Shigella flexneri 5a str. M90T


Alias: Shigella flexneri 5a strain M90T

Top Publications

  1. Brandon L, Goehring N, Janakiraman A, Yan A, Wu T, Beckwith J, et al. IcsA, a polarly localized autotransporter with an atypical signal peptide, uses the Sec apparatus for secretion, although the Sec apparatus is circumferentially distributed. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:45-60 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose a model for coordinate polar targeting and secretion of IcsA at the bacterial pole. ..
  2. Menard R, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. The secretion of the Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins is activated by epithelial cells and controlled by IpaB and IpaD. EMBO J. 1994;13:5293-302 pubmed
    ..We propose that IpaB and IpaD, by interacting in the secretion apparatus, modulate secretion. ..
  3. Le Gall T, Mavris M, Martino M, Bernardini M, Denamur E, Parsot C. Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression defines three classes of effectors in the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri. Microbiology. 2005;151:951-62 pubmed
    ..The differential regulation of expression of TTS effectors in response to the TTS apparatus activity suggests that different effectors might be required at different times following contact of bacteria with host cells. ..
  4. Lett M, Sasakawa C, Okada N, Sakai T, Makino S, Yamada M, et al. virG, a plasmid-coded virulence gene of Shigella flexneri: identification of the virG protein and determination of the complete coding sequence. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:353-9 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of 4,472 bp, which contains the functional virG gene and its own regulatory sequence, was determined, and a large open reading frame encoding 1,102 amino acid residues was identified. ..
  5. Zurawski D, Mitsuhata C, Mumy K, McCormick B, Maurelli A. OspF and OspC1 are Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effectors that are required for postinvasion aspects of virulence. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5964-76 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, OspF and OspC1 are essential for PMN transepithelial migration, a phenotype associated with increased inflammation and bacterial access to the submucosa, which are fundamental aspects of S. flexneri pathogenesis...
  6. Morita Ishihara T, Ogawa M, Sagara H, Yoshida M, Katayama E, Sasakawa C. Shigella Spa33 is an essential C-ring component of type III secretion machinery. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:599-607 pubmed
    ..Thus, Spa33 plays a central role as the C-ring component in recruiting/exporting TTSM-associated proteins. ..
  7. Fujii T, Cheung M, Blanco A, Kato T, Blocker A, Namba K. Structure of a type III secretion needle at 7-Å resolution provides insights into its assembly and signaling mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4461-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Olive A, Kenjale R, Espina M, Moore D, Picking W, Picking W. Bile salts stimulate recruitment of IpaB to the Shigella flexneri surface, where it colocalizes with IpaD at the tip of the type III secretion needle. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2626-9 pubmed
    ..The maintenance of IpaB at the needle tip requires a stable association of IpaD with the Shigella surface. This is the first demonstration of a translocator protein being stably associated with the TTSA needle. ..
  9. Bernardini M, Mounier J, d Hauteville H, Coquis Rondon M, Sansonetti P. Identification of icsA, a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra- and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:3867-71 pubmed

More Information


  1. Tobe T, Yoshikawa M, Mizuno T, Sasakawa C. Transcriptional control of the invasion regulatory gene virB of Shigella flexneri: activation by virF and repression by H-NS. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6142-9 pubmed
  2. Shen D, Saurya S, Wagner C, Nishioka H, Blocker A. Domains of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system IpaB protein involved in secretion regulation. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4999-5010 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that removal of either of these regions leads to an inability to block secretion prior to reception of the activation signal and/or a defect in host cell sensing...
  3. Goldberg M, Barzu O, Parsot C, Sansonetti P. Unipolar localization and ATPase activity of IcsA, a Shigella flexneri protein involved in intracellular movement. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2189-96 pubmed
    ..Localization of IcsA within the tail at a distance from the bacterium would require its secretion; we demonstrate here that in vitro IcsA is secreted into the culture supernatant in a cleaved form. ..
  4. Arbibe L, Kim D, Batsche E, Pedron T, Mateescu B, Muchardt C, et al. An injected bacterial effector targets chromatin access for transcription factor NF-kappaB to alter transcription of host genes involved in immune responses. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:47-56 pubmed
    ..S. flexneri has thus evolved the capacity to precisely modulate host cell epigenetic 'information' as a strategy for repressing innate immunity. ..
  5. Deane J, Roversi P, Cordes F, Johnson S, Kenjale R, Daniell S, et al. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12529-33 pubmed
    ..The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex. ..
