Genomes and Genes
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris
Alias: Plasmid pNZ4000, "Streptococcus hollandicus" Scholl 1891, "Streptococcus lactis B" Ayers et al. 1924, Lactococcus cremoris, Lactococcus lactis (SUBSP. CREMORIS), Lactococcus lactis cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (Orla-Jensen 1919) Schleifer et al. 1986, Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus cremoris Orla-Jensen 1919 (Approved Lists 1980), Streptococcus hollandicus, Streptococcus lactis B, Streptococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Streptococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (Orla-Jensen 1919) Garvie and Farrow 1982, Lactobacillus cremoris
- Kimoto Nira H, Yamasaki S, Sasaki K, Moriya N, Takenaka A, Suzuki C. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source. Anim Sci J. 2015;86:325-32 pubmed publisher..We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. ..
- SÅ‚awiÅ„ska A, Siwek M, ZyliÅ„ska J, Bardowski J, BrzeziÅ„ska J, Gulewicz K, et al. Influence of synbiotics delivered in ovo on immune organs development and structure. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2014;62:277-85 pubmed..In ovo delivery of synbiotics is an efficient mode of immune system stimulation in chickens but its efficiency depends on chicken genotype. ..
- Hamed H, Chaari F, Ghannoudi Z, Dhouib K, Chaabouni S, El Feki A, et al. Fermented camel milk by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris attenuates erythrocytes oxidative stress-induced hematological and immunological damage in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:25983-25993 pubmed publisher..It can be suggested that fermented camel milk could regulate deviant physiological effects induced by CCl4 which is due to its powerful antioxidant and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory capacity. ..
- SÅ‚awinska A, Siwek M, Bednarczyk M. Effects of synbiotics injected in ovo on regulation of immune-related gene expression in adult chickens. Am J Vet Res. 2014;75:997-1003 pubmed publisher..Evaluation of immune-related gene expression patterns may be useful when monitoring the effectiveness of synbiotic selection with respect to immunobiotic properties. ..
- Lianou A, Samelis J. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization. J Food Prot. 2014;77:1289-97 pubmed publisher..Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization. ..
- FlasarovÃ¡ R, PachlovÃ¡ V, BuÅˆkovÃ¡ L, MenÅ¡ÃkovÃ¡ A, GeorgovÃ¡ N, DrÃ¡b V, et al. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese. Food Chem. 2016;194:68-75 pubmed publisher..In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant. ..
- Gaglio R, Cruciata M, Di Gerlando R, Scatassa M, Cardamone C, Mancuso I, et al. Microbial Activation of Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Cheese Production and Evolution of Neoformed Biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:585-95 pubmed publisher..Thus, neoformed biofilms enable a reduction of microbial variability and stabilize the sensorial attributes of Vastedda cheese. ..
- Yeung T, Arroyo Maya I, McClements D, Sela D. Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads. Food Funct. 2016;7:1797-804 pubmed publisher..These hydrogel beads may have applications for improving the stability and efficacy of probiotics in functional foods. ..
- Kang H, Gilbert C, Badeaux F, Atlan D, LaPointe G. A tyrosine phosphorylation switch controls the interaction between the transmembrane modulator protein Wzd and the tyrosine kinase Wze of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:40 pubmed publisher..The Wze tyrosine kinase protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus thus carries out tyrosine phosphorylation of Wzd in addition to auto- and trans- phosphorylation of the kinase itself. ..
- AraÃºjo C, MuÃ±oz Atienza E, PÃ©rez SÃ¡nchez T, Poeta P, Igrejas G, HernÃ¡ndez P, et al. Nisin Z Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris WA2-67 of Aquatic Origin as a Defense Mechanism to Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) Against Lactococcus garvieae. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2015;17:820-30 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that the wild-type NisZ-producer strain L. cremoris WA2-67 could be used in fish farming to prevent lactococcosis in rainbow trout. ..
- Madej J, Bednarczyk M. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the morphology and specific immune cell composition in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Poult Sci. 2016;95:19-29 pubmed publisher..The data obtained in this study indicated that prebiotics and particularly synbiotics administrated in ovo stimulated GALT development after hatch. ..
