Streptococcus pyogenes M1 GAS

Summary

Alias: Streptococcus pyogenes (serotype 1 / M1 GAS), Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 700294, Streptococcus pyogenes SF370, Streptococcus pyogenes strain SF370

Top Publications

  1. Bates C, MONTANEZ G, Woods C, Vincent R, Eichenbaum Z. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes operon involved in binding of hemoproteins and acquisition of iron. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1042-55 pubmed
    ..SiaA and Shr are the first hemoprotein receptors identified in S. pyogenes; their possible role in iron capture is discussed...
  2. Kapur V, Topouzis S, Majesky M, Li L, Hamrick M, Hamill R, et al. A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog. 1993;15:327-46 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, provide additional evidence that this enzyme is involved in host-parasite interactions, and suggest that the protease plays a role in bacterial dissemination, colonization, and invasion, and inhibition of wound healing. ..
  3. Roussel A, Anderson B, Baker H, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:635-43 pubmed
    ..Consideration of the SPE-C dimer suggests a novel mechanism for promotion of MHC aggregation and T-cell activation. ..
  4. Levin J, Wessels M. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:209-19 pubmed
    ..These results establish CsrR as a negative regulator of hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis and suggest that it is part of a two-component regulatory system that influences capsule expression and virulence. ..
  5. Proft T, Moffatt S, Berkahn C, Fraser J. Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:89-102 pubmed
    ..The most common targets for the novel SAgs were human Vbeta2.1- and Vbeta4-expressing T cells. This might reflect a specific role for this subset of Vbetas in the immune defense of gram-positive bacteria. ..
  6. Proft T, Moffatt S, Weller K, Paterson A, Martin D, Fraser J. The streptococcal superantigen SMEZ exhibits wide allelic variation, mosaic structure, and significant antigenic variation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1765-76 pubmed
    ..SMEZ-specific Vbeta8 activity was found in culture supernatants of 66% of the GAS isolates, indicating a potential base for the development of a SMEZ targeting vaccine. ..
  7. Proft T, Arcus V, Handley V, Baker E, Fraser J. Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2001;166:6711-9 pubmed
    ..Despite a primary sequence diversity of 51%, SPE-J is functionally indistinguishable from SPE-C and might play a role in streptococcal disease, which has previously been addressed to SPE-C. ..
  8. Pihlajamäki M, Kataja J, Seppälä H, Elliot J, Leinonen M, Huovinen P, et al. Ribosomal mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:654-8 pubmed
    ....
  9. Bingen E, Leclercq R, Fitoussi F, Brahimi N, Malbruny B, Deforche D, et al. Emergence of group A streptococcus strains with different mechanisms of macrolide resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1199-203 pubmed
    ..In the two remaining posttreatment strains, the mechanisms of macrolide resistance could not be elucidated. ..
  10. Malbruny B, Nagai K, Coquemont M, Bozdogan B, Andrasevic A, Hupkova H, et al. Resistance to macrolides in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes due to ribosomal mutations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:935-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations at a similar position in ribosomal protein L4 and 23S rRNA have been reported previously in macrolide-resistant pneumococci. This report shows that similar mutations can be found in macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes. ..

Detail Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bates C, MONTANEZ G, Woods C, Vincent R, Eichenbaum Z. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes operon involved in binding of hemoproteins and acquisition of iron. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1042-55 pubmed
    ..SiaA and Shr are the first hemoprotein receptors identified in S. pyogenes; their possible role in iron capture is discussed...
  2. Kapur V, Topouzis S, Majesky M, Li L, Hamrick M, Hamill R, et al. A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog. 1993;15:327-46 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, provide additional evidence that this enzyme is involved in host-parasite interactions, and suggest that the protease plays a role in bacterial dissemination, colonization, and invasion, and inhibition of wound healing. ..
  3. Roussel A, Anderson B, Baker H, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:635-43 pubmed
    ..Consideration of the SPE-C dimer suggests a novel mechanism for promotion of MHC aggregation and T-cell activation. ..
  4. Levin J, Wessels M. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:209-19 pubmed
    ..These results establish CsrR as a negative regulator of hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis and suggest that it is part of a two-component regulatory system that influences capsule expression and virulence. ..
  5. Proft T, Moffatt S, Berkahn C, Fraser J. Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:89-102 pubmed
    ..The most common targets for the novel SAgs were human Vbeta2.1- and Vbeta4-expressing T cells. This might reflect a specific role for this subset of Vbetas in the immune defense of gram-positive bacteria. ..