  6. Epler C, Dickenson N, Bullitt E, Picking W. Ultrastructural analysis of IpaD at the tip of the nascent MxiH type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. J Mol Biol. 2012;420:29-39 pubmed publisher
  7. Cordes F, Komoriya K, Larquet E, Yang S, Egelman E, Blocker A, et al. Helical structure of the needle of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17103-7 pubmed
    ..6 subunits/turn, 24-A helical pitch). This common architecture implies that there will be further mechanistic analogies in the functioning of these two bacterial systems. ..
  8. Parsot C, Ageron E, Penno C, Mavris M, Jamoussi K, d Hauteville H, et al. A secreted anti-activator, OspD1, and its chaperone, Spa15, are involved in the control of transcription by the type III secretion apparatus activity in Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1627-35 pubmed
  9. DeMali K, Jue A, Burridge K. IpaA targets beta1 integrins and rho to promote actin cytoskeleton rearrangements necessary for Shigella entry. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39534-41 pubmed
    ..The combination of these two effects, namely weakened adhesion and increased contractility, account for the loss of actin stress fibers and cell rounding observed in cells exposed to IpaA. ..
  10. Deane J, Roversi P, King C, Johnson S, Lea S. Structures of the Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion system protein MxiC reveal conformational variability amongst homologues. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of a negatively charged patch on this face suggests it may have a role in binding other components of the T3SS...
  11. Martinez Argudo I, Blocker A. The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1365-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the needle controls MxiC release. Therefore, for the first time, our data allow us to propose a model of secretion activation that goes from the tip complex to cytoplasmic MxiC via the needle...
  12. Lario P, Pfuetzner R, Frey E, Creagh L, Haynes C, Maurelli A, et al. Structure and biochemical analysis of a secretin pilot protein. EMBO J. 2005;24:1111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Isothermal titration analysis shows that the C-terminal domain of the secretin, MxiD525-570, hinders lipid binding to MxiM...
  13. Johnson S, Roversi P, Espina M, Olive A, Deane J, Birket S, et al. Self-chaperoning of the type III secretion system needle tip proteins IpaD and BipD. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4035-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Crystal packing has allowed us to construct a model for the tip complex that is supported by mutations designed using the structure...
  14. Picking W, Nishioka H, Hearn P, Baxter M, Harrington A, Blocker A, et al. IpaD of Shigella flexneri is independently required for regulation of Ipa protein secretion and efficient insertion of IpaB and IpaC into host membranes. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..While efficient insertion of IpaB/IpaC pores is needed for optimal invasion efficiency, it may be especially important for Ipa-dependent membrane disruption and thus for efficient vacuolar escape and intercellular spread...
  15. Ogawa M, Yoshimori T, Suzuki T, Sagara H, Mizushima N, Sasakawa C. Escape of intracellular Shigella from autophagy. Science. 2005;307:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, Shigella VirG, a protein required for intracellular actin-based motility, induced autophagy by binding to the autophagy protein, Atg5. In nonmutant Shigella, this binding is competitively inhibited by IcsB binding to VirG...
  16. Wing H, Yan A, Goldman S, Goldberg M. Regulation of IcsP, the outer membrane protease of the Shigella actin tail assembly protein IcsA, by virulence plasmid regulators VirF and VirB. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:699-705 pubmed
    ..We propose that the different pathways regulating icsA and icsP may be critical to the modulation of IcsA-mediated actin-based motility by IcsP...
  17. Allaoui A, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. MxiJ, a lipoprotein involved in secretion of Shigella Ipa invasins, is homologous to YscJ, a secretion factor of the Yersinia Yop proteins. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7661-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons indicated that MxiJ and MxiH, which is encoded by a gene located upstream from mxiJ, are homologous to the Yersinia enterocolitica YscJ and YscF proteins, respectively...
  18. Mavris M, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. Identification of the cis-acting site involved in activation of promoters regulated by activity of the type III secretion apparatus in Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6751-9 pubmed
    ..We also present evidence that at least one ipaH gene that is carried by the chromosome is controlled by MxiE and IpgC...
  19. Mavris M, Page A, Tournebize R, Demers B, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. Regulation of transcription by the activity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:1543-53 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the activity of secretion is sensed by the presence of free IpgC, which acts as a coactivator to allow MxiE to activate transcription at its target promoters...