- Plumed Ferrer C, Gazzola S, Fontana C, Bassi D, Cocconcelli P, von Wright A. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Mast36, a Strain Isolated from Bovine Mastitis. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher..cremoris Mast36, isolated from bovine mastitis, is reported here. This strain was shown to be able to grow in milk and still possess genes of vegetable origin. The genome also contains a cluster of genes associated with pathogenicity. ..
- Salazar Montoya J, GonzÃ¡lez Cuello R, Flores GirÃ³n E, Ramos RamÃrez E. Effect of free and microencapsulated Lactococcus lactis on composition and rheological properties of Manchego-type cheeses during ripening. Food Res Int. 2018;105:59-64 pubmed publisher..32Ã—10-2 and 2.38Ã—10-2s and the Jo values were 29 times higher than the Ji values in the studied cheeses, indicating the loss of elasticity of the cheeses as they ripen. ..
- Yang C, Wu C, Cheng W, Chung M, Tsai Y, Chang C. A17, the First Sequenced Strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris with Potential Immunomodulatory Functions. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher..cremoris with immunomodulatory activity and antiallergic functions. The resulting A17 draft genome contains 2,679,936 bp and indicates that A17 is a potential exopolysaccharide-producing strain without any known virulence gene. ..
- Pruszynska Oszmalek E, Kolodziejski P, Stadnicka K, Sassek M, Chalupka D, Kuston B, et al. In ovo injection of prebiotics and synbiotics affects the digestive potency of the pancreas in growing chickens. Poult Sci. 2015;94:1909-16 pubmed publisher..Treatment with the prebiotics and synbiotics did not change the feed conversion ratio but BiÂ²tos (galacto-oligosaccharide) and inulin (fructan) + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis significantly increased final BW. ..
- To T, Grandvalet C, Alexandre H, Tourdot MarÃ©chal R. Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase from Oenococcus oeni: expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and biochemical characterization. Arch Microbiol. 2015;197:1063-74 pubmed publisher..oeni enzyme. The current study reveals an essential hypothesis about the specificity of O. oeni CFA synthase which could play a key function in the acid tolerance mechanisms of this enological bacterium. ..
- Barbosa I, Oliveira M, Madruga M, Gullón B, Pacheco M, Gomes A, et al. Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese. Food Funct. 2016;7:4356-4371 pubmed..Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential. ..
- Smigielski A. Characterization of a plasmid involved with cointegrate formation and lactose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis OZS1. Arch Microbiol. 1990;154:560-5 pubmed..lactis subsp. lactis strains and two L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains showed moderate to strong hybridization to one plasmid in each organism. ..
- del Rio B, Redruello B, Ladero V, Fernandez M, Martín M, Alvarez M. Putrescine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is reduced by NaCl via a decrease in bacterial growth and the repression of the genes involved in putrescine production. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;232:1-6 pubmed publisher..The present results suggest that low-sodium cheeses are at risk of accumulating higher concentrations of putrescine. ..
- Visweswaran G, Kurek D, Szeliga M, Pastrana F, Kuipers O, Kok J, et al. Expression of prophage-encoded endolysins contributes to autolysis of Lactococcus lactis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:1099-1110 pubmed publisher..Screening for natural strains expressing homologous endolysins could help in the selection of strains with enhanced autolysis and, thus, cheese ripening properties. ..
- Lopez de Felipe F, Magni C, de Mendoza D, Lopez P. Citrate utilization gene cluster of the Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetylactis: organization and regulation of expression. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;246:590-9 pubmed..We propose that expression of the cit cluster is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA processing at a putative complex secondary structure and by translational repression mediated by CitR. ..
- Lucey M, Daly C, Fitzgerald G. Identification and sequence analysis of the replication region of the phage resistance plasmid pCI528 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris UC503. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;110:249-56 pubmed..Extensive homology was observed with the well characterised replication region of the small cryptic plasmid pCI305 (Hayes, F., Vos, P., Fitzgerald, G.F., deVos, W. and Daly, C. Plasmid 25, 16-26). ..