  6. Proft T, Moffatt S, Weller K, Paterson A, Martin D, Fraser J. The streptococcal superantigen SMEZ exhibits wide allelic variation, mosaic structure, and significant antigenic variation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1765-76 pubmed
    ..SMEZ-specific Vbeta8 activity was found in culture supernatants of 66% of the GAS isolates, indicating a potential base for the development of a SMEZ targeting vaccine. ..
  7. Proft T, Arcus V, Handley V, Baker E, Fraser J. Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2001;166:6711-9 pubmed
    ..Despite a primary sequence diversity of 51%, SPE-J is functionally indistinguishable from SPE-C and might play a role in streptococcal disease, which has previously been addressed to SPE-C. ..
  8. Pihlajamäki M, Kataja J, Seppälä H, Elliot J, Leinonen M, Huovinen P, et al. Ribosomal mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:654-8 pubmed
    ....
  9. Bingen E, Leclercq R, Fitoussi F, Brahimi N, Malbruny B, Deforche D, et al. Emergence of group A streptococcus strains with different mechanisms of macrolide resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1199-203 pubmed
    ..In the two remaining posttreatment strains, the mechanisms of macrolide resistance could not be elucidated. ..
  10. Malbruny B, Nagai K, Coquemont M, Bozdogan B, Andrasevic A, Hupkova H, et al. Resistance to macrolides in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes due to ribosomal mutations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:935-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations at a similar position in ribosomal protein L4 and 23S rRNA have been reported previously in macrolide-resistant pneumococci. This report shows that similar mutations can be found in macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes. ..
  11. Nyberg P, Rasmussen M, Bjorck L. alpha2-Macroglobulin-proteinase complexes protect Streptococcus pyogenes from killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52820-3 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, is trapped by alpha(2)M bound to protein GRAB. As a consequence, SpeB is retained at the bacterial surface and protects S. pyogenes against killing by the antibacterial peptide LL-37. ..
  12. Edwards R, Taylor G, Ferguson M, Murray S, Rendell N, Wrigley A, et al. Specific C-terminal cleavage and inactivation of interleukin-8 by invasive disease isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:783-90 pubmed
    ..Cleavage of IL-8 by S. pyogenes represents an unprecedented mechanism of immune evasion, effectively preventing IL-8 C-terminus-mediated endothelial translocation and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils. ..
  13. Cole J, McArthur J, McKay F, Sanderson Smith M, Cork A, Ranson M, et al. Trigger for group A streptococcal M1T1 invasive disease. FASEB J. 2006;20:1745-7 pubmed
    ..pyogenes M1T1 with the human plasminogen activation system. Loss of SpeB activity in a subpopulation of S. pyogenes M1T1 at the site of infection results in accumulation of surface plasmin activity thus triggering systemic spread. ..
  14. Nooh M, Aziz R, Kotb M, Eroshkin A, Chuang W, Proft T, et al. Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin, SmeZ, is the most susceptible M1T1 streptococcal superantigen to degradation by the streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35281-8 pubmed
    ..The study provides evidence for the effect of subtle structural differences between highly similar SAgs on their biological activity. ..
  15. Gryllos I, Tran Winkler H, Cheng M, Chung H, Bolcome R, Lu W, et al. Induction of group A Streptococcus virulence by a human antimicrobial peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16755-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of GAS to sense and respond to LL-37 may explain, at least in part, the unique susceptibility of the human species to streptococcal infection. ..
  16. Burne R, Penders J. Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 fruA gene encoding exo-beta-D-fructosidase. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4621-32 pubmed
    ..The data begin to define functional domains of the FruA protein and potential regulatory sites for induction, repression, growth rate control, and posttranslational localization of this multifunctional enzyme...
  17. Mechold U, Steiner K, Vettermann S, Malke H. Genetic organization of the streptokinase region of the Streptococcus equisimilis H46A chromosome. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:129-40 pubmed
    ..Prominent structural features in intergenic regions included a static DNA bending locus located upstream and a putative bidirectional transcription terminator downstream of skc...
  18. Wiesmann C, Beste G, Hengstenberg W, Schulz G. The three-dimensional structure of 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis. Structure. 1995;3:961-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this enzyme belongs to a superfamily of glycosidases sharing a (beta alpha)8 barrel with catalytic glutamates/aspartates at the ends of the fourth and the seventh strands of the beta barrel...
