Streptococcus pyogenes M1 GAS

Summary

Alias: Streptococcus pyogenes (serotype 1 / M1 GAS), Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 700294, Streptococcus pyogenes SF370, Streptococcus pyogenes strain SF370

Top Publications

  1. Kapur V, Topouzis S, Majesky M, Li L, Hamrick M, Hamill R, et al. A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog. 1993;15:327-46 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, provide additional evidence that this enzyme is involved in host-parasite interactions, and suggest that the protease plays a role in bacterial dissemination, colonization, and invasion, and inhibition of wound healing. ..
  2. Roussel A, Anderson B, Baker H, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:635-43 pubmed
    ..Consideration of the SPE-C dimer suggests a novel mechanism for promotion of MHC aggregation and T-cell activation. ..
  3. Levin J, Wessels M. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:209-19 pubmed
    ..These results establish CsrR as a negative regulator of hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis and suggest that it is part of a two-component regulatory system that influences capsule expression and virulence. ..
  4. Proft T, Moffatt S, Weller K, Paterson A, Martin D, Fraser J. The streptococcal superantigen SMEZ exhibits wide allelic variation, mosaic structure, and significant antigenic variation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1765-76 pubmed
    ..SMEZ-specific Vbeta8 activity was found in culture supernatants of 66% of the GAS isolates, indicating a potential base for the development of a SMEZ targeting vaccine. ..
  5. Proft T, Arcus V, Handley V, Baker E, Fraser J. Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2001;166:6711-9 pubmed
    ..Despite a primary sequence diversity of 51%, SPE-J is functionally indistinguishable from SPE-C and might play a role in streptococcal disease, which has previously been addressed to SPE-C. ..
  6. Nyberg P, Rasmussen M, Bjorck L. alpha2-Macroglobulin-proteinase complexes protect Streptococcus pyogenes from killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52820-3 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, is trapped by alpha(2)M bound to protein GRAB. As a consequence, SpeB is retained at the bacterial surface and protects S. pyogenes against killing by the antibacterial peptide LL-37. ..
  7. Cole J, McArthur J, McKay F, Sanderson Smith M, Cork A, Ranson M, et al. Trigger for group A streptococcal M1T1 invasive disease. FASEB J. 2006;20:1745-7 pubmed
    ..pyogenes M1T1 with the human plasminogen activation system. Loss of SpeB activity in a subpopulation of S. pyogenes M1T1 at the site of infection results in accumulation of surface plasmin activity thus triggering systemic spread. ..
  8. Nooh M, Aziz R, Kotb M, Eroshkin A, Chuang W, Proft T, et al. Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin, SmeZ, is the most susceptible M1T1 streptococcal superantigen to degradation by the streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35281-8 pubmed
    ..The study provides evidence for the effect of subtle structural differences between highly similar SAgs on their biological activity. ..
  9. Proft T, Moffatt S, Berkahn C, Fraser J. Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:89-102 pubmed
    ..The most common targets for the novel SAgs were human Vbeta2.1- and Vbeta4-expressing T cells. This might reflect a specific role for this subset of Vbetas in the immune defense of gram-positive bacteria. ..
  10. Pihlajamäki M, Kataja J, Seppälä H, Elliot J, Leinonen M, Huovinen P, et al. Ribosomal mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:654-8 pubmed

Detail Information

Publications149 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kapur V, Topouzis S, Majesky M, Li L, Hamrick M, Hamill R, et al. A conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease cleaves human fibronectin and degrades vitronectin. Microb Pathog. 1993;15:327-46 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, provide additional evidence that this enzyme is involved in host-parasite interactions, and suggest that the protease plays a role in bacterial dissemination, colonization, and invasion, and inhibition of wound healing. ..
  2. Roussel A, Anderson B, Baker H, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SPE-C: dimerization and zinc binding suggest a novel mode of interaction with MHC class II molecules. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:635-43 pubmed
    ..Consideration of the SPE-C dimer suggests a novel mechanism for promotion of MHC aggregation and T-cell activation. ..
  3. Levin J, Wessels M. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:209-19 pubmed
    ..These results establish CsrR as a negative regulator of hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis and suggest that it is part of a two-component regulatory system that influences capsule expression and virulence. ..
