, Young L. A polymorphic indel containing the RS3 microsatellite in the 5' flanking region of the vasopressin V1a receptor gene is associated with chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:552-8 pubmed publisher
    ..same 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A on subjective ratings of personality in a sample of 83 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
  67. Kato T, Esumi M, Yamashita S, Abe K, Shikata T. Interferon-inducible gene expression in chimpanzee liver infected with hepatitis C virus. Virology. 1992;190:856-60 pubmed
    ..C virus (HCV) infection was examined by isolation of HCV-induced genes from a cDNA library constructed from chimpanzee liver during the acute phase of hepatitis C...