  19. Zhang R, Evans G, Rotella F, Westbrook E, Beno D, Huberman E, et al. Characteristics and crystal structure of bacterial inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 1999;38:4691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of the structure of bacterial IMPDH with the known partial structures from eukaryotic organisms will provide an explanation of their distinct properties and contribute to the design of specific bacterial IMPDH inhibitors...
  20. Lukomski S, Nakashima K, Abdi I, Cipriano V, Ireland R, Reid S, et al. Identification and characterization of the scl gene encoding a group A Streptococcus extracellular protein virulence factor with similarity to human collagen. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6542-53 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a new extracellular GAS virulence factor that is widely distributed in the species and participates in adherence to host cells and soft tissue pathology...
  21. Sheldon W, Macauley M, Taylor E, Robinson C, Charnock S, Davies G, et al. Functional analysis of a group A streptococcal glycoside hydrolase Spy1600 from family 84 reveals it is a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and not a hyaluronidase. Biochem J. 2006;399:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since these enzymes do not have detectable hyaluronidase activity, many family 84 glycoside hydrolases are most likely incorrectly annotated as hyaluronidases...
  22. Egesten A, Olin A, Linge H, Yadav M, M rgelin M, Karlsson A, et al. SpeB of Streptococcus pyogenes differentially modulates antibacterial and receptor activating properties of human chemokines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4769 pubmed publisher
    ..The exception is CXCL9 that preserves its antibacterial activity after hydrolysis, emphasizing its role as a major antimicrobial on inflamed epithelium...
  23. Ashbaugh C, Wessels M. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the group A streptococcal guaB gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Gene. 1995;165:57-60 pubmed
    ..Restriction mapping and Southern hybridization analysis of GAS chromosomal DNA localized guaB to a site approximately 5 kb from the hasA and hasB genes which encode enzymes necessary for hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis...
  24. Fogg G, Gibson C, Caparon M. The identification of rofA, a positive-acting regulatory component of prtF expression: use of an m gamma delta-based shuttle mutagenesis strategy in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:671-84 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, which suggests that rofA may act as an activator of prtF in response to an unidentified environmental signal. We speculate that the allele reported here contains a mutation that renders it constitutively active...
  25. Rathsam C, Giffard P, Jacques N. The cell-bound fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius: the carboxyl terminus specifies attachment in a Streptococcus gordonii model system. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4520-7 pubmed
    ..This cell-bound activity was released in the presence of sucrose, suggesting that the mode of attachment and release of the S. salivarius FTF in S. gordonii was similar to that in its native host...
  26. Morona J, Morona R, Paton J. Characterization of the locus encoding the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:751-63 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae serotypes/groups tested. The region from cps19fG to cps19fK was found only in members of serogroup 19, and, within this, cps19fl was unique to type 19F...
  27. Stinson M, McLaughlin R, Choi S, Juarez Z, Barnard J. Streptococcal histone-like protein: primary structure of hlpA and protein binding to lipoteichoic acid and epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1998;66:259-65 pubmed
    ..These results support a potential role for HlpA in the pathogenesis of streptococcus-induced tissue inflammation...
  28. Swedberg G, Ringertz S, Sk ld O. Sulfonamide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes is associated with differences in the amino acid sequence of its chromosomal dihydropteroate synthase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1062-7 pubmed
    ..Kinetic measurements established different affinities for sulfathiazole for DHPS enzymes isolated from resistant and susceptible strains...
  29. Tsai P, Lin Y, Kuo C, Lei H, Wu J. Group A Streptococcus induces apoptosis in human epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1999;67:4334-9 pubmed
    ..The caspase pathway is involved in GAS-induced apoptosis, and the expression of SPE B in the cells enhances apoptosis...
  30. Igwe E, Shewmaker P, Facklam R, Farley M, Van Beneden C, Beall B. Identification of superantigen genes speM, ssa, and smeZ in invasive strains of beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci recovered from humans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229:259-64 pubmed
    ..dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis with identical or near-identical sequences to their counterparts in S. pyogenes suggests frequent interspecies gene exchange between the three beta-hemolytic streptococcal species...
  31. Hung W, Tsai J, Hsueh P, Chia J, Teng L. Species identification of mutans streptococci by groESL gene sequence. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:857-62 pubmed publisher
    ....