- Huang D, Novel M, Huang X, Novel G. Nonidentity between plasmid and chromosomal copies of ISS1-like sequences in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CNRZ270 and their possible role in chromosomal integration of plasmid genes. Gene. 1992;118:39-46 pubmed..ISS1-like sequences were also found on plasmids of numerous Lc. lactis strains, as well as one out of seven Lactobacillus (Lb.) casei and one out of three Lb. plantarum strains examined. ..
- Radziwill Bienkowska J, Le D, Szczesny P, Duviau M, Aleksandrzak Piekarczyk T, Loubiere P, et al. Adhesion of the genome-sequenced Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 strain is mediated by specific molecular determinants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:9605-9617 pubmed..lactis strain exhibiting adhesive and mucoadhesive properties to be sequenced and demonstrated that one of the proteins containing adhesion domains contributes to adhesion. ..
- Slawinska A, Plowiec A, Siwek M, Jaroszewski M, Bednarczyk M. Long-Term Transcriptomic Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Delivered In Ovo in Broiler Chickens. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0168899 pubmed publisher..This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in host tissues, especially cecal tonsils. ..
- Romero D, Klaenhammer T. Characterization of insertion sequence IS946, an Iso-ISS1 element, isolated from the conjugative lactococcal plasmid pTR2030. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4151-60 pubmed..IS946 has perfect 18-bp terminal inverted repeats, identical to ISS1, and similarly generated 8-bp direct repeats of the target site upon insertion. ..
- Cluzel P, Chopin A, Ehrlich S, Chopin M. Phage abortive infection mechanism from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, expression of which is mediated by an Iso-ISS1 element. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991;57:3547-51 pubmed..The expression of abi-416 was shown to be mediated by the Iso-ISS1 element, which contains a sequence fitting the consensus sequence for gram-positive promoters. ..
- Haandrikman A, van Leeuwen C, Kok J, Vos P, de Vos W, Venema G. Insertion elements on lactococcal proteinase plasmids. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:1890-6 pubmed..On pWV05, ISS1W is flanked on one side by only part of a second IS element, indicating that pWV05 evolved as a deletion derivative of a precursor plasmid that carried at least two IS elements. ..
- Moreno I, Marasca E, de Sá P, de Souza Moitinho J, Marquezini M, Alves M, et al. Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Meat Products. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018;10:762-774 pubmed publisher..The evaluated strains showed biogenic amine production; the lowest levels were produced by CTC 204 and CTC 368 strains. It was concluded that CTC 204 and CTC 368 strains have the greatest potential for becoming probiotics. ..
- Zhao Y, Wang Y, Song Z, Shan C, Zhu R, Liu F. Development of a simple, low-cost and eurytopic medium based on Pleurotus eryngii for lactic acid bacteria. AMB Express. 2016;6:65 pubmed publisher..These results showed that PSR medium was a simple, low cost and eurytopic medium for the cultivation of LAB, and could replace MRS or M17 medium in the food industry, biomedicine and laboratory. ..
- Twomey D, McKay L, O Sullivan D. Molecular characterization of the Lactococcus lactis LlaKR2I restriction-modification system and effect of an IS982 element positioned between the restriction and modification genes. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5844-54 pubmed
- Ward L, Brown J, Davey G. Identification and sequence analysis of IS1297, an ISS1-like insertion sequence in a Leuconostoc strain. Gene. 1996;174:259-63 pubmed..This is the first sequence of an ISS1-like element from a genus other than Lactococcus; however, IS1297 has close similarity to the lactococcal iso-ISS1 elements, especially the iso-ISS1 element from the lactose plasmid, pTD1. ..
- Kok J, Leenhouts K, Haandrikman A, Ledeboer A, Venema G. Nucleotide sequence of the cell wall proteinase gene of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988;54:231-8 pubmedA 6.5-kilobase HindIII fragment that specifies the proteolytic activity of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 was sequenced entirely...
- Yeung T, Arroyo Maya I, McClements D, Sela D. Correction: Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads. Food Funct. 2016;7:2909 pubmed publisher..Correction for 'Microencapsulation of probiotics in hydrogel particles: enhancing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 viability using calcium alginate beads' by Timothy W. Yeung et al., Food Funct., 2016, 7, 1797-1804. ..
