Genomes and Genes
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus NCTC 8325
Alias: Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus str. NCTC 8325, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain NCTC 8325
- GRUNDLING A, Schneewind O. Genes required for glycolipid synthesis and lipoteichoic acid anchoring in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2521-30 pubmed..Glycolipid anchoring of LTA appears to play an important role during infection, as S. aureus variants lacking ltaA display defects in the pathogenesis of animal infections. ..
- Siboo I, Chaffin D, Rubens C, Sullam P. Characterization of the accessory Sec system of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6188-96 pubmed publisher..Thus, the accessory Sec system of S. aureus is required for the export of SraP, and it appears to be dedicated to the transport of this substrate exclusively. ..
- O Brien L, Walsh E, Massey R, Peacock S, Foster T. Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor B (ClfB) promotes adherence to human type I cytokeratin 10: implications for nasal colonization. Cell Microbiol. 2002;4:759-70 pubmed..We also showed that ClfB is transcribed by S. aureus in the human nares. We propose that ClfB is a major determinant in S. aureus nasal colonization. ..
- Lindsay J, Foster S. Interactive regulatory pathways control virulence determinant production and stability in response to environmental conditions in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;262:323-31 pubmed..How environmental signals are transduced to control alpha-haemolysin and serine protease production, activity and stability at multiple levels are discussed. ..
- Wieland B, Feil C, Gloria Maercker E, Thumm G, Lechner M, Bravo J, et al. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7719-26 pubmed..Dehydrosqualene (4,4'-diapophytoene) is successively dehydrogenated by a desaturase (CrtN) to form the yellow main intermediate 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. ..
- Rohrer S, Ehlert K, Tschierske M, Labischinski H, Berger Bachi B. The essential Staphylococcus aureus gene fmhB is involved in the first step of peptidoglycan pentaglycine interpeptide formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9351-6 pubmed..Because of its key role FmhB is a potential target for novel antibacterial agents that could control the threat of emerging multiresistant S. aureus. ..
- Miller M, Donat S, Rakette S, Stehle T, Kouwen T, Diks S, et al. Staphylococcal PknB as the first prokaryotic representative of the proline-directed kinases. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9057 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results identify PknB as the first prokaryotic representative of the proline-directed kinase/MAP kinase family of enzymes. ..
- Cosgrove K, Coutts G, Jonsson I, Tarkowski A, KOKAI KUN J, Mond J, et al. Catalase (KatA) and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) have compensatory roles in peroxide stress resistance and are required for survival, persistence, and nasal colonization in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1025-35 pubmed..Thus, oxidative-stress resistance is an important factor in the ability of S. aureus to persist in the hospital environment and so contribute to the spread of human disease. ..
- Herbert S, Bera A, Nerz C, Kraus D, Peschel A, Goerke C, et al. Molecular basis of resistance to muramidase and cationic antimicrobial peptide activity of lysozyme in staphylococci. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e102 pubmed..The two lysozyme activities act synergistically, as the oatA/dltA or oatA/graRS double mutants are much more susceptible to lysozyme than each of the single mutants. ..
- Schmidt K, Manna A, Gill S, Cheung A. SarT, a repressor of alpha-hemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4749-58 pubmed..Collectively, these results indicated that the sarA locus, contrary to the regulatory action of agr, induced alpha-hemolysin production by repressing sarT, a repressor of hla transcription. ..
- Shaw L, Aish J, Davenport J, Brown M, Lithgow J, Simmonite K, et al. Investigations into sigmaB-modulated regulatory pathways governing extracellular virulence determinant production in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6070-80 pubmed..Thus, we propose that the loss of individual genes in this chromosomal hot spot region results in a destabilization of cellular harmony and disruption of the sigmaB regulatory cascade. ..
- Blevins J, Beenken K, Elasri M, Hurlburt B, Smeltzer M. Strain-dependent differences in the regulatory roles of sarA and agr in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2002;70:470-80 pubmed..Taken together, these results suggest that studies defining the regulatory roles of sarA and agr by using RN6390 are not always representative of the events that occur in clinical isolates of S. aureus. ..