  32. Tsai J, Hsueh P, Chen H, Tseng S, Chen P, Teng L. The erm(T) gene is flanked by IS1216V in inducible erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..pasteurianus (formerly S. bovis biotype II.2) isolates. In all isolates, the erm(T) genes were flanked by two IS1216V-like elements with the same polarity and were found to be inserted in the chromosome...
  33. Agniswamy J, Nagiec M, Liu M, Schuck P, Musser J, Sun P. Crystal structure of group A streptococcus Mac-1: insight into dimer-mediated specificity for recognition of human IgG. Structure. 2006;14:225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A tunnel observed at the dimer interface constitutes a target for designing potential Mac-1-specific antimicrobial agents. The structures also offer insight into the functional difference between Mac-1 and Mac-2...
  34. Akana J, Fedorov A, Fedorov E, Novak W, Babbitt P, Almo S, et al. D-Ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase: functional and structural relationships to members of the ribulose-phosphate binding (beta/alpha)8-barrel superfamily. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, this "superfamily" may result from assembly from smaller modules, including the conserved phosphate binding motif associated with the C-terminal (beta/alpha)(2)-quarter barrel...
  35. Yoshida Y, Ganguly S, Bush C, Cisar J. Molecular basis of L-rhamnose branch formation in streptococcal coaggregation receptor polysaccharides. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..gordonii 38 and wefH in S. oralis 34. These genes were distinguished by the unique ability of WefC to act on the branched acceptor formed by the action of WefB...
  36. Ryan P, Kirk B, Euler C, Schuch R, Fischetti V. Novel algorithms reveal streptococcal transcriptomes and clues about undefined genes. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e132 pubmed publisher
    ..Neighbor clustering provides a more comprehensive view of the molecular responses of streptococci during pharyngeal cell adherence...
  37. Kim K, Bong Y, Park J, Shin K, Hwang K, Kim E. Structural basis for glutamate racemase inhibition. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In both crystal forms, GluR exists as a dimer and the interactions seen at the dimer interface are almost identical. This agrees well with the results from gel filtration and dynamic light-scattering studies...
  38. Fisher M, Huang Y, Li X, McIver K, Toukoki C, Eichenbaum Z. Shr is a broad-spectrum surface receptor that contributes to adherence and virulence in group A streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5006-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study identifies Shr as being a new microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules in GAS that mediates attachment to epithelial cells and contributes to the infection process...
  39. Pence M, Rooijakkers S, Cogen A, Cole J, Hollands A, Gallo R, et al. Streptococcal inhibitor of complement promotes innate immune resistance phenotypes of invasive M1T1 group A Streptococcus. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:587-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the sic knockout mutant M1T1 GAS strain was deficient in growth in human serum and intracellular macrophage survival. We conclude that SIC contributes to M1T1 GAS immune resistance and virulence phenotypes...
  40. Stewart C, Buffalo C, Valderrama J, Henningham A, Cole J, Nizet V, et al. Coiled-coil destabilizing residues in the group A Streptococcus M1 protein are required for functional interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9515-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the general conclusion that destabilizing residues are evolutionarily conserved in M proteins to enable functional interactions necessary for pathogenesis. ..
  41. Chen C, Bormann N, Cleary P. VirR and Mry are homologous trans-acting regulators of M protein and C5a peptidase expression in group A streptococci. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:685-93 pubmed
    ..5 kb, which also overlaps virR. These results demonstrate that virR and mry are structurally and functionally very similar and show that the former is a trans activator of both M protein and C5a peptidase synthesis...
  42. Suvorov A, Ferretti J. Replication origin of Streptococcus pyogenes, organization and cloning in heterologous systems. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;189:293-7 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal organization of the oriC region of GAS relative to other bacterial species appears to be similar to oriC of Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive microorganisms...
  43. Li Y, Li H, Dimasi N, McCormick J, Martin R, Schuck P, et al. Crystal structure of a superantigen bound to the high-affinity, zinc-dependent site on MHC class II. Immunity. 2001;14:93-104 pubmed
    ..Thus, SPE-C may optimize T cell responses by mimicking the peptide dependence of conventional antigen presentation and recognition...