  20. Tran Van Nhieu G, Bourdet Sicard R, Dum nil G, Blocker A, Sansonetti P. Bacterial signals and cell responses during Shigella entry into epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2000;2:187-93 pubmed
    ..The Src tyrosine kinase activity, which is required for Shigella-induced actin polymerization, also appears to be involved in a negative regulatory loop that downregulates Rho at the site of entry...
  21. Bourdet Sicard R, R diger M, Jockusch B, Gounon P, Sansonetti P, Nhieu G. Binding of the Shigella protein IpaA to vinculin induces F-actin depolymerization. EMBO J. 1999;18:5853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the conformational change of vinculin induced by IpaA binding allows interaction of the vinculin-IpaA complex with F-actin and subsequent depolymerization of actin filaments...
  22. Demers B, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. Induction of type III secretion in Shigella flexneri is associated with differential control of transcription of genes encoding secreted proteins. EMBO J. 1998;17:2894-903 pubmed publisher
  23. Suzuki T, Lett M, Sasakawa C. Extracellular transport of VirG protein in Shigella. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30874-80 pubmed
    ..These results thus strongly suggest that the secretion of VirG protein from Shigella is similar to the export system utilized by the IgA protease of Neisseria...
  24. Allaoui A, Sansonetti P, M nard R, Barzu S, Mounier J, Phalipon A, et al. MxiG, a membrane protein required for secretion of Shigella spp. Ipa invasins: involvement in entry into epithelial cells and in intercellular dissemination. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:461-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, MxiG and possibly proteins secreted by the Mxi-Spa translocation are involved not only in entry but also in spread of Shigella between epithelial cells...
  25. Suzuki T, Miki H, Takenawa T, Sasakawa C. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is implicated in the actin-based motility of Shigella flexneri. EMBO J. 1998;17:2767-76 pubmed publisher
  26. Andrews G, Maurelli A. mxiA of Shigella flexneri 2a, which facilitates export of invasion plasmid antigens, encodes a homolog of the low-calcium-response protein, LcrD, of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 1992;60:3287-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mxiA is a homolog of the Y. pestis lcrD locus and may function similarly in S. flexneri, either by directly affecting the excretion of virulence factors or by regulating the expression of export accessory genes...
  27. Tran Van Nhieu G, Ben Ze ev A, Sansonetti P. Modulation of bacterial entry into epithelial cells by association between vinculin and the Shigella IpaA invasin. EMBO J. 1997;16:2717-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Presumably, IpaA-vinculin interaction initiates the formation of focal adhesion-like structures required for efficient invasion...
  28. Kayath C, Hussey S, El hajjami N, Nagra K, Philpott D, Allaoui A. Escape of intracellular Shigella from autophagy requires binding to cholesterol through the type III effector, IcsB. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:956-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we report that BopA, the counterpart of IcsB in Burkholderia pseudomallei with similar autophagy-evading properties, contains the CBD domain and is also able to bind cholesterol...
  29. Averhoff P, Kolbe M, Zychlinsky A, Weinrauch Y. Single residue determines the specificity of neutrophil elastase for Shigella virulence factors. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:1053-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Shigella virulence factor specificity maps to a distinct region close to NE's active site...
  30. McShan A, Kaur K, Chatterjee S, Knight K, De Guzman R. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions. Proteins. 2016;84:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  31. Kane C, Schuch R, Day W, Maurelli A. MxiE regulates intracellular expression of factors secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a type III secretion system. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4409-19 pubmed
  32. Nataro J, Seriwatana J, Fasano A, Maneval D, Guers L, Noriega F, et al. Identification and cloning of a novel plasmid-encoded enterotoxin of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. Infect Immun. 1995;63:4721-8 pubmed
    ..We believe that the sen gene product may constitute all or part of a novel enterotoxin in EIEC and Shigella spp...
  33. Kuehl C, Dragoi A, Agaisse H. The Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion system is required for tyrosine kinase-dependent protrusion resolution, and vacuole escape during bacterial dissemination. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112738 pubmed publisher
    ..flexneri dissemination in intestinal cells, including the tyrosine kinase signaling-dependent resolution of membrane protrusions into secondary vacuoles, and the escape from the formed secondary vacuoles. ..
  34. Teh M, Morona R. Identification of Shigella flexneri IcsA residues affecting interaction with N-WASP, and evidence for IcsA-IcsA co-operative interaction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55152 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our findings suggest that autochaperone (AC) mutant protein production was not rescued by another AC region provided in trans, differing to that reported for two other autotransporters, PrtS and BrkA autotransporters. ..
