American alligator


Alias: Alligator mississippiensis, Alligator mississipiensis

Top Publications

  1. Finger J, Hamilton M, Kelley M, Stacy N, Glenn T, Tuberville T. Examining the Effects of Chronic Selenium Exposure on Traditionally Used Stress Parameters in Juvenile American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..which of these parameters best indicate Se accumulation in liver and kidney of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a top trophic carnivore found in the southeastern United States and known to inhabit Se-containing ..
  2. Allen V, Elsey R, Jones N, Wright J, Hutchinson J. Functional specialization and ontogenetic scaling of limb anatomy in Alligator mississippiensis. J Anat. 2010;216:423-45 pubmed publisher
    ..physiological cross-sectional areas) of muscles of the pectoral and pelvic limbs of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801) were recorded for an ontogenetic series of wild specimens (n = 15, body masses from 0...
  3. Eme J, Gwalthney J, Owerkowicz T, Blank J, Hicks J. Turning crocodilian hearts into bird hearts: growth rates are similar for alligators with and without right-to-left cardiac shunt. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2673-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, R-L cardiac shunt was eliminated in age-matched, female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; 5-7 months of age)...
  4. Eme J, Crossley D, Hicks J. Role of the left aortic arch and blood flows in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Comp Physiol B. 2011;181:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..CAM) artery blood flow for normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis)...
  5. Petermann H, Sander M. Histological evidence for muscle insertion in extant amniote femora: implications for muscle reconstruction in fossils. J Anat. 2013;222:419-36 pubmed publisher
    ..hind limb and mapped the muscle attachment sites on the femur of one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), one Alligator mississippiensis, and one turkey (Meleagris cuniculus)...
  6. Galligan T, Hale M, McCoy J, Bermudez D, Guillette L, Parrott B. Assessing impacts of precocious steroid exposure on thyroid physiology and gene expression patterns in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;271:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we studied short-term and persistent impacts of embryonic sex steroid exposure on thyroid physiology in the American alligator. Alligators from a lake contaminated with endocrine disrupting contaminants (Lake Apopka, FL, USA) have been ..
  7. Baier D, Garrity B, Moritz S, Carney R. Alligator mississippiensis sternal and shoulder girdle mobility increase stride length during high walks. J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    ..1±5.2%, glenohumeral joint 40.1±7.8% and elbow 31.1±4.2%. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of sternal movement relative to the vertebral column (presumably via rib joints) contributing to stride length in tetrapods. ..
  8. Young B, Adams J, Segal S, Kondrashova T. Hemodynamics of tonic immobility in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) identified through Doppler ultrasonography. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2018;204:953-964 pubmed publisher
    American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) held inverted exhibit tonic immobility, combining unresponsiveness with flaccid paralysis...
  9. Boukens B, Kristensen D, Filogonio R, Carreira L, Sartori M, Abe A, et al. The electrocardiogram of vertebrates: Evolutionary changes from ectothermy to endothermy. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..conclusions are supported by the inclusion of original data (Iguana iguana, N?=?4; Python regius, N?=?5; Alligator mississippiensis, N?=?4). Most comparisons were of animals of approximately 1?kg...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Joyce W, Miller T, Elsey R, Wang T, Crossley D. The effects of embryonic hypoxic programming on cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at rest and during swimming. J Comp Physiol B. 2018;188:967-976 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming...
  2. Faulkner P, Burleson M, Simonitis L, Marshall C, Hala D, Petersen L. Effects of chronic exposure to 12‰ saltwater on the endocrine physiology of juvenile American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) habitats are prone to saltwater intrusion following major storms, hurricanes or droughts...
  3. Yatsu R, Miyagawa S, Kohno S, Parrott B, Yamaguchi K, Ogino Y, et al. RNA-seq analysis of the gonadal transcriptome during Alligator mississippiensis temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:77 pubmed publisher
    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) displays temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which incubation temperature during embryonic development determines the sexual fate of the individual...
  4. Lainoff A, Moustakas Verho J, Hu D, Kallonen A, Marcucio R, Hlusko L. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2015;324:255-69 pubmed publisher ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica)...