  44. Karaya K, Shimizu T, Taketo A. New gene cluster for lantibiotic streptin possibly involved in streptolysin S formation. J Biochem. 2001;129:769-75 pubmed
    ..The fact that N22 also lost the anti-bacterial activity against indicator streptococci reveals that the factor(s) required for lantibiotic formation plays an important role in SLS formation as well...
  45. Upton M, Tagg J, Wescombe P, Jenkinson H. Intra- and interspecies signaling between Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus pyogenes mediated by SalA and SalA1 lantibiotic peptides. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides act as intra- and interspecies signaling molecules, modulating lantibiotic production and possibly influencing streptococcal population ecology in the oral cavity...
  46. Maeda K, Nagata H, Yamamoto Y, Tanaka M, Tanaka J, Minamino N, et al. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Streptococcus oralis functions as a coadhesin for Porphyromonas gingivalis major fimbriae. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1341-8 pubmed
    ..gingivalis fimbriae. In addition, considering the high degree of homology of the GAPDHs of various bacteria, those of other plaque-forming bacteria also may contribute to the colonization of P. gingivalis...
  47. Hogg T, Mechold U, Malke H, Cashel M, Hilgenfeld R. Conformational antagonism between opposing active sites in a bifunctional RelA/SpoT homolog modulates (p)ppGpp metabolism during the stringent response [corrected]. Cell. 2004;117:57-68 pubmed
    ..Reciprocal regulation of the antagonistic catalytic activities, suggested by the structure, is supported by mutagenesis experiments and appears to involve ligand-induced signal transmission between the two active sites...
  48. Wenig K, Chatwell L, von Pawel Rammingen U, Bj rck L, Huber R, Sondermann P. Structure of the streptococcal endopeptidase IdeS, a cysteine proteinase with strict specificity for IgG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore IdeS belongs to a unique family within the CA clan of cysteine proteinases. Based on analogy with inhibitor complexes of papain-like proteinases, we propose a model for substrate binding by IdeS...
  49. Sanderson Smith M, Batzloff M, Sriprakash K, Dowton M, Ranson M, Walker M. Divergence in the plasminogen-binding group a streptococcal M protein family: functional conservation of binding site and potential role for immune selection of variants. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a link between selective immune pressure against the plasminogen-binding repeats and the functional conservation of the binding domain in PAM variants...
  50. Ma Y, Bryant A, Salmi D, Hayes Schroer S, McIndoo E, Aldape M, et al. Identification and characterization of bicistronic speB and prsA gene expression in the group A Streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that prsA is required for production of fully mature, enzymatically active SpeB...
  51. Ouattara M, Cunha E, Li X, Huang Y, DIXON D, Eichenbaum Z. Shr of group A streptococcus is a new type of composite NEAT protein involved in sequestering haem from methaemoglobin. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:739-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Shr is the prototype of a new group of NEAT composite proteins involved in haem uptake found in pyogenic streptococci and Clostridium novyi...
  52. Tran Winkler H, Love J, Gryllos I, Wessels M. Signal transduction through CsrRS confers an invasive phenotype in group A Streptococcus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002361 pubmed publisher
    ....
  53. Dong Y, Chen Y, Snyder J, Burne R. Isolation and molecular analysis of the gene cluster for the arginine deiminase system from Streptococcus gordonii DL1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5549-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, ArcR is a transcriptional activator that is required for induction and optimal expression of the S. gordonii ADS gene cluster...
  54. Sook B, Block D, Sumithran S, MONTANEZ G, Rodgers K, Dawson J, et al. Characterization of SiaA, a streptococcal heme-binding protein associated with a heme ABC transport system. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The biophysical characterization described herein will significantly advance our understanding of structure-function relationships in HBP...
  55. Janulczyk R, Pallon J, Bjorck L. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes ABC transporter with multiple specificity for metal cations. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:596-606 pubmed
    ..The operon encoding this novel ABC transporter with multiple specificity for metal cations is designated mtsABC, for metal transporter of Streptococcus...
  56. Lucchini S, Sidoti J, Br ssow H. Broad-range bacteriophage resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus by insertional mutagenesis. Virology. 2000;275:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ....
  57. Asanuma N, Hino T. Molecular characterization of HPr and related enzymes, and regulation of HPr phosphorylation in the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis. Arch Microbiol. 2003;179:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is conceivable that the ratio of HPr-[Ser-P] to HPr-[His-P] is regulated by the bifunctional activity of HPr kinase in response to intracellular P(i) concentration...