  35. Barrett B, Picking W, Picking W, Middaugh C. The response of type three secretion system needle proteins MxiHDelta5, BsaLDelta5, and PrgIDelta5 to temperature and pH. Proteins. 2008;73:632-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that the formation of these intermediate states in the physiological temperature range may play a role in passage through the pore and needle assembly. ..
  36. Venkatesan M, Buysse J, Hartman A. Sequence variation in two ipaH genes of Shigella flexneri 5 and homology to the LRG-like family of proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:2435-45 pubmed
    ..4 indicate that these genes are truncated versions of ipaH7.8. Western blot analysis of a lambda gt11 ipaH recombinant (W7) subclone demonstrated that the antigenicity of IpaH7.8 resides outside the leucine-rich repetitive region...
  37. Brotcke Zumsteg A, Goosmann C, Brinkmann V, Morona R, Zychlinsky A. IcsA is a Shigella flexneri adhesin regulated by the type III secretion system and required for pathogenesis. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;15:435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..IcsA-dependent adhesion contributes to virulence in a mouse model of shigellosis, underscoring the importance of this adhesin to S. flexneri pathogenesis. ..
  38. Burnaevskiy N, Fox T, Plymire D, Ertelt J, Weigele B, Selyunin A, et al. Proteolytic elimination of N-myristoyl modifications by the Shigella virulence factor IpaJ. Nature. 2013;496:106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings show a previously unrecognized pathogenic mechanism for the site-specific elimination of N-myristoyl protein modification...
  39. Yang J, Nie H, Chen L, Zhang X, Yang F, Xu X, et al. Revisiting the molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. J Mol Evol. 2007;64:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli multiple times during a prolonged period of time, resulting in Shigella species with diverse genomes but similar pathogenic properties...
  40. Wagner J, Heindl J, Gray A, Jain S, Goldberg M. Contribution of the periplasmic chaperone Skp to efficient presentation of the autotransporter IcsA on the surface of Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:815-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with a model in which Skp plays a critical role in the chaperoning of the alpha-domain of IcsA during transit through the periplasm...
  41. Venkatesan M, Buysse J, Oaks E. Surface presentation of Shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigens requires the products of the spa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1990-2001 pubmed
  42. Penno C, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. Frameshifting by transcriptional slippage is involved in production of MxiE, the transcription activator regulated by the activity of the type III secretion apparatus in Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Frameshifting might represent an additional means of controlling gene expression under specific environmental conditions...
  43. Yao R, Palchaudhuri S. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional regulation of a positive regulatory gene of Shigella dysenteriae. Infect Immun. 1992;60:1163-9 pubmed
    ..8-fold in the presence of IpaR protein. On the basis of our data, we suggest that an operon comprising ippI, ipaB, and ipaC is positively regulated by IpaR protein which has a trans effect on a DNA sequence upstream of the ippI promoter. ..
  44. Barison N, Lambers J, Hurwitz R, Kolbe M. Interaction of MxiG with the cytosolic complex of the type III secretion system controls Shigella virulence. FASEB J. 2012;26:1717-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MxiG is involved in T3SS regulation...
  45. Zhang L, Wang Y, Olive A, Smith N, Picking W, De Guzman R, et al. Identification of the MxiH needle protein residues responsible for anchoring invasion plasmid antigen D to the type III secretion needle tip. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, none of the mutations appeared to have a negative effect on the MxiH-MxiH interactions required for efficient needle assembly...
  46. Johnson S, Roversi P, Espina M, Deane J, Birket S, Picking W, et al. Expression, limited proteolysis and preliminary crystallographic analysis of IpaD, a component of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:865-8 pubmed
  47. Darboe N, Kenjale R, Picking W, Picking W, Middaugh C. Physical characterization of MxiH and PrgI, the needle component of the type III secretion apparatus from Shigella and Salmonella. Protein Sci. 2006;15:543-52 pubmed
    ..This argues that when MxiH and PrgI are incorporated into the needle complex, they obtain a more stable structural state through the introduction of protein-protein interactions. ..
  48. Nothelfer K, Arena E, Pinaud L, Neunlist M, Mozeleski B, Belotserkovsky I, et al. B lymphocytes undergo TLR2-dependent apoptosis upon Shigella infection. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1215-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore adds direct B lymphocyte targeting to the diversity of mechanisms used by Shigella to dampen the host immune response. ..