  4. Proft T, Moffatt S, Weller K, Paterson A, Martin D, Fraser J. The streptococcal superantigen SMEZ exhibits wide allelic variation, mosaic structure, and significant antigenic variation. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1765-76 pubmed
    ..SMEZ-specific Vbeta8 activity was found in culture supernatants of 66% of the GAS isolates, indicating a potential base for the development of a SMEZ targeting vaccine. ..
  5. Proft T, Arcus V, Handley V, Baker E, Fraser J. Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2001;166:6711-9 pubmed
    ..Despite a primary sequence diversity of 51%, SPE-J is functionally indistinguishable from SPE-C and might play a role in streptococcal disease, which has previously been addressed to SPE-C. ..
  6. Nyberg P, Rasmussen M, Bjorck L. alpha2-Macroglobulin-proteinase complexes protect Streptococcus pyogenes from killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52820-3 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, is trapped by alpha(2)M bound to protein GRAB. As a consequence, SpeB is retained at the bacterial surface and protects S. pyogenes against killing by the antibacterial peptide LL-37. ..
  7. Cole J, McArthur J, McKay F, Sanderson Smith M, Cork A, Ranson M, et al. Trigger for group A streptococcal M1T1 invasive disease. FASEB J. 2006;20:1745-7 pubmed
    ..pyogenes M1T1 with the human plasminogen activation system. Loss of SpeB activity in a subpopulation of S. pyogenes M1T1 at the site of infection results in accumulation of surface plasmin activity thus triggering systemic spread. ..
  8. Nooh M, Aziz R, Kotb M, Eroshkin A, Chuang W, Proft T, et al. Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin, SmeZ, is the most susceptible M1T1 streptococcal superantigen to degradation by the streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35281-8 pubmed
    ..The study provides evidence for the effect of subtle structural differences between highly similar SAgs on their biological activity. ..
  9. Proft T, Moffatt S, Berkahn C, Fraser J. Identification and characterization of novel superantigens from Streptococcus pyogenes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:89-102 pubmed
    ..The most common targets for the novel SAgs were human Vbeta2.1- and Vbeta4-expressing T cells. This might reflect a specific role for this subset of Vbetas in the immune defense of gram-positive bacteria. ..
  10. Pihlajamäki M, Kataja J, Seppälä H, Elliot J, Leinonen M, Huovinen P, et al. Ribosomal mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:654-8 pubmed
  11. Bingen E, Leclercq R, Fitoussi F, Brahimi N, Malbruny B, Deforche D, et al. Emergence of group A streptococcus strains with different mechanisms of macrolide resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1199-203 pubmed
    ..In the two remaining posttreatment strains, the mechanisms of macrolide resistance could not be elucidated. ..
  12. Malbruny B, Nagai K, Coquemont M, Bozdogan B, Andrasevic A, Hupkova H, et al. Resistance to macrolides in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes due to ribosomal mutations. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:935-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations at a similar position in ribosomal protein L4 and 23S rRNA have been reported previously in macrolide-resistant pneumococci. This report shows that similar mutations can be found in macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes. ..
  13. Edwards R, Taylor G, Ferguson M, Murray S, Rendell N, Wrigley A, et al. Specific C-terminal cleavage and inactivation of interleukin-8 by invasive disease isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:783-90 pubmed
    ..Cleavage of IL-8 by S. pyogenes represents an unprecedented mechanism of immune evasion, effectively preventing IL-8 C-terminus-mediated endothelial translocation and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils. ..
  14. Gryllos I, Tran Winkler H, Cheng M, Chung H, Bolcome R, Lu W, et al. Induction of group A Streptococcus virulence by a human antimicrobial peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16755-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of GAS to sense and respond to LL-37 may explain, at least in part, the unique susceptibility of the human species to streptococcal infection. ..
  15. Bates C, MONTANEZ G, Woods C, Vincent R, Eichenbaum Z. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes operon involved in binding of hemoproteins and acquisition of iron. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1042-55 pubmed
    ..SiaA and Shr are the first hemoprotein receptors identified in S. pyogenes; their possible role in iron capture is discussed...