  58. Nocek B, Chang C, Li H, Lezondra L, Holzle D, Collart F, et al. Crystal structures of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase from human pathogens Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pyogenes. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:91-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory L-proline has been observed in the crystal structure...
  59. Gagnon G, Vadeboncoeur C, Levesque R, Frenette M. Cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the ptsI gene encoding enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system from Streptococcus salivarius. Gene. 1992;121:71-8 pubmed
    ..The S. salivarius EI also shares a highly conserved aa cluster with a non-PTS protein, the maize pyruvate:orthophosphate dikinase. The conserved cluster is located in a domain which is hypothesized to be the PEP-binding site. ..
  60. Robbins J, Spanier J, Jones S, Simpson W, Cleary P. Streptococcus pyogenes type 12 M protein gene regulation by upstream sequences. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5633-40 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the emm12 DNA sequence revealed three major repeat regions. Two copies of each repeat, A and B, existed within the variable 5' end of the gene; repeat C demarcated the 5' end of the constant region shared by emm12 and emm6. ..
  61. Staedtler P, Hoenig S, Frank R, Withers S, Hengstenberg W. Identification of the active-site nucleophile in 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Staphylococcus aureus by labelling with synthetic inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 1995;232:658-63 pubmed
    ..It was shown to be identical to an authentic, synthetic sample. From this, it is evident that E375 is the active-site nucleophile of 6-phospho-galactosidase, consistent with previous findings for enzymes in this family. ..
  62. Chmouryguina I, Suvorov A, Ferrieri P, Cleary P. Conservation of the C5a peptidase genes in group A and B streptococci. Infect Immun. 1996;64:2387-90 pubmed
    ..Recombinant SCPB was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the expression vector plasmid pGEX-4T-1 and was shown to be identical in size to the enzyme extracted from the parental GBS strain 78-471...
  63. Wang X, Lin X, Loy J, Tang J, Zhang X. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human plasmin complexed with streptokinase. Science. 1998;281:1662-5 pubmed
    ..The carboxyl-terminal domain of streptokinase, which binds near the activation loop of plasminogen, is likely responsible for the contact activation of plasminogen in the complex...
  64. Lyon W, Gibson C, Caparon M. A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes. EMBO J. 1998;17:6263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the function of Trigger Factor, the regulation of proteinase activity and the mechanism of secretion in Gram-positive bacteria...
  65. Wang X, Tang J, Hunter B, Zhang X. Crystal structure of streptokinase beta-domain. FEBS Lett. 1999;459:85-9 pubmed
    ..The distribution of genetically conserved residues of SKbeta is strongly correlated with their functions. The extensive interface of the SKbeta dimer suggests that such dimers may also exist in solution for free SKbeta. ..
  66. Arcus V, Proft T, Sigrell J, Baker H, Fraser J, Baker E. Conservation and variation in superantigen structure and activity highlighted by the three-dimensional structures of two new superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Mol Biol. 2000;299:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This allelic variation, coupled with the varied binding modes of SAgs to MHC-II and TCR, highlights the pressure on SAgs to avoid host immune defences...
  67. McCormick J, Pragman A, Stolpa J, Leung D, Schlievert P. Functional characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J, a novel superantigen. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterization of a seventh functional streptococcal PTSAg raises important questions relating to the evolution of the streptococcal superantigens...
  68. Fontaine M, Perez Casal J, Song X, Shelford J, Willson P, Potter A. Immunisation of dairy cattle with recombinant Streptococcus uberis GapC or a chimeric CAMP antigen confers protection against heterologous bacterial challenge. Vaccine. 2002;20:2278-86 pubmed
    ..Inflammation was not reduced in S. dysgalactiae (6 x His)GapC vaccinates, suggesting that it does not confer cross-species protection. ..
  69. Asanuma N, Yoshii T, Hino T. Molecular characterization of CcpA and involvement of this protein in transcriptional regulation of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate-lyase in the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5244-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, CcpA appears to be involved in the global regulation of sugar utilization in S. bovis. ..
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    ..These results suggest that GAPDHs of various plaque-forming streptococci may be involved in their attachment to P. gingivalis fimbriae and that they may contribute to P. gingivalis colonization...
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    ..We identified a unique genetic element in Streptococcus pyogenes strain SF370 that controls MMR via a dynamic process of prophage excision and reintegration in response to ..