  5. Green R, Braun E, Armstrong J, Earl D, Nguyen N, Hickey G, et al. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs. Science. 2014;346:1254449 pubmed publisher
    ..that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the ..
  6. McCoy J, Parrott B, Rainwater T, Wilkinson P, Guillette L. Incubation history prior to the canonical thermosensitive period determines sex in the American alligator. Reproduction. 2015;150:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis that temperatures experienced prior to the reported thermosensitive period for alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) can impact how the sex determination system responds to thermal cues later in development...
  7. Moore B, SPEARS D, Mascari T, Kelly D. Morphological characteristics regulating phallic glans engorgement in the American alligator. Integr Comp Biol. 2016;56:657-68 pubmed publisher
    ..phallic tissues associated with the sperm-conducting sulcus spermaticus in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)...
  8. Cruze L, Roark A, Rolland G, Younas M, Stacy N, Guillette L. Endogenous and exogenous estrogens during embryonic development affect timing of hatch and growth in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;184:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..17 β-estradiol (E2) or bisphenol A (BPA) on rate of development and growth in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our results indicate that BPA and E2-treated alligators hatched approximately 1...
  9. Leclercq F, Schnek A, Braunitzer G, Stangl A, Schrank B. Direct reciprocal allosteric interaction of oxygen and hydrogen carbonate sequence of the haemoglobins of the Caiman (Caiman crocodylus), the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the Mississippi crocodile (Alligator mississippiensis). Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1981;362:1151-8 pubmed
  10. Mueller C, Eme J, Tate K, Crossley D. Chronic captopril treatment reveals the role of ANG II in cardiovascular function of embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). J Comp Physiol B. 2018;188:657-669 pubmed publisher examine the role of ANG II in cardiovascular control in an embryonic reptile, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)...
  11. Finger J, Hamilton M, Kelley M, Zhang Y, Kavazis A, Glenn T, et al. Dietary Selenomethionine Administration and Its Effects on the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): Oxidative Status and Corticosterone Levels. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2018;75:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of Se exposure on long-lived, top trophic vertebrates, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)...
  12. Kerfoot J, Fern M, Elsey R. Scaling the Feeding Mechanism of Captive Alligator mississippiensis from Hatchling to Juvenile. Biology (Basel). 2014;3:724-38 pubmed publisher
    ..As the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) transitions between neonate, juvenile and adult habitats (ontogenetic niche shifts), there are ..
  13. Eme J, Crossley D. Chronic hypercapnic incubation increases relative organ growth and reduces blood pressure of embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;182:53-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity of alligator embryos incubated in high CO2 may result in either preferential organ growth, or maintenance of organ growth with reduced somatic growth. ..
  14. Rosenblatt A, Nifong J, Heithaus M, Mazzotti F, Cherkiss M, Jeffery B, et al. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator. Oecologia. 2015;178:5-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes...
  15. Hamilton M, Finger J, Elsey R, Mastromonaco G, Tuberville T. Corticosterone in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) tail scutes: Evaluating the feasibility of using unconventional samples for investigating environmental stressors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;268:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) tail scute tissues to quantify CORT by collecting blood and tail scutes from 40 alligators before and ..
  16. Keenan S, Elsey R. The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown: Microbial Symbioses of the American Alligator. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:972-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because the GI tract microbiome of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is distinct from that of all other vertebrates studied to date, being comprised of Fusobacteria in the ..
  17. Drumheller S, Wilberg E, Sadleir R. The utility of captive animals in actualistic research: A geometric morphometric exploration of the tooth row of Alligator mississippiensis suggesting ecophenotypic influences and functional constraints. J Morphol. 2016;277:866-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explore snout shape variation between captive and wild members of Alligator mississippiensis using two-dimensional (2D) morphometric techniques...
  18. Joyce W, Crossley J, Elsey R, Wang T, Crossley D. Contribution of active atrial contraction to cardiac output in anesthetized American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the importance of atrial contraction in filling of the ventricle in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) by bypassing both atria (with the use of ligatures to prevent atrial filling) and measuring the ..
  19. Crossley D, Ling R, Nelson D, Gillium T, Conner J, Hapgood J, et al. Metabolic responses to chronic hypoxic incubation in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;203:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the cardiovascular responses of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to low developmental oxygen have been detailed, including a substantial cardiac enlargement that may ..