  16. Iwasaki M, Igarashi H, Hinuma Y, Yutsudo T. Cloning, characterization and overexpression of a Streptococcus pyogenes gene encoding a new type of mitogenic factor. FEBS Lett. 1993;331:187-92 pubmed
    ..pyogenes. These data indicate that a unique gene encoding MF was cloned from S. pyogenes...
  17. Asanuma N, Iwamoto M, Hino T. Structure and transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding pyruvate formate-lyase of a ruminal bacterium, Streptococcus bovis. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 1):151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that S. bovis regulates Pfl and Ldh synthesis at the transcriptional level in response to growth conditions...
  18. Griswold A, Chen Y, Snyder J, Burne R. Characterization of the arginine deiminase operon of Streptococcus rattus FA-1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:1321-7 pubmed
    ..Reporter gene fusions and AD assays demonstrated that the operon is regulated by substrate induction and catabolite repression, the latter apparently through a CcpA-dependent pathway...
  19. Salim K, de Azavedo J, Bast D, Cvitkovitch D. Regulation of sagA, siaA and scpC by SilCR, a putative signaling peptide of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;289:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes. In contrast to this report, we found that SilCR did not reduce lesion formation in a subcutaneous murine model of S. pyogenes infection but rather appeared to delay wound healing...
  20. Morona J, Morona R, Paton J. Comparative genetics of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae types belonging to serogroup 19. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5355-64 pubmed
  21. Beis K, Allard S, Hegeman A, Murshudov G, Philp D, Naismith J. The structure of NADH in the enzyme dTDP-d-glucose dehydratase (RmlB). J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:11872-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the ability of dehydratase enzymes to fine-tune the redox potential of NADH through conformational changes in the nicotinamide ring. ..
  22. Lau S, Woo P, Yim T, To A, Yuen K. Molecular characterization of a strain of group a streptococcus isolated from a patient with a psoas abscess. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4888-91 pubmed
    ..Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the isolate belonged to MLST sequence type (MLST-ST) 28, the predominant MLST-ST associated with invasive disease caused by M1 isolates. ..
  23. Yoshizawa N, Yamakami K, Fujino M, Oda T, Tamura K, Matsumoto K, et al. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: characterization of the antigen and associated immune response. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1785-93 pubmed
    ..Moreover, antibody titers remained elevated during the entire 10-yr follow-up period...
  24. Akesson P, Herwald H, Rasmussen M, H kansson K, Abrahamson M, Hasan A, et al. Streptococcal inhibitor of complement-mediated lysis (SIC): an anti-inflammatory virulence determinant. Microbiology. 2010;156:3660-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SIC modifies host defence systems, which may contribute to the virulence of S. pyogenes strains of the M1 serotype...
  25. Podbielski A, Leonard B. The group A streptococcal dipeptide permease (Dpp) is involved in the uptake of essential amino acids and affects the expression of cysteine protease. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:1323-34 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate a correlation between levels of intracellular essential amino acids and the regulation of virulence factor expression...
  26. Kagawa T, Cooney J, Baker H, McSweeney S, Liu M, Gubba S, et al. Crystal structure of the zymogen form of the group A Streptococcus virulence factor SpeB: an integrin-binding cysteine protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure also reveals the surface location of an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that is a feature unique to SpeB among cysteine proteases and is linked to the pathogenesis of the most invasive strains of S. pyogenes...
  27. Campbell R, Mosimann S, van de Rijn I, Tanner M, Strynadka N. The first structure of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase reveals the catalytic residues necessary for the two-fold oxidation. Biochemistry. 2000;39:7012-23 pubmed
    ..Also proposed to participate in the catalytic mechanism are a threonine and a glutamate that hydrogen bond to a conserved active site water molecule suitably positioned for general acid/base catalysis...
  28. Yoshida Y, Ganguly S, Bush C, Cisar J. Carbohydrate engineering of the recognition motifs in streptococcal co-aggregation receptor polysaccharides. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:244-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The reactions of these genetically modified polysaccharides as antigens and receptors provide further insight into the structural basis of RPS function...