- del Rio B, Linares D, Ladero V, Redruello B, Fernandez M, Martín M, et al. Putrescine biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally activated at acidic pH and counteracts acidification of the cytosol. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016;236:83-9 pubmed publisher..Finally, the following of the AGDI pathway counteracted the acidification of the cytoplasm under acidic external conditions, suggesting it to provide protection against acid stress. ..
- Wels M, Backus L, Boekhorst J, Dijkstra A, Beerthuyzen M, Siezen R, et al. Draft Genome Sequences of 11 Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Strains. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher..Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 11 L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains isolated from different environments. ..
- Polzin K, Shimizu Kadota M. Identification of a new insertion element, similar to gram-negative IS26, on the lactose plasmid of Streptococcus lactis ML3. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5481-8 pubmed..5% identical) of the open reading of frame. ..
- Sánchez C, Mayo B. Sequence and analysis of pBM02, a novel RCR cryptic plasmid from Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris P8-2-47. Plasmid. 2003;49:118-29 pubmed..The replicon of pBM02 is of the wide-host range type, and functions in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. ..
- Madsen A, Josephsen J. Characterization of LlaCI, a new restriction-modification system from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W15. Biol Chem. 1998;379:443-9 pubmed..It shows 24% identity to the HindIII endonuclease. ..
- Gallegos J, Arce C, Jordano R, Arce L, Medina L. Target identification of volatile metabolites to allow the differentiation of lactic acid bacteria by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry. Food Chem. 2017;220:362-370 pubmed publisher..paracasei. 2-Butanone and 3-methyl-1-butanol were identified in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus cremoris subsp. cremoris. The IMS signals monitoring during a 24-30h period showed the growth of the LAB in vitro...
- Hamed H, Chaari F, Ghannoudi Z, Elfeki A, Ellouz S, Gargouri A. Beneficial effects of fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris on cardiotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;97:107-114 pubmed publisher..Overall, the present data provide evidence of the beneficial effects of fermented camel milk by lactococcus lactis subsp creemoris clearly revealed through the reduction of the CCl4 induced heart oxidative damages. ..
- van Kranenburg R, Marugg J, van Swam I, Willem N, de Vos W. Molecular characterization of the plasmid-encoded eps gene cluster essential for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:387-97 pubmed..Heterologous expression of epsD in Escherichia coli showed that its gene product is a glucosyltransferase linking the first sugar of the repeating unit to the lipid carrier...
- Li L, Kim S, Heo J, Kim T, Seo J, Han N. One-pot synthesis of GDP-l-fucose by a four-enzyme cascade expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biotechnol. 2017;264:1-7 pubmed publisher..2mM; 0.12g/L) via 2 enzymatic reactions mediated by Gmd and WcaG. This is the first report of GDP-l-fucose production by using multiple enzymes expressed in lactic acid bacteria. ..
- Kiwaki M, Ikemura H, Shimizu Kadota M, Hirashima A. Molecular characterization of a cell wall-associated proteinase gene from Streptococcus lactis NCDO763. Mol Microbiol. 1989;3:359-69 pubmed..deduced amino acid sequence consisting of 1902 amino acid residues was extremely similar to that of the Wg2 proteinase, a serine protease from Streptococcus cremoris, suggesting that both genes were derived from a common ancestral gene.
- Zhang J, Guri A, Corredig M, Morales Rayas R, Hassan A, Griffiths M, et al. Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain JFR1 attenuates Salmonella adhesion to human intestinal cells in vitro. Food Res Int. 2016;90:147-153 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that EPS does not contribute to the attachment of Salmonella to human intestinal cells. However, the possibility that the isolation process may have affected the structural features of EPS cannot be ruled out. ..
- Haandrikman A, Kok J, Venema G. Lactococcal proteinase maturation protein PrtM is a lipoprotein. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4517-25 pubmed..This mutation did not affect proteinase activity...