  49. Abrusci P, Vergara Irigaray M, Johnson S, Beeby M, Hendrixson D, Roversi P, et al. Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion. ..
  50. Roehrich A, Guillossou E, Blocker A, Martinez Argudo I. Shigella IpaD has a dual role: signal transduction from the type III secretion system needle tip and intracellular secretion regulation. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:690-706 pubmed publisher
    ..A phenotypically equivalent mutant was found in mxiC. We show that IpaD and MxiC act in the same intracellular pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that IpaD has a dual role and acts at two distinct locations during secretion activation. ..
  51. Demers J, Habenstein B, Loquet A, Kumar Vasa S, Giller K, Becker S, et al. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4976 pubmed publisher
  52. Wang Y, Gong G, Zhou W, Zhang B, Bao S, Wei C, et al. Analysis on the interaction domain of VirG and apyrase by pull-down assay. Molecules. 2014;19:18090-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, how apyrase affects the function of VirG was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, the results provided the data supporting the fact that apyrase combines with the α-domain of VirG to influence the function of VirG. ..
  53. Leuzzi A, Di Martino M, Campilongo R, Falconi M, Barbagallo M, Marcocci L, et al. Multifactor Regulation of the MdtJI Polyamine Transporter in Shigella. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136744 pubmed publisher
  54. Arizmendi O, Picking W, Picking W. Macrophage Apoptosis Triggered by IpaD from Shigella flexneri. Infect Immun. 2016;84:1857-1865 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that IpaD is a contributing factor to macrophage cell death during Shigella infection. ..
  55. Prosseda G, Fradiani P, Di Lorenzo M, Falconi M, Micheli G, Casalino M, et al. A role for H-NS in the regulation of the virF gene of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 1998;149:15-25 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that H-NS controls virF expression by binding to the virF promoter and by repressing its expression at low temperature and at low pH...
  56. Janakiraman A, Fixen K, Gray A, Niki H, Goldberg M. A genome-scale proteomic screen identifies a role for DnaK in chaperoning of polar autotransporters in Shigella. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A second Shigella autotransporter, SepA, also required DnaK for secretion, consistent with a role of DnaK more generally in the chaperoning of autotransporter proteins in the bacterial cytoplasm. ..
  57. Kramer R, Slagowski N, Eze N, Giddings K, Morrison M, Siggers K, et al. Yeast functional genomic screens lead to identification of a role for a bacterial effector in innate immunity regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e21 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate how yeast systems biology can facilitate functional characterization of pathogenic bacterial effector proteins...
  58. Niebuhr K, Giuriato S, Pedron T, Philpott D, Gaits F, Sable J, et al. Conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) into PtdIns(5)P by the S.flexneri effector IpgD reorganizes host cell morphology. EMBO J. 2002;21:5069-78 pubmed
    ..These data provide the molecular basis for a new mechanism employed by a pathogenic bacterium to promote membrane ruffling at the entry site...
  59. Allaoui A, Mounier J, Pr vost M, Sansonetti P, Parsot C. icsB: a Shigella flexneri virulence gene necessary for the lysis of protrusions during intercellular spread. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1605-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IcsB is involved in the lysis of the protrusions, a step necessary for intercellular spread...
  60. Roehrich A, Bordignon E, Mode S, Shen D, Liu X, Pain M, et al. Steps for Shigella Gatekeeper Protein MxiC Function in Hierarchical Type III Secretion Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:1705-1723 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest how this interaction regulates a switch in its conformation that is key to its functions. ..
  61. d Hauteville H, Sansonetti P. Phosphorylation of IcsA by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and its effect on intracellular spread of Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:833-41 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that host-cell phosphorylation of key virulence proteins located on the bacterial surface may represent a significant host defence mechanism during the invasion process...
  62. Burgess J, Burgess R, Morales Y, Bouvang J, Johnson S, Dickenson N. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Spa47 Provides Mechanistic Insight into Type III Secretion System ATPase Activation and Shigella Virulence Regulation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:25837-25852 pubmed
    ..Additionally, these findings provide a strong platform for follow-up studies evaluating regulation of Spa47 oligomerization in vivo as a much needed means of treating and perhaps preventing shigellosis. ..