  29. Betschel S, Borgia S, Barg N, Low D, de Azavedo J. Reduced virulence of group A streptococcal Tn916 mutants that do not produce streptolysin S. Infect Immun. 1998;66:1671-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that SLS-deficient mutants of GAS, belonging to different M serotypes and containing identical Tn916 mutations, are markedly less virulent than their isogenic parents...
  30. Binks M, Fernie King B, Seilly D, Lachmann P, Sriprakash K. Attribution of the various inhibitory actions of the streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) to regions within the molecule. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..a) SRR alone was sufficient to confer inhibition of complement function. (b) Anti-defensin and anti-lysozyme activities were mapped to the SRR plus LRR. (c) The LRR plus PRR harbored ezrin binding activity...
  31. Zhu H, Liu M, Lei B. The surface protein Shr of Streptococcus pyogenes binds heme and transfers it to the streptococcal heme-binding protein Shp. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:15 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes. Further characterization of the Shr/Shp/HtsA system would advance our understanding of the mechanism of heme acquisition in S. pyogenes...
  32. Hollands A, Aziz R, Kansal R, Kotb M, Nizet V, Walker M. A naturally occurring mutation in ropB suppresses SpeB expression and reduces M1T1 group A streptococcal systemic virulence. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4102 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS...
  33. Shelburne Iii S, Keith D, Davenport M, Beres S, Carroll R, Musser J. Contribution of AmyA, an extracellular alpha-glucan degrading enzyme, to group A streptococcal host-pathogen interaction. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:159-174 pubmed publisher
    ..These data delineate the molecular mechanisms by which alpha-glucan degradation contributes to GAS host-pathogen interaction, including how GAS uses human salivary alpha-amylase for its own metabolic benefit...
  34. Le Rhun A, Lécrivain A, Reimegård J, Proux Wera E, Broglia L, Della Beffa C, et al. Identification of endoribonuclease specific cleavage positions reveals novel targets of RNase III in Streptococcus pyogenes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:2329-2340 pubmed publisher
  35. Hynes W, Dixon A, Walton S, Aridgides L. The extracellular hyaluronidase gene (hylA) of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;184:109-12 pubmed
    ..A region internal to the hylA gene was amplified from all 175 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes tested suggesting a widespread distribution of the gene...
  36. Gerlach D, Fleischer B, Wagner M, Schmidt K, Vettermann S, Reichardt W. Purification and biochemical characterization of a basic superantigen (SPEX/SMEZ3) from Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;188:153-63 pubmed
    ..The purified SPEX stimulated human T-lymphocytes with Vbeta8 specificity at extremely low concentrations (lower than 100 pg ml(-1)). ..
  37. Matsumoto M, Sakae K, Hashikawa S, Torii K, Hasegawa T, Horii T, et al. Close correlation of streptococcal DNase B (sdaB) alleles with emm genotypes in Streptococcus pyogenes. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49:925-9 pubmed
    ..The distribution of each allele was generally emm genotype-specific. Only sdaB7 was found in both emm2 and emm4. The promoter region was highly conserved and DNase B protein was similarly expressed in all alleles. ..
  38. Hondorp E, Hou S, Hause L, Gera K, Lee C, McIver K. PTS phosphorylation of Mga modulates regulon expression and virulence in the group A streptococcus. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:1176-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PRD-containing virulence regulators (PCVRs) appear to be widespread in Gram-positive pathogens. ..
  39. Pancholi V, Fischetti V. A major surface protein on group A streptococci is a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase with multiple binding activity. J Exp Med. 1992;176:415-26 pubmed
    ..The multiple binding capacity of the SDH in conjunction with its GAPDH activity may play a role in the colonization, internalization, and the subsequent proliferation of group A streptococci...
  40. Pinkney M, Beachey E, Kehoe M. The thiol-activated toxin streptolysin O does not require a thiol group for cytolytic activity. Infect Immun. 1989;57:2553-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that the widely held assumption that the in vitro cytolytic activity of SLO requires an essential Cys residue is not true...