  20. Farmer C. Similarity of Crocodilian and Avian Lungs Indicates Unidirectional Flow Is Ancestral for Archosaurs. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:962-71 pubmed publisher
    Patterns of airflow and pulmonary anatomy were studied in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus), the dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), ..
  21. Zhang R, Zhang S, Zhu X, Zhou Y, Wu X. Molecular characterization of the Chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;183:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high identities with the American alligator (100%) and birds (89-92%)...
  22. Riede T, Li Z, Tokuda I, Farmer C. Functional morphology of the Alligator mississippiensis larynx with implications for vocal production. J Exp Biol. 2015;218:991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) displays a large vocal repertoire during mating and in parent-offspring interactions...
  23. Finger J, Thomson P, Isberg S. Unexpected lower testosterone in faster growing farmed saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;226:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly however, TEST was higher in slower-growing crocodiles, which is contrary to what has been reported for the American alligator. ESTR was not associated with growth.
  24. Tracy C, McWhorter T, Gienger C, Starck J, Medley P, Manolis S, et al. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:986-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity ..
  25. Wise S, Wise C, Xie H, Guillette L, Zhu C, Wise J. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to American alligator cells. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;171:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as ..
  26. Brock J, Bell J, Guillette L. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Selected Florida Wetlands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;71:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations. ..
  27. Gunderson M, Pickett M, Martin J, Hulse E, Smith S, Smith L, et al. Variations in hepatic biomarkers in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from three sites in Florida, USA. Chemosphere. 2016;155:180-187 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that GST and MT demonstrate age and sex specific patterns in the alligators inhabiting these study sites and that the observed variation among sites could be due to differences in contaminant exposure. ..
  28. Camarata T, Howard A, Elsey R, Raza S, O Connor A, Beatty B, et al. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153422 pubmed publisher
    ..including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others...
  29. Skovgaard N, Crossley D, Wang T. Low cost of pulmonary ventilation in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) stimulated with doxapram. J Exp Biol. 2016;219:933-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusion that pulmonary ventilation is energetically cheap is consistent with earlier studies on alligators where ventilation was stimulated by hypoxia or hypercapnia. ..
  30. Sirsat S, Sirsat T, Price E, Dzialowski E. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Biol Open. 2016;5:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy. ..
  31. Galli G, Crossley J, Elsey R, Dzialowski E, Shiels H, Crossley D. Developmental plasticity of mitochondrial function in American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;311:R1164-R1172 pubmed publisher
    ..developmental hypoxia on cardiac mitochondrial function in embryonic and juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Alligator eggs were incubated in 21% or 10% oxygen from 20 to 90% of embryonic development...
  32. Crossley D, Crossley J, Smith C, Harfush M, Sánchez Sánchez H, Garduño Paz M, et al. Developmental cardiovascular physiology of the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;211:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades...
  33. Doheny B, Kohno S, Parrott B, Guillette L. In ovo treatment with an estrogen receptor alpha selective agonist causes precocious development of the female reproductive tract of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;238:96-104 pubmed publisher
  34. Ou Y, Ho W. Crocodile blood extract induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through PTEN activity. Oncol Rep. 2016;36:1457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies suggest that American alligator blood is effective in reducing colorectal cancer cell viability in vitro, but the mechanism remains ..
  35. Price E, Sirsat T, Sirsat S, Kang G, Keereetaweep J, Aziz M, et al. Thermal acclimation in American alligators: Effects of temperature regime on growth rate, mitochondrial function, and membrane composition. J Therm Biol. 2017;68:45-54 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the ability of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to acclimate to temperature with respect to growth rate...
  36. Murray C, Easter M, Merchant M, Rheubert J, Wilson K, Cooper A, et al. Methyltestosterone alters sex determination in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;236:63-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryonic exposure to MT results in hermaphroditic primary sex organs, delayed renal development and masculinization of the clitero-penis (CTP). ..
  37. Bailleul A, Holliday C. Joint histology in Alligator mississippiensis challenges the identification of synovial joints in fossil archosaurs and inferences of cranial kinesis. Proc Biol Sci. 2017;284: pubmed publisher
    ..Cranial joint microstructure was investigated in an ontogenetic series of American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis All the presumably synovial, condylar joints found within the head of the American alligator (the ..