- Said Salim B, Dunman P, McAleese F, Macapagal D, Murphy E, McNamara P, et al. Global regulation of Staphylococcus aureus genes by Rot. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:610-9 pubmed..aureus genes. Our data also indicate that Rot and agr have opposing effects on select target genes. These results provide further insight into the role of Rot in the regulatory cascade of S. aureus virulence gene expression. ..
- Boyle Vavra S, Yin S, Challapalli M, Daum R. Transcriptional induction of the penicillin-binding protein 2 gene in Staphylococcus aureus by cell wall-active antibiotics oxacillin and vancomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1028-36 pubmed..These data support the idea that pbpB expression is modulated by a trans-acting factor in response to the presence of the cell wall-active antibiotics vancomycin and oxacillin. ..
- Walsh E, O Brien L, Liang X, Hook M, Foster T. Clumping factor B, a fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus, also binds to the tail region of type I cytokeratin 10. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50691-9 pubmed..We provide an explanation for the molecular basis for S. aureus adherence to the squamous epithelium and suggest that nasal colonization might be prevented by reagents that inhibit this interaction. ..
- Redder P, Linder P. New range of vectors with a stringent 5-fluoroorotic acid-based counterselection system for generating mutants by allelic replacement in Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3846-54 pubmed publisher..Finally, as proof of concept, we present six deletions or modifications of components in the S. aureus degradosome as well as the operon containing the cshB DEAD box helicase. ..
- Rooijakkers S, Ruyken M, van Roon J, Van Kessel K, Van Strijp J, Van Wamel W. Early expression of SCIN and CHIPS drives instant immune evasion by Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:1282-93 pubmed..aureus proteins early during growth. Because SCIN and CHIPS are both efficient modulators of neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis and killing, their early expression is necessary for efficient modulation of the early immune response. ..
- Doherty N, Holden M, Qazi S, Williams P, Winzer K. Functional analysis of luxS in Staphylococcus aureus reveals a role in metabolism but not quorum sensing. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2885-97 pubmed..aureus RN6390B during intracellular growth in epithelial cells: the wild type and a luxS mutant showed very similar growth patterns after their internalization by MAC-T cells. ..
- McDevitt D, Francois P, Vaudaux P, Foster T. Molecular characterization of the clumping factor (fibrinogen receptor) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:237-48 pubmed..Significant homology was found between the ClfA protein and the fibronectin-binding proteins of S. aureus, particularly in the N- and C-termini. ..
- Giraudo A, Raspanti C, Calzolari A, Nagel R. Characterization of a Tn551-mutant of Staphylococcus aureus defective in the production of several exoproteins. Can J Microbiol. 1994;40:677-81 pubmed..The phenotype of the mutant was different from that of other insertional mutants affecting exoprotein synthesis, such as agr, xpr, or sar. This new mutation has been designated sae (for S. aureus exoprotein expression). ..
- Pinho M, Errington J. Dispersed mode of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall synthesis in the absence of the division machinery. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:871-81 pubmed..The results have implications for understanding the nature of S. aureus morphogenesis and for inhibitors of cell division proteins as drug targets. ..
- Horsburgh M, Wharton S, Cox A, Ingham E, Peacock S, Foster S. MntR modulates expression of the PerR regulon and superoxide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus through control of manganese uptake. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1269-86 pubmed..The co-ordinated regulation of metal ion homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance via the regulators MntR, PerR and Fur of S. aureus is discussed. ..
- Heilmann C, Hartleib J, Hussain M, Peters G. The multifunctional Staphylococcus aureus autolysin aaa mediates adherence to immobilized fibrinogen and fibronectin. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4793-802 pubmed..Finally, an aaa knockout mutant showed reduced adherence to surface-adsorbed fibrinogen and fibronectin, strongly suggesting a role for Aaa in the colonization of host factor-coated polymer surfaces and/or host tissue. ..
- Jarraud S, Lyon G, Figueiredo A, Lina G, Gerard L, Vandenesch F, et al. Exfoliatin-producing strains define a fourth agr specificity group in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6517-22 pubmed..This finding raises the question of the biological significance of the agr autoinduction threshold. ..
- Baker H, Basu I, Chung M, Caradoc Davies T, Fraser J, Baker E. Crystal structures of the staphylococcal toxin SSL5 in complex with sialyl Lewis X reveal a conserved binding site that shares common features with viral and bacterial sialic acid binding proteins. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:1298-308 pubmed..Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif. ..