  41. Burne R, Wen Z, Chen Y, Penders J. Regulation of expression of the fructan hydrolase gene of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 by induction and carbon catabolite repression. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:2863-71 pubmed
  42. Kawabata S, Tamura Y, Murakami J, Terao Y, Nakagawa I, Hamada S. A novel, anchorless streptococcal surface protein that binds to human immunoglobulins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:1329-33 pubmed
    ..The sib35 gene was found in all GAS strains examined, but not in oral, group B, C, or G streptococcal strains. These results suggest that Sib35 is a unique immunoglobulin-binding protein in GAS. ..
  43. Smith N, Taylor E, Lindsay A, Charnock S, Turkenburg J, Dodson E, et al. Structure of a group A streptococcal phage-encoded virulence factor reveals a catalytically active triple-stranded beta-helix. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17652-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Mishra P, Akhtar M, Bhakuni V. Unusual structural features of the bacteriophage-associated hyaluronate lyase (hylp2). J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7143-50 pubmed publisher
  45. Brouillard J, G nther S, Varma A, Gryski I, Herfst C, Rahman A, et al. Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SpeI and functional role of a novel loop domain in T cell activation by group V superantigens. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:925-34 pubmed publisher
  46. Smith C, Ghosh J, Elam J, Pinkner J, Hultgren S, Caparon M, et al. Structural basis of Streptococcus pyogenes immunity to its NAD+ glycohydrolase toxin. Structure. 2011;19:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..IFS is an attractive target for the development of novel bacteriocidal compounds functioning by blocking the bacterium's self-immunity to the SPN toxin. ..
  47. Sumitomo T, Nakata M, Higashino M, Terao Y, Kawabata S. Group A streptococcal cysteine protease cleaves epithelial junctions and contributes to bacterial translocation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings indicate that the proteolytic efficacy of SpeB in junctional degradation allows GAS to invade deeper into tissues...
  48. LaRock C, Döhrmann S, Todd J, Corriden R, Olson J, Johannssen T, et al. Group A Streptococcal M1 Protein Sequesters Cathelicidin to Evade Innate Immune Killing. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;18:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cathelicidin resistance is essential for the pathogenesis of hyperinvasive M1T1 GAS. ..
  49. Chen C, Cleary P. Complete nucleotide sequence of the streptococcal C5a peptidase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:3161-7 pubmed
    ..Results of Southern hybridization studies indicate that sequences highly similar to that of scpA are present in all serotypes of S. pyogenes tested...
  50. Harbaugh M, Podbielski A, Hugl S, Cleary P. Nucleotide substitutions and small-scale insertion produce size and antigenic variation in group A streptococcal M1 protein. Mol Microbiol. 1993;8:981-91 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first evidence that nucleotide substitutions and small insertions are responsible for size and antigenic variation in the N-terminal non-repeat domain of the M protein of GAS. ..
  51. Podbielski A, Woischnik M, Pohl B, Schmidt K. What is the size of the group A streptococcal vir regulon? The Mga regulator affects expression of secreted and surface virulence factors. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1996;185:171-81 pubmed
    ..This indicated that in addition to the core vir regulon, Mga directly or indirectly controls a number of genes dispersed throughout the GAS genome...
  52. Berge A, Rasmussen M, Bjorck L. Identification of an insertion sequence located in a region encoding virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun. 1998;66:3449-53 pubmed
    ..The same or similar insertion sequences were found in most S. pyogenes strains, but the chromosomal location differed among isolates. ..
  53. Rasmussen M, M ller H, Bj rck L. Protein GRAB of streptococcus pyogenes regulates proteolysis at the bacterial surface by binding alpha2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15336-44 pubmed
    ..This regulation of proteolytic activity at the bacterial surface should affect the host-microbe relation during S. pyogenes infections...
  54. Chong B, Nielsen L. Amplifying the cellular reduction potential of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. J Biotechnol. 2003;100:33-41 pubmed
    ..The concomitant excretion of pyruvate at high NADH oxidase levels suggested that the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex was limiting the conversion of pyruvate to acetate...