  38. Oh J, Hoeschele M, Reber S, Šlipogor V, Bugnyar T, Fitch W. A technological framework for running and analyzing animal head turning experiments. Behav Res Methods. 2018;50:1154-1165 pubmed publisher
    ..of freely moving animals including common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) to reduce human effort and time in video coding...
  39. Merchant M, Morkotinis V, Hale A, White M, Moran C. Crocodylian nuclear factor kappa B. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)...
  40. Nilsen F, Kassim B, Delaney J, Lange T, Brunell A, Guillette L, et al. Trace element biodistribution in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Chemosphere. 2017;181:343-351 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the biodistribution of trace elements in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) from five sites in Florida, USA...
  41. Nilsen F, Dorsey J, Lowers R, Guillette L, Long S, Bowden J, et al. Evaluating mercury concentrations and body condition in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), Florida. Sci Total Environ. 2017;607-608:1056-1064 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, Hg concentrations in blood samples from a population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, USA, over a seven-year period (2007 to 2014; n=..
  42. Zhu X, Zhang S, Zhao S, Zhang R, Zhou Y, Wu X. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the active and hibernating periods. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;242:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of caIGF-I shares high identity with American alligator Alligator mississippiensis (100%) and birds (95-97%)...
  43. McCoy J, Hamlin H, Thayer L, Guillette L, Parrott B. The influence of thermal signals during embryonic development on intrasexual and sexually dimorphic gene expression and circulating steroid hormones in American alligator hatchlings (Alligator mississippiensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;238:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these impacts remain largely unknown. We utilize the American alligator to investigate the sensitivity of the reproductive system to thermal signals experienced during development ..
  44. Nilsen F, Parrott B, Bowden J, Kassim B, Somerville S, Bryan T, et al. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Sci Total Environ. 2016;545-546:389-97 pubmed publisher DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis...
  45. Barksdale S, Hrifko E, Chung E, van Hoek M. Peptides from American alligator plasma are antimicrobial against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:189 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we identified several active antimicrobial peptides from 100 ?l of plasma from Alligator mississippiensis. These peptides were found to have in vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ..
  46. Nelson D, Crossley D, Elsey R, Tate K. Cardiovascular adjustments with egg temperature at 90% incubation in embryonic American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis. J Comp Physiol B. 2018;188:471-480 pubmed publisher
    American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) deposit eggs in a mound nest, potentially subjecting embryos to daily variations in temperature...
  47. Boggs A, Hamlin H, Nifong J, Kassim B, Lowers R, Galligan T, et al. Urinary iodine and stable isotope analysis to examine habitat influences on thyroid hormones among coastal dwelling American alligators. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;226:5-13 pubmed publisher
    The American alligator, generally a freshwater species, is known to forage in marine environments despite the lack of a salt secreting gland found in other crocodylids...
  48. Tuberville T, Scott D, Metts B, Finger J, Hamilton M. Hepatic and renal trace element concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) following chronic dietary exposure to coal fly ash contaminated prey. Environ Pollut. 2016;214:680-689 pubmed publisher
    ..We exposed 36 juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to one of four dietary treatments that varied in the relative frequency of meals containing prey from ..
  49. Bangma J, Reiner J, Jones M, Lowers R, Nilsen F, Rainwater T, et al. Variation in perfluoroalkyl acids in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Chemosphere. 2017;166:72-79 pubmed publisher quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt ..
  50. Cantu T, Bowden J, Scott J, Pérez Viscasillas J, Huncik K, Guillette M, et al. Alterations in eicosanoid composition during embryonic development in the chorioallantoic membrane of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;238:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we have examined the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) during development...
  51. Finger J, Hamilton M, Glenn T, Tuberville T. Dietary Selenomethionine Administration in the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): Hepatic and Renal Se Accumulation and Its Effects on Growth and Body Condition. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;72:439-448 pubmed publisher
    ..have examined its effects on longer-lived top trophic carnivores, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)...