- Gravesen A, von Wright A, Josephsen J, Vogensen F. Replication regions of two pairs of incompatible lactococcal theta-replicating plasmids. Plasmid. 1997;38:115-27 pubmed
- van Kranenburg R, de Vos W. Characterization of multiple regions involved in replication and mobilization of plasmid pNZ4000 coding for exopolysaccharide production in Lactococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5285-90 pubmedWe characterized the regions involved in replication and mobilization of the 40-kb plasmid pNZ4000, encoding exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in Lactococcus lactis NIZO B40...
- Christensson C, Pillidge C, Ward L, O Toole P. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the cell envelope proteinase plasmid in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:334-43 pubmed..This is the first complete sequence reported for a lactocepin plasmid, and provides the basis for better understanding, or manipulation, of lactocepin production...
- Bouchard J, Dion E, Bissonnette F, Moineau S. Characterization of the two-component abortive phage infection mechanism AbiT from Lactococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6325-32 pubmed
- Vos P, Simons G, Siezen R, de Vos W. Primary structure and organization of the gene for a procaryotic, cell envelope-located serine proteinase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13579-85 pubmed..Furthermore, a region was identified in the Lactococcus proteinase, which shows homology to the membrane-anchoring domains of a number of proteins from other Gram-positive bacteria...
- Haandrikman A, Kok J, Laan H, Soemitro S, Ledeboer A, Konings W, et al. Identification of a gene required for maturation of an extracellular lactococcal serine proteinase. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:2789-94 pubmed..Furthermore, deletion of the 130 C-terminal amino acids of the Wg2 proteinase prevented attachment of the enzyme to lactococcal cells...
- Vos P, van Asseldonk M, van Jeveren F, Siezen R, Simons G, de Vos W. A maturation protein is essential for production of active forms of Lactococcus lactis SK11 serine proteinase located in or secreted from the cell envelope. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:2795-802 pubmed..Expression studies of L. lactis clones containing these plasmids showed that the prtM gene encodes a trans-acting activity involved in the maturation of cell envelope-located and -secreted forms of the SK11 proteinase...
- Noutsopoulos D, Kakouri A, Kartezini E, Pappas D, Hatziloukas E, Samelis J. Growth, nisA Gene Expression, and In Situ Activity of Novel Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Costarter Culture in Commercial Hard Cheese Production. J Food Prot. 2017;:2137-2146 pubmed publisher..lactis subsp. cremoris genotype as costarter culture...
- Seegers J, Bron S, Franke C, Venema G, Kiewiet R. The majority of lactococcal plasmids carry a highly related replicon. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 6):1291-300 pubmed publisher..Southern hybridizations revealed that many lactococcal strains contain plasmids of this family...
- Lianou A, Kakouri A, Pappa E, Samelis J. Growth interactions and antilisterial effects of the bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104 and Enterococcus faecium KE82 strains in thermized milk in the presence or absence of a commercial starter culture. Food Microbiol. 2017;64:145-154 pubmed publisher..Overall, the most 'balanced' treatment against L. monocytogenes was CSC+M104+KE82. Hence, this starter/co-starter combination may be utilized in traditional Greek cheese technologies. ..
- Twomey D, De Urraza P, McKay L, O Sullivan D. Characterization of AbiR, a novel multicomponent abortive infection mechanism encoded by plasmid pKR223 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KR2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:2647-51 pubmed..These data indicated that AbiR is a novel multicomponent, heat-sensitive, "early"-functioning Abi system and is the first lactococcal Abi system described which is encoded by two separated genetic loci...
- Forde A, Fitzgerald G. Molecular organization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) encoding genes on the lactococcal bacteriophage adsorption blocking plasmid, pCI658. Plasmid. 2003;49:130-42 pubmed..Evidence of a gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is also presented and this is the first description of such a gene in Lactococcus...
- Yu W, Mierau I, Mars A, Johnson E, Dunny G, McKay L. Novel insertion sequence-like element IS982 in lactococci. Plasmid. 1995;33:218-25 pubmed publisher..IS982 displayed sequence homology to the putative IS element RSBst-alpha from Bacillus stearothermophilus CU21, IS982 and RSBst-alpha were not related to other known insertion sequences and may represent a new family of IS elements...