  74. Martinez Fleites C, Smith N, Turkenburg J, Black G, Taylor E. Structures of two truncated phage-tail hyaluronate lyases from Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural elements putatively involved in substrate recognition are found to be conserved in both the HylP2 and HylP3 fragments. ..
  75. Nitzsche R, Rosenheinrich M, Kreikemeyer B, Oehmcke Hecht S. Streptococcus pyogenes triggers activation of the human contact system by streptokinase. Infect Immun. 2015;83:3035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes triggers the human contact system and stresses the function of soluble and surface located plasmin exploited as a group A streptococcal virulence factor through the action of streptokinase. ..
  76. Chandrahas V, Glinton K, Liang Z, Donahue D, Ploplis V, Castellino F. Direct Host Plasminogen Binding to Bacterial Surface M-protein in Pattern D Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Is Required for Activation by Its Natural Coinherited SK2b Protein. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:18833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that GAS virulence can be explained by disparate hPg activation by SK2a and SK2b coupled with the coinherited M-proteins of these strains. ..
  77. Flaherty R, Puricelli J, Higashi D, Park C, Lee S. Streptolysin S Promotes Programmed Cell Death and Enhances Inflammatory Signaling in Epithelial Keratinocytes during Group A Streptococcus Infection. Infect Immun. 2015;83:4118-33 pubmed publisher
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    ..This immune regulatory property of extracellular NADase adds another possible explanation to how increased secretion of NADase correlates with bacterial virulence. ..
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    ..In this communication, we show by N-terminal amino-acid sequencing and by ion-spray mass spectroscopy that these two forms differ by the presence or the absence of the N-terminal methionine. ..
  80. Crater D, Dougherty B, van de Rijn I. Molecular characterization of hasC from an operon required for hyaluronic acid synthesis in group A streptococci. Demonstration of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28676-80 pubmed
    ..Finally, since sequence analysis identified a potential rho-independent transcription terminator at the 3-prime terminus of the gene, hasC is the third and probably the final gene in the has operon...
  81. Hynes W, Hancock L, Ferretti J. Analysis of a second bacteriophage hyaluronidase gene from Streptococcus pyogenes: evidence for a third hyaluronidase involved in extracellular enzymatic activity. Infect Immun. 1995;63:3015-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the presence of a different hyaluronidase gene encoding a protein that is actively secreted into the extracellular milieu...
  82. DeAngelis P, Yang N, Weigel P. Molecular cloning of the gene encoding RecF, a DNA repair enzyme, from Streptococcus pyogenes. Gene. 1995;156:89-91 pubmed
    ..When cloned on a plasmid, recF could complement a S. pyogenes deletion mutant that was sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation and chemical mutagens. This is the first report of a recF sequence from a Gram+ pathogen. ..
  83. Yutsudo T, Okumura K, Iwasaki M, Hara A, Kamitani S, Minamide W, et al. The gene encoding a new mitogenic factor in a Streptococcus pyogenes strain is distributed only in group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4000-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that mf is distributed specifically in group A streptococci and the presence of mf in clinical samples strongly suggests infection with group A streptococci. ..
  84. Ross K, Ronson C, Tagg J. Isolation and characterization of the lantibiotic salivaricin A and its structural gene salA from Streptococcus salivarius 20P3. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:2014-21 pubmed
    ..The sequence around the cleavage site of presalivaricin A differed from that of other type A lantibiotics but was similar to that of several bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria...
  85. Gagnon G, Vadeboncoeur C, Gauthier L, Frenette M. Regulation of ptsH and ptsI gene expression in Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975. Mol Microbiol. 1995;16:1111-21 pubmed
    ..Studies with a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant spontaneous mutant of S. salivarius (L26) that produces an HPr-EI fusion protein suggest that the regulation of HPr and EI expression involves transcriptional as well as translational mechanisms. ..
  86. Gase K, Liu G, Bruckmann A, Steiner K, Ozegowski J, Malke H. The lppC gene of Streptococcus equisimilis encodes a lipoprotein that is homologous to the e (P4) outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1997;186:63-73 pubmed
    ..These results, together with findings indicating that S. equisimilis H46A had no absolute requirement for iron, led us to conclude that lppC, in contrast to hel, is not involved in hemin utilization and has yet to be assigned a function...
  87. Fogg G, Caparon M. Constitutive expression of fibronectin binding in Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of anaerobic activation of rofA. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6172-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model where anaerobic expression of prtF in constitutive hosts is controlled at the level of transcription of rofA and implicate additional factors in this regulatory pathway...