  52. Tate K, Rhen T, Eme J, Kohl Z, Crossley J, Elsey R, et al. Periods of cardiovascular susceptibility to hypoxia in embryonic american alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R1267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously documented that hypoxia reduces embryo size and increases relative heart mass in American alligator, and this study identified critical windows when hypoxia altered morphological, cardiovascular function and ..
  53. Hamlin H, Edwards T, McCoy J, Cruze L, Guillette L. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate increase plasma testosterone concentrations in female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;238:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate can increase circulating concentrations of T in young female alligators. ..
  54. Sellers K, MIDDLETON K, Davis J, Holliday C. Ontogeny of bite force in a validated biomechanical model of the American alligator. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:2036-2046 pubmed publisher
    ..American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) generate some of the highest measured bite forces among extant tetrapods...
  55. Finger J, Hamilton M, Metts B, Glenn T, Tuberville T. Chronic Ingestion of Coal Fly-Ash Contaminated Prey and Its Effects on Health and Immune Parameters in Juvenile American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;71:347-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a long-lived, top-trophic carnivore, has been observed inhabiting these basins, yet the health or ..
  56. Kerfoot J, Easter E, Elsey R. How Doth the Little Crocodilian: Analyzing the Influence of Environmental Viscosity on Feeding Performance of Juvenile Alligator mississippiensis. Biology (Basel). 2016;5: pubmed
    Wetland habitats are used as nursery sites for hatchling and juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), where they utilize prey from aquatic and terrestrial settings...
  57. Blosser E, Stenn T, Acevedo C, Burkett Cadena N. Host use and seasonality of Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Florida, USA. Acta Trop. 2016;164:352-359 pubmed publisher
    ..heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts...
  58. Woodyard E, Rosser T, Rush S. Alligator wrestling: morphological, molecular, and phylogenetic data on Odhneriotrema incommodum (Leidy, 1856) (Digenea: Clinostomidae) from Alligator mississippiensis Daudin, 1801 in Mississippi, USA. Parasitol Res. 2017;116:2981-2993 pubmed publisher
    Based on specimens collected from harvested American alligator Alligator mississippiensis Daudin, 1801 in Mississippi, USA, novel molecular data for both nuclear ribosomal genes (18S, ITS1-5...
  59. Wang Y, Wang C, Lin W, Tsai Y, Chang C, Lee Y, et al. Identification, chromosomal arrangements and expression analyses of the evolutionarily conserved prmt1 gene in chicken in comparison with its vertebrate paralogue prmt8. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185042 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene arrangements around prmt1 in American alligator are different from that in birds but are largely conserved in human...
  60. Findsen A, Crossley D, Wang T. Feeding alters blood flow patterns in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2018;215:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period. Digestion doubled blood flow in the RAo (10...
  61. Tabassum R. Molecular cloning and 3D model of first cytochrome P450 from CYP3A subfamily in saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The amino acid identity of CYP3A163 with Alligator mississippiensis CYP3A77 and Homo sapiens CYP3A4 is 91% and 62% respectively...
  62. Tipton J, Guillette L, LOVELACE S, Parrott B, Rainwater T, Reiner J. Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 1: Concentrations in alligators harvested for consumption during South Carolina public hunts. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;61:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in ..
  63. Tipton J, Guillette L, LOVELACE S, Parrott B, Rainwater T, Reiner J. Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 2: Potential dietary exposure of South Carolina hunters from recreationally harvested alligator meat. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;61:31-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uses PFAA data from meat samples collected from recreationally harvested American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina to assess potential dietary exposure of hunters and their families to PFAAs...
  64. Brocklehurst R, Moritz S, Codd J, Sellers W, Brainerd E. Rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): an XROMM analysis. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:3181-3190 pubmed publisher
  65. Barksdale S, Hrifko E, van Hoek M. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide from Alligator mississippiensis has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;70:135-144 pubmed publisher
    b>Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections...
  66. Dubansky B, Dubansky B. Natural development of dermal ectopic bone in the american alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) resembles heterotopic ossification disorders in humans. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018;301:56-76 pubmed publisher
    ..staging criteria for osteoderm development is described for the first time in the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis)...