- Brown S, Zhang Y, Walker S. A revised pathway proposed for Staphylococcus aureus wall teichoic acid biosynthesis based on in vitro reconstitution of the intracellular steps. Chem Biol. 2008;15:12-21 pubmed publisher..The work reported here lays the foundation for the discovery and characterization of inhibitors of WTA biosynthetic enzymes to assess their potential for treating bacterial infections. ..
- Peschel A, Jack R, Otto M, Collins L, Staubitz P, Nicholson G, et al. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to human defensins and evasion of neutrophil killing via the novel virulence factor MprF is based on modification of membrane lipids with l-lysine. J Exp Med. 2001;193:1067-76 pubmed..MprF thus constitutes a novel virulence factor, which may be of general relevance for bacterial pathogens and represents a new target for attacking multidrug resistant bacteria. ..
- Wann E, Gurusiddappa S, Hook M. The fibronectin-binding MSCRAMM FnbpA of Staphylococcus aureus is a bifunctional protein that also binds to fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:13863-71 pubmed..Finally, by overexpressing FnbpA in a mutant strain of S. aureus that lacks the expression of both ClfA and ClfB, we show that native FnbpA can mediate the interaction of S. aureus with soluble Fg. ..
- Kopp U, Roos M, Wecke J, Labischinski H. Staphylococcal peptidoglycan interpeptide bridge biosynthesis: a novel antistaphylococcal target?. Microb Drug Resist. 1996;2:29-41 pubmed..The drastic loss of beta-lactam resistance after inactivation of FemA or partial impairment of FemX even beyond the level of the sensitive wild-type strains renders these proteins attractive antistaphylococcal targets. ..
- Stranden A, Ehlert K, Labischinski H, Berger Bachi B. Cell wall monoglycine cross-bridges and methicillin hypersusceptibility in a femAB null mutant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:9-16 pubmed..Moreover, it can be deduced that addition of the first glycine must occur by a femAB-independent mechanism. ..
- Brunskill E, Bayles K. Identification and molecular characterization of a putative regulatory locus that affects autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:611-8 pubmed..These data suggest that the lytS and lytR gene products control the rate of autolysis in S. aureus by affecting the intrinsic murein hydrolase activity associated with the cell. ..
- Shaw L, Golonka E, Szmyd G, Foster S, Travis J, Potempa J. Cytoplasmic control of premature activation of a secreted protease zymogen: deletion of staphostatin B (SspC) in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 yields a profound pleiotropic phenotype. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1751-62 pubmed..Seemingly, some of these proteins may play a role in protein secretion; hence, their proteolytic inactivation by SspB has pleiotropic effects on the SspC-deficient mutant. ..
- Zheng L, Yang J, Landwehr C, Fan F, Ji Y. Identification of an essential glycoprotease in Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;245:279-85 pubmed..Our results indicate that Gcp is a potential novel target for the development of antimicrobials against S. aureus infection. ..
- Janzon L, Lofdahl S, Arvidson S. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the delta-lysin gene, hld, adjacent to the accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;219:480-5 pubmed..Determination of hld mRNA half-life in different growth phases indicated that this regulation is at the level of transcription. ..
- Rooijakkers S, Ruyken M, Roos A, Daha M, Presanis J, Sim R, et al. Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:920-7 pubmed..As a highly active and small soluble protein that acts exclusively on surfaces, staphylococcal complement inhibitor may represent a promising anti-inflammatory molecule. ..
- Sibbald M, Winter T, van der Kooi Pol M, Buist G, Tsompanidou E, Bosma T, et al. Synthetic effects of secG and secY2 mutations on exoproteome biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3788-800 pubmed publisher..Additionally, the results suggest that SecY2 can interact with the Sec1 channel, which would be consistent with the presence of a single set of secE and secG genes in S. aureus. ..
- Cramton S, Gerke C, Schnell N, Nichols W, Gotz F. The intercellular adhesion (ica) locus is present in Staphylococcus aureus and is required for biofilm formation. Infect Immun. 1999;67:5427-33 pubmed..Cross-species hybridization experiments revealed the presence of icaA in several other Staphylococcus species, suggesting that cell-cell adhesion and the potential to form biofilms is conserved within this genus. ..