  55. Xu Q, Shin D, Pufan R, Yokota H, Kim R, Kim S. Crystal structure of a phosphotransacetylase from Streptococcus pyogenes. Proteins. 2004;55:479-81 pubmed publisher
  56. Baker H, Proft T, Webb P, Arcus V, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystallographic and mutational data show that the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J can use a common binding surface for T-cell receptor binding and dimerization. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38571-6 pubmed
    ..We infer that SPE-J cross-links TCR and MHC-II as a monomer but that dimers may form on the antigen-presenting cell surface, cross-linking MHC-II and eliciting intracellular signaling. ..
  57. Argiriadi M, Goedken E, Bruck I, O Donnell M, Kuriyan J. Crystal structure of a DNA polymerase sliding clamp from a Gram-positive bacterium. BMC Struct Biol. 2006;6:2 pubmed publisher
    ..The more elliptical rather than circular structure of the S. pyogenes clamp implies that the topological nature of encircling DNA, rather than a precise geometric shape, is the most conserved aspect for this family of proteins...
  58. Skattum L, Akesson P, Truedsson L, Sj holm A. Antibodies against four proteins from a Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 strain and levels of circulating mannan-binding lectin in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006;140:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of MBL-deficient individuals among the patients demonstrates that MBL is not necessary for the recruitment of complement in AGN...
  59. Manetti A, Zingaretti C, Falugi F, Capo S, Bombaci M, Bagnoli F, et al. Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:968-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the role of pili in GAS adherence and colonization and suggest a general role of pili in all pathogenic streptococci...
  60. Burne R, Penders J. Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 fruA gene encoding exo-beta-D-fructosidase. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4621-32 pubmed
    ..The data begin to define functional domains of the FruA protein and potential regulatory sites for induction, repression, growth rate control, and posttranslational localization of this multifunctional enzyme...
  61. Mechold U, Steiner K, Vettermann S, Malke H. Genetic organization of the streptokinase region of the Streptococcus equisimilis H46A chromosome. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:129-40 pubmed
    ..Prominent structural features in intergenic regions included a static DNA bending locus located upstream and a putative bidirectional transcription terminator downstream of skc...
  62. Wiesmann C, Beste G, Hengstenberg W, Schulz G. The three-dimensional structure of 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis. Structure. 1995;3:961-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this enzyme belongs to a superfamily of glycosidases sharing a (beta alpha)8 barrel with catalytic glutamates/aspartates at the ends of the fourth and the seventh strands of the beta barrel...
  63. Zhang R, Evans G, Rotella F, Westbrook E, Beno D, Huberman E, et al. Characteristics and crystal structure of bacterial inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 1999;38:4691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of the structure of bacterial IMPDH with the known partial structures from eukaryotic organisms will provide an explanation of their distinct properties and contribute to the design of specific bacterial IMPDH inhibitors...
  64. Lukomski S, Nakashima K, Abdi I, Cipriano V, Ireland R, Reid S, et al. Identification and characterization of the scl gene encoding a group A Streptococcus extracellular protein virulence factor with similarity to human collagen. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6542-53 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a new extracellular GAS virulence factor that is widely distributed in the species and participates in adherence to host cells and soft tissue pathology...
  65. Sheldon W, Macauley M, Taylor E, Robinson C, Charnock S, Davies G, et al. Functional analysis of a group A streptococcal glycoside hydrolase Spy1600 from family 84 reveals it is a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and not a hyaluronidase. Biochem J. 2006;399:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since these enzymes do not have detectable hyaluronidase activity, many family 84 glycoside hydrolases are most likely incorrectly annotated as hyaluronidases...
  66. Egesten A, Olin A, Linge H, Yadav M, M rgelin M, Karlsson A, et al. SpeB of Streptococcus pyogenes differentially modulates antibacterial and receptor activating properties of human chemokines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4769 pubmed publisher
    ..The exception is CXCL9 that preserves its antibacterial activity after hydrolysis, emphasizing its role as a major antimicrobial on inflamed epithelium...
  67. Ashbaugh C, Wessels M. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the group A streptococcal guaB gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Gene. 1995;165:57-60 pubmed
    ..Restriction mapping and Southern hybridization analysis of GAS chromosomal DNA localized guaB to a site approximately 5 kb from the hasA and hasB genes which encode enzymes necessary for hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis...