  67. Williams C, McNabb N, Brunell A, Lowers R, Katsu Y, Spyropoulos D, et al. Feminizing effects of exposure to Corexit-enhanced water-accommodated fraction of crude oil in vitro on sex determination in Alligator mississippiensis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of oil, by examining its effect on estrogen receptors and sex determination in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. The alligator exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination which is modulated by estrogen signals, ..
  68. Hale M, Galligan T, Rainwater T, Moore B, Wilkinson P, Guillette L, et al. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator. Environ Pollut. 2017;230:1050-1061 pubmed publisher
    ..expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying ..
  69. Hedges S. Molecular evidence for the origin of birds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2621-4 pubmed
    ..DNA sequences from four slow-evolving genes (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, tRNAVal, and nuclear alpha-enolase) now provide strong statistical support for a bird-crocodilian relationship...
  70. Smith W, Adamus G, van Der Wel H, Timmers A, Palczewski K, Ulshafer R, et al. Alligator rhodopsin: sequence and biochemical properties. Exp Eye Res. 1995;61:569-78 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of 17 rhodopsin sequences indicates that the alligator is more closely related to the chicken than to the other species examined. ..
  71. Mannen H, Tsoi S, Krushkal J, Li W, Li S. The cDNA cloning and molecular evolution of reptile and pigeon lactate dehydrogenase isozymes. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1081-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The pigeon testicular LDH-C isozyme was evidently duplicated from LDH-B (heart), so it is not orthologous to the mammalian testicular LDH-C isozymes...
  72. Janke A, Arnason U. The complete mitochondrial genome of Alligator mississippiensis and the separation between recent archosauria (birds and crocodiles). Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1266-72 pubmed publisher
    The complete mitochondrial genome of the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, was sequenced. The size of the molecule is 16,642 nucleotides...
  73. Western P, Harry J, Graves J, Sinclair A. Temperature-dependent sex determination: upregulation of SOX9 expression after commitment to male development. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine the expression of SOX9 during gonadogenesis in the American alligator, (Alligator mississippiensis), a reptile that exhibits TSD. Alligator SOX9 is expressed in the embryonic testis but not in the ovary...
  74. Smith C, McClive P, Western P, Reed K, Sinclair A. Conservation of a sex-determining gene. Nature. 1999;402:601-2 pubmed publisher
  75. Western P, Harry J, Graves J, Sinclair A. Temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator: AMH precedes SOX9 expression. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Reptiles such as the American alligator, which exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) do not have dimorphic sex chromosomes and ..
  76. Western P, Harry J, Marshall Graves J, Sinclair A. Temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator: expression of SF1, WT1 and DAX1 during gonadogenesis. Gene. 2000;241:223-32 pubmed
    ..We have cloned SF1 and DAX1 from the American alligator, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)...
  77. Gabriel W, Blumberg B, Sutton S, Place A, Lance V. Alligator aromatase cDNA sequence and its expression in embryos at male and female incubation temperatures. J Exp Zool. 2001;290:439-48 pubmed
    ..In the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) the thermosensitive period (TSP) for sex determination is a 7- to 10-day window within stages 21-24 of ..
  78. Lariviere K, MacEachern L, Greco V, Majchrzak G, Chiu S, Drouin G, et al. GAD(65) and GAD(67) isoforms of the glutamic acid decarboxylase gene originated before the divergence of cartilaginous fishes. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:2325-9 pubmed
  79. Katsu Y, Bermudez D, Braun E, Helbing C, Miyagawa S, Gunderson M, et al. Molecular cloning of the estrogen and progesterone receptors of the American alligator. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;136:122-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide tools that will allow future studies examining the regulation and ontogenic expression of steroid receptors in alligators and expand our knowledge of vertebrate steroid receptor evolution...
  80. Helbing C, Crump K, Bailey C, Kohno S, Veldhoen N, Bryan T, et al. Isolation of the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta transcripts and their responsiveness to thyroid stimulating hormone. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;149:141-50 pubmed
    ..We have cloned the expressed sequences encoding these two receptors in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. The encoded putative proteins share a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation with other ..