- Dubrac S, Msadek T. Identification of genes controlled by the essential YycG/YycF two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1175-81 pubmed
- Roche F, Massey R, Peacock S, Day N, Visai L, Speziale P, et al. Characterization of novel LPXTG-containing proteins of Staphylococcus aureus identified from genome sequences. Microbiology. 2003;149:643-54 pubmed..Several IgG samples purified from patients recovering from S. aureus infections had higher titres against Sas proteins than control IgG, suggesting that expression occurred during infection in some patients. ..
- McNamara P, Milligan Monroe K, Khalili S, Proctor R. Identification, cloning, and initial characterization of rot, a locus encoding a regulator of virulence factor expression in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3197-203 pubmed..We named this ORF rot (for repressor of toxins) (GenBank accession no. AF189239) because of the activity associated with rot::Tn917 mutant strains. ..
- Williams R, Ward J, Henderson B, Poole S, O Hara B, Wilson M, et al. Identification of a novel gene cluster encoding staphylococcal exotoxin-like proteins: characterization of the prototypic gene and its protein product, SET1. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4407-15 pubmed..The distribution of allelic variants of the set genes among strains of S. aureus may contribute to differences in the pathogenic potential of this bacterium. ..
- Dunman P, Murphy E, Haney S, Palacios D, Tucker Kellogg G, Wu S, et al. Transcription profiling-based identification of Staphylococcus aureus genes regulated by the agr and/or sarA loci. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:7341-53 pubmed
- Fournier B, Klier A, Rapoport G. The two-component system ArlS-ArlR is a regulator of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:247-61 pubmed..Finally, arl was not autoregulated, but its expression was stimulated by agr and sarA. These results suggest that the Arl system interacts with both agr and sarA regulatory loci to modulate the virulence regulation network. ..
- Feng J, Michalik S, Varming A, Andersen J, Albrecht D, Jelsbak L, et al. Trapping and proteomic identification of cellular substrates of the ClpP protease in Staphylococcus aureus. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:547-58 pubmed publisher..Our study hence underscores the central role of Clp-proteolysis in a number of pathways that contribute to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen. ..
- Bera A, Herbert S, Jakob A, Vollmer W, Götz F. Why are pathogenic staphylococci so lysozyme resistant? The peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase OatA is the major determinant for lysozyme resistance of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:778-87 pubmed..We identified the first bacterial peptidoglycan-specific O-acetyltransferase in S. aureus and showed that OatA, an integral membrane protein, is the molecular basis for the high lysozyme resistance in staphylococci. ..
- Menzies B, Kernodle D. Site-directed mutagenesis of the alpha-toxin gene of Staphylococcus aureus: role of histidines in toxin activity in vitro and in a murine model. Infect Immun. 1994;62:1843-7 pubmed
- Donat S, Streker K, Schirmeister T, Rakette S, Stehle T, Liebeke M, et al. Transcriptome and functional analysis of the eukaryotic-type serine/threonine kinase PknB in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4056-69 pubmed publisher..The results of this study strongly indicate that PknB has a role in regulation of purine biosynthesis, autolysis, and central metabolic processes in S. aureus. ..
- Horsburgh M, Clements M, Crossley H, Ingham E, Foster S. PerR controls oxidative stress resistance and iron storage proteins and is required for virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3744-54 pubmed..However, it differs in its response to the metal balance within the cell and has the added capability of regulating iron uptake and storage. ..
- McAleese F, Walsh E, Sieprawska M, Potempa J, Foster T. Loss of clumping factor B fibrinogen binding activity by Staphylococcus aureus involves cessation of transcription, shedding and cleavage by metalloprotease. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29969-78 pubmed..Cleavage was detected at two sites, one located between residues Ser(197) and Leu(198) and the other between Ala(199) and Val(200). The truncated form of ClfB did not bind fibrinogen. ..
- Massey R, Kantzanou M, Fowler T, Day N, Schofield K, Wann E, et al. Fibronectin-binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus has multiple, substituting, binding regions that mediate adherence to fibronectin and invasion of endothelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2001;3:839-51 pubmed..These findings may be of relevance to the development of preventive measures against systemic infection, and bacterial spread in the bacteraemic patient. ..