  68. Fogg G, Gibson C, Caparon M. The identification of rofA, a positive-acting regulatory component of prtF expression: use of an m gamma delta-based shuttle mutagenesis strategy in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:671-84 pubmed
    ..pyogenes, which suggests that rofA may act as an activator of prtF in response to an unidentified environmental signal. We speculate that the allele reported here contains a mutation that renders it constitutively active...
  69. Rathsam C, Giffard P, Jacques N. The cell-bound fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius: the carboxyl terminus specifies attachment in a Streptococcus gordonii model system. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:4520-7 pubmed
    ..This cell-bound activity was released in the presence of sucrose, suggesting that the mode of attachment and release of the S. salivarius FTF in S. gordonii was similar to that in its native host...
  70. Morona J, Morona R, Paton J. Characterization of the locus encoding the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:751-63 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae serotypes/groups tested. The region from cps19fG to cps19fK was found only in members of serogroup 19, and, within this, cps19fl was unique to type 19F...
  71. Stinson M, McLaughlin R, Choi S, Juarez Z, Barnard J. Streptococcal histone-like protein: primary structure of hlpA and protein binding to lipoteichoic acid and epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1998;66:259-65 pubmed
    ..These results support a potential role for HlpA in the pathogenesis of streptococcus-induced tissue inflammation...
  72. Swedberg G, Ringertz S, Sk ld O. Sulfonamide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes is associated with differences in the amino acid sequence of its chromosomal dihydropteroate synthase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1062-7 pubmed
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    ..dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis with identical or near-identical sequences to their counterparts in S. pyogenes suggests frequent interspecies gene exchange between the three beta-hemolytic streptococcal species...
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    ..pasteurianus (formerly S. bovis biotype II.2) isolates. In all isolates, the erm(T) genes were flanked by two IS1216V-like elements with the same polarity and were found to be inserted in the chromosome...
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    ..Instead, this "superfamily" may result from assembly from smaller modules, including the conserved phosphate binding motif associated with the C-terminal (beta/alpha)(2)-quarter barrel...
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    ..The chromosomal organization of the oriC region of GAS relative to other bacterial species appears to be similar to oriC of Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive microorganisms...
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    ..Thus, SPE-C may optimize T cell responses by mimicking the peptide dependence of conventional antigen presentation and recognition...
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    ..The fact that N22 also lost the anti-bacterial activity against indicator streptococci reveals that the factor(s) required for lantibiotic formation plays an important role in SLS formation as well...
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    ..These peptides act as intra- and interspecies signaling molecules, modulating lantibiotic production and possibly influencing streptococcal population ecology in the oral cavity...
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    ..gingivalis fimbriae. In addition, considering the high degree of homology of the GAPDHs of various bacteria, those of other plaque-forming bacteria also may contribute to the colonization of P. gingivalis...
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    ..Reciprocal regulation of the antagonistic catalytic activities, suggested by the structure, is supported by mutagenesis experiments and appears to involve ligand-induced signal transmission between the two active sites...
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    ..Therefore IdeS belongs to a unique family within the CA clan of cysteine proteinases. Based on analogy with inhibitor complexes of papain-like proteinases, we propose a model for substrate binding by IdeS...
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    ..These data suggest a link between selective immune pressure against the plasminogen-binding repeats and the functional conservation of the binding domain in PAM variants...
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    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that prsA is required for production of fully mature, enzymatically active SpeB...
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    ..We suggest that Shr is the prototype of a new group of NEAT composite proteins involved in haem uptake found in pyogenic streptococci and Clostridium novyi...
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    ..Thus, ArcR is a transcriptional activator that is required for induction and optimal expression of the S. gordonii ADS gene cluster...
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    ..The biophysical characterization described herein will significantly advance our understanding of structure-function relationships in HBP...
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    ..The operon encoding this novel ABC transporter with multiple specificity for metal cations is designated mtsABC, for metal transporter of Streptococcus...
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    ..Thus, it is conceivable that the ratio of HPr-[Ser-P] to HPr-[His-P] is regulated by the bifunctional activity of HPr kinase in response to intracellular P(i) concentration...