  81. Helbing C, Crump K, Bailey C, Kohno S, Veldhoen N, Song Y, et al. Characterization of Inhibitor of Growth 2 tumor suppressor in Alligator mississippiensis, its conservation in Archosauria, and response to thyroid stimulating hormone. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;146:279-88 pubmed
    ..Herein we describe the isolation of expressed ING2 sequence in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and compare this sequence with that isolated in the chicken...
  82. Kobayashi Y, Sakamoto T, Iguchi K, Imai Y, Hoshino M, Lance V, et al. cDNA cloning of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and mass spectrometric identification of POMC-derived peptides from snake and alligator pituitaries. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;152:73-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, the study shows the divergence of snake POMC such as the critical mutation of gamma-MSH and high conservation of hormone organization of alligator POMC. ..
  83. Roberts E, Shoureshi P, Kozak K, Szynskie L, Baron A, Lecaude S, et al. Tracking the evolution of the proenkephalin gene in tetrapods. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;153:189-97 pubmed
  84. Chojnowski J, Franklin J, Katsu Y, Iguchi T, Guillette L, Kimball R, et al. Patterns of vertebrate isochore evolution revealed by comparison of expressed mammalian, avian, and crocodilian genes. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We collected more than 6000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the American alligator to overcome sample size limitations suggested to be the fundamental problem in the previous reptilian ..
  85. Matsumoto H, Maruse H, Inaba Y, Yoshizawa K, Sasazaki S, Fujiwara A, et al. The ubiquitin ligase gene (WWP1) is responsible for the chicken muscular dystrophy. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation was identified in WWP1, detected only in dystrophic chickens within several tetrapods. These results suggested WWP1 is responsible for chicken muscular dystrophy...
  86. Kohno S, Katsu Y, Urushitani H, Ohta Y, Iguchi T, Guillette L. Potential contributions of heat shock proteins to temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator. Sex Dev. 2010;4:73-87 pubmed publisher
    Sex determination in the American alligator depends on the incubation temperature experienced during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP), although sex determination can be 'reversed' by embryonic exposure to an estrogenic compound...
  87. Katsu Y, Braun E, Guillette L, Iguchi T. From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: analyses of c-Jun and DJ-1 proto-oncogenes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;127:79-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report cDNA sequences for the c-Jun(JUN) and DJ-1(PARK7) proto-oncogenes from 3 reptiles (the American alligator, Nile crocodile, and Florida red-belly turtle), show that both genes are expressed in the alligator, and ..
  88. Katsu Y, Matsubara K, Kohno S, Matsuda Y, Toriba M, Oka K, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization, and chromosome mapping of reptilian estrogen receptors. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5710-20 pubmed publisher
    ..mammalian cells, the transcriptional activity of reptilian (Okinawa habu, Japanese four-striped rat snake, American alligator, and Florida red-belly freshwater turtle) ESR1 and ESR2 was examined...
  89. Fong J, Fujita M. Evaluating phylogenetic informativeness and data-type usage for new protein-coding genes across Vertebrata. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;61:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our phylogenetic inference supports the Theria hypothesis of mammalian relationships, with marsupials and placentals being sister groups...
  90. Sparkman A, Schwartz T, Madden J, Boyken S, Ford N, Serb J, et al. Rates of molecular evolution vary in vertebrates for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a pleiotropic locus that regulates life history traits. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;178:164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data propose new insights into the molecular co-evolution of IGF-1 and its receptors, and ultimately the evolution of IGF-1's role in regulating life-history traits across vertebrates. ..
  91. Janes D, Elsey R, Langan E, Valenzuela N, Edwards S. Sex-biased expression of sex-differentiating genes FOXL2 and FGF9 in American alligators, alligator Mississippiensis. Sex Dev. 2013;7:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF9 across 3 developmental stages and 8 juvenile tissue types in male and female American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis. We report surprisingly high expression of FOXL2 before the stage of embryonic development when sex is ..
  92. Kohno S, Bernhard M, Katsu Y, Zhu J, Bryan T, Doheny B, et al. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; ER?), not ESR2 (ER?), modulates estrogen-induced sex reversal in the American alligator, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Endocrinology. 2015;156:1887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..identified specific pharmaceutical agonists for each ESR using an in vitro transactivation assay employing American alligator ESR1 and ESR2; these were 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) and 7-bromo-2-(4-..