  88. Podbielski A, Woischnik M, Leonard B, Schmidt K. Characterization of nra, a global negative regulator gene in group A streptococci. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1051-64 pubmed
    ....
  89. Morona J, Morona R, Paton J. Analysis of the 5' portion of the type 19A capsule locus identifies two classes of cpsC, cpsD, and cpsE genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3599-605 pubmed
    ..Whereas members within one class are greater than 95% identical to each other, the DNA sequence identity between the two classes is only approximately 70%...
  90. Heath A, DiRita V, Barg N, Engleberg N. A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B. Infect Immun. 1999;67:5298-305 pubmed
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  91. Stevens D, Salmi D, McIndoo E, Bryant A. Molecular epidemiology of nga and NAD glycohydrolase/ADP-ribosyltransferase activity among Streptococcus pyogenes causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the temporal relationship of NADase expression, alone or with other streptococcal virulence factors, may contribute to the pathogenesis of invasive GAS infections...
  92. Ajdic D, McShan W, Savic D, Gerlach D, Ferretti J. The NAD-glycohydrolase (nga) gene of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;191:235-41 pubmed
    ..In contrast, 92% of strains isolated from patients with invasive streptococcal infections were positive for NADase production...
  93. Terao Y, Kawabata S, Kunitomo E, Nakagawa I, Hamada S. Novel laminin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, Lbp, is involved in adhesion to epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:993-7 pubmed
    ..pyogenes M types. An Lbp-deficient mutant showed a significantly lower efficiency of adhesion to HEp-2 cells than did the wild-type strain. These results indicate that Lbp is one of the important S. pyogenes adhesins...
  94. McKay F, McArthur J, Sanderson Smith M, Gardam S, Currie B, Sriprakash K, et al. Plasminogen binding by group A streptococcal isolates from a region of hyperendemicity for streptococcal skin infection and a high incidence of invasive infection. Infect Immun. 2004;72:364-70 pubmed
    ..Despite considerable amino acid sequence variation within the A1 repeat region of PAM where the plasminogen-binding domain maps, the critical lysine residue was conserved...
  95. Jalava J, Vaara M, Huovinen P. Mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA as a cause of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2004;3:5 pubmed
    ..This mutation is known to cause macrolide resistance in other bacteria. We can conclude that this mutation was the most probable cause of macrolide, lincosamide and ketolide resistance in this strain. ..
  96. Brassard J, Gottschalk M, Quessy S. Cloning and purification of the Streptococcus suis serotype 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and its involvement as an adhesin. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..suis in the (His)6GAPDH pre-incubated rings compared to the non-incubated rings. The GAPDH protein of S. suis seems to be involved in the first steps of the bacterial adhesion to host cells...
  97. Almengor A, McIver K. Transcriptional activation of sclA by Mga requires a distal binding site in Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7847-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PsclA represents a new class of Mga-regulated promoters that requires a single distal binding site for activation...
  98. Kimoto H, Fujii Y, Yokota Y, Taketo A. Molecular characterization of NADase-streptolysin O operon of hemolytic streptococci. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1681:134-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional results suggest that NADase, synthesized as precursor with feeble activity, is activated by removing the carboxyl terminal region during or after secretion into culture medium...
  99. Yang L, Thomas M, Woodhouse A, Martin D, Fraser J, Proft T. Involvement of streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3570-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This variant was responsible for the major mitogenic activity in the cell culture supernatant. Patient sera showed seroconversion toward SMEZ, implying a role for this toxin in STSS...
  100. Bryant A, Bayer C, Chen R, Guth P, Wallace R, Stevens D. Vascular dysfunction and ischemic destruction of tissue in Streptococcus pyogenes infection: the role of streptolysin O-induced platelet/neutrophil complexes. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies that target platelet adherence molecules may prevent vascular occlusion, maintain tissue viability, and reduce the need for amputation in necrotizing GAS infections...
  101. Haikarainen T, Tsou C, Wu J, Papageorgiou A. Structural characterization and biological implications of di-zinc binding in the ferroxidase center of Streptococcus pyogenes Dpr. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a structural basis for the protection of Streptococcus pyogenes in zinc stress conditions and provide a clear evidence for a di-zinc and di-iron ferroxidase site in Streptococcus pyogenes Dpr protein...