  63. Hartman A, Venkatesan M, Oaks E, Buysse J. Sequence and molecular characterization of a multicopy invasion plasmid antigen gene, ipaH, of Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1905-15 pubmed
    ..8, 7.8, 4.5, 2.5, and 1.4 kb). Affinity-purified IpaH antibody, used to monitor the expression of the antigen in M90T-W cells grown at 30 and 37 degrees C, showed that IpaH synthesis was not regulated by growth temperature...
  64. Shere K, Sallustio S, Manessis A, D Aversa T, Goldberg M. Disruption of IcsP, the major Shigella protease that cleaves IcsA, accelerates actin-based motility. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:451-62 pubmed
    ..Yet, plaque formation on epithelial monolayers by the mutant was not altered detectably. These data suggest that IcsA, and not a host protein, is limiting in the rate of actin-based motility of wild-type serotype 2a S. flexneri...
  65. Yoshida S, Katayama E, Kuwae A, Mimuro H, Suzuki T, Sasakawa C. Shigella deliver an effector protein to trigger host microtubule destabilization, which promotes Rac1 activity and efficient bacterial internalization. EMBO J. 2002;21:2923-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that VirA is a novel type of bacterial effector capable of inducing membrane ruffling through the stimulation of MT destabilization...
  66. Radnedge L, Davis M, Youngren B, Austin S. Plasmid maintenance functions of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3670-5 pubmed
    ..It shows little similarity to previously studied plasmid stability loci, but the genetic organization of STBORF1 and STBORF2 resembles that of postsegregational killing mechanisms...
  67. Egile C, d Hauteville H, Parsot C, Sansonetti P. SopA, the outer membrane protease responsible for polar localization of IcsA in Shigella flexneri. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:1063-73 pubmed
    ..The construction and phenotypic characterization of a sopA mutant demonstrated that SopA is required for exclusive polar localization of IcsA on the bacterial surface and proper expression of the motility phenotype in infected cells...
  68. Ogawa M, Suzuki T, Tatsuno I, Abe H, Sasakawa C. IcsB, secreted via the type III secretion system, is chaperoned by IpgA and required at the post-invasion stage of Shigella pathogenicity. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:913-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IcsB is secreted via the TTSS, chaperoned by IpgA, and required at the post-invasion stage of Shigella pathogenicity..
  69. Uchiya K, Tohsuji M, Nikai T, Sugihara H, Sasakawa C. Identification and characterization of phoN-Sf, a gene on the large plasmid of Shigella flexneri 2a encoding a nonspecific phosphatase. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4548-54 pubmed
  70. van Eerde A, Hamiaux C, P rez J, Parsot C, Dijkstra B. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:477-83 pubmed publisher
  71. M nard R, Sansonetti P, Parsot C, Vasselon T. Extracellular association and cytoplasmic partitioning of the IpaB and IpaC invasins of S. flexneri. Cell. 1994;79:515-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that IpgC, which is not secreted and thus acts as a molecular chaperone, serves as a receptor that prevents premature oligomerization of IpaB and IpaC within the cytoplasm of Shigella cells...
  72. Watarai M, Tobe T, Yoshikawa M, Sasakawa C. Disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Shigella flexneri is required for release of Ipa proteins and invasion of epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:4927-31 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that the DsbA protein performs an essential function during the invasion of mammalian cells, by facilitating transport of the Spa32 protein across the outer membrane...
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    ..These results indicate that virA is a new member of the invasion regulon directed by virB and that the VirA function is involved in invasion and intercellular spreading...
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    ..The 7663 nucleotides of Region-2 were determined to confirm the five open reading frames encoding 23,655, 17,755, 62,168, 41,077 and 36,660 Dalton proteins, respectively, and their regulatory sequences...
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    ..flexneri. The virF gene appears to have a central role in activation of the 230 kb plasmid-encoded virulence genes...
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    ..typhimurium and S. flexneri...
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    ..In double-labeling experiments, we show that IpaB and ICE colocalize in the cytoplasm of the macrophage, suggesting that soon after secretion, IpaB binds to ICE to initiate apoptosis and to promote the cleavage of IL-1 beta...
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    ..However, in the rabbit ligated ileal loop model, the sepA mutant exhibited an attenuated virulence, which suggests that SepA might play a role in tissue invasion...
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    ..The three proteins were expressed only weakly in minicells with the 230-kilobase plasmid...
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    ..VASP is not involved in Shigella movement, and the function of profilin does not require its binding to proline-rich regions...
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    ..The 47 kDa N-terminal domain was stable and endowed with proteolytic activity...