- Michel A, Agerer F, Hauck C, Herrmann M, Ullrich J, Hacker J, et al. Global regulatory impact of ClpP protease of Staphylococcus aureus on regulons involved in virulence, oxidative stress response, autolysis, and DNA repair. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5783-96 pubmed..Our results indicate a strong impact of ClpP proteolytic activity on virulence, stress response, and physiology in S. aureus. ..
- Que Y, Francois P, Haefliger J, Entenza J, Vaudaux P, Moreillon P. Reassessing the role of Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor and fibronectin-binding protein by expression in Lactococcus lactis. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6296-302 pubmed..Taken together, the present observations suggest that if antiadhesin therapy were to be developed, at least both of the clfA and fnbA products should be blocked for the therapy to be effective. ..
- Korem M, Gov Y, Kiran M, Balaban N. Transcriptional profiling of target of RNAIII-activating protein, a master regulator of staphylococcal virulence. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6220-8 pubmed..TRAP is thus demonstrated to be a master regulator of staphylococcal pathogenesis. ..
- Staubitz P, Neumann H, Schneider T, Wiedemann I, Peschel A. MprF-mediated biosynthesis of lysylphosphatidylglycerol, an important determinant in staphylococcal defensin resistance. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;231:67-71 pubmed..This study forms the basis for further detailed analyses of L-PG biosynthesis and its role in bacterial infections. ..
- Peschel A, Otto M, Jack R, Kalbacher H, Jung G, Gotz F. Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8405-10 pubmed..We propose a role of the D-alanine-esterified teichoic acids which occur in many pathogenic bacteria in the protection against human and animal defense systems. ..
- Veiga H, Jorge A, Pinho M. Absence of nucleoid occlusion effector Noc impairs formation of orthogonal FtsZ rings during Staphylococcus aureus cell division. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:1366-80 pubmed publisher..This is achieved via the action of Noc which restricts the placement of the division septum to one of an infinite number of potential division planes that exist in S. aureus. ..
- Roux C, Demuth J, Dunman P. Characterization of components of the Staphylococcus aureus mRNA degradosome holoenzyme-like complex. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5520-6 pubmed publisher..Results also revealed that the recently recognized RNase RnpA interacts with the S. aureus degradosome and that this interaction is conserved in other Gram-positive organisms. ..
- Clarke S, Wiltshire M, Foster S. IsdA of Staphylococcus aureus is a broad spectrum, iron-regulated adhesin. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1509-19 pubmed..Thus for S. aureus, iron is an important marker for the host environment, to which the bacterium responds by differential regulation of at least one element of its adhesive strategy. ..
- Signas C, Raucci G, Jonsson K, Lindgren P, Anantharamaiah G, Hook M, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus: use of this peptide sequence in the synthesis of biologically active peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:699-703 pubmed..All three peptides interacted with fibronectin, as indicated by their ability to inhibit binding of fibronectin to staphylococcal cells, whereas an unrelated 37-amino acid peptide showed no inhibitory activity. ..
- Roche F, Downer R, Keane F, Speziale P, Park P, Foster T. The N-terminal A domain of fibronectin-binding proteins A and B promotes adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to elastin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38433-40 pubmed..This interaction was inhibited by soluble elastin peptides, suggesting a specific receptor-ligand interaction. ..
- Gr ndling A, Schneewind O. Synthesis of glycerol phosphate lipoteichoic acid in Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8478-83 pubmed publisher..Thus, LtaS inhibition can be used as a target to treat human infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. aureus or other bacterial pathogens...
- Meehl M, Herbert S, Götz F, Cheung A. Interaction of the GraRS two-component system with the VraFG ABC transporter to support vancomycin-intermediate resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2679-89 pubmed..aureus phenotype and may hold clues to the selective pressures on staphylococci upon exposure to selective cationic peptide antibiotics used in clinical practice...
- Coulter S, Schwan W, Ng E, Langhorne M, Ritchie H, Westbrock Wadman S, et al. Staphylococcus aureus genetic loci impacting growth and survival in multiple infection environments. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:393-404 pubmed