Bacillus anthracis str. Ames

Summary

Alias: Bacillus anthracis Ames, Bacillus anthracis (strain Ames), Bacillus anthracis strain Ames

Top Publications

  1. Hou J, Wojciechowska K, Zheng H, Chruszcz M, Cooper D, Cymborowski M, et al. Structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Bacillus anthracis. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2012;68:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An NADP molecule from an endogenous source is bound in the conserved binding pocket in the syn conformation. The loop region responsible for binding another substrate forms two perpendicular short helices connected by a sharp turn. ..
  2. Oscherwitz J, Quinn C, Cease K. Anthrax vaccine recipients lack antibody against the loop neutralizing determinant: A protective neutralizing epitope from Bacillus anthracis protective antigen. Vaccine. 2015;33:2342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..loop of protective antigen (PA), which can protect rabbits from high-dose inhalation challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain...
  3. L vgren A, Zhang M, Engstr m A, Dalhammar G, Land n R. Molecular characterization of immune inhibitor A, a secreted virulence protease from Bacillus thuringiensis. Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:2137-46 pubmed
    ..The LD50 dose of purified InA protein injected in T. ni larvae was 12.5 +/- 2.5 ng per mg of larval body weight...
  4. Majewski J, Cohan F. DNA sequence similarity requirements for interspecific recombination in Bacillus. Genetics. 1999;153:1525-33 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a model for rapid spread of novel adaptations, such as antibiotic resistance genes, among related species...
  5. Gai Y, Liu G, Tan H. Identification and characterization of a germination operon from Bacillus thuringiensis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2006;89:251-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest this operon is essential for normal spore germination in B. thuringiensis. The expression of cwlJ was observed in the sporulating cells through Western blot experiments. ..
  6. Gopalani M, Dhiman A, Rahi A, Bhatnagar R. Overexpression of the pleiotropic regulator CodY decreases sporulation, attachment and pellicle formation in Bacillus anthracis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed a decrease in the pellicle formation by CodY overexpressed strain when compared to wildtype bacilli. The CodY overexpressed strain showed chaining phenotype during growth in liquid media and pellicle. ..
  7. Wetmore D, Wong S, Roche R. The role of the pro-sequence in the processing and secretion of the thermolysin-like neutral protease from Bacillus cereus. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1593-604 pubmed
    ..N-terminal analysis of the mutant mature protein demonstrates that the processing site is unaltered by the pro-sequence deletion. The deletion must, therefore, modulate the kinetics of processing and/or secretion of the pro-protein. ..
  8. Mezes P, Blacher R, Lampen J. Processing of Bacillus cereus 569/H beta-lactamase I in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:1218-23 pubmed
    ..cereus 569/H indicated that UUG is being utilized as the initiation codon for penPC. The same result was obtained for the pre-beta-lactamase I from similarly treated cells of the closely related B. cereus 5/B strain. ..
  9. Hudspeth D, Vary P. spoVG sequence of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis (Biochim. Biophys. Acta Vol. 1130, No. 2 (1992) 229-231 (BBAEXP 90336)). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1216:509 pubmed

More Information

Publications144 found, 100 shown here

  1. Malvar T, Baum J. Tn5401 disruption of the spo0F gene, identified by direct chromosomal sequencing, results in CryIIIA overproduction in Bacillus thuringiensis. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4750-3 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis transposon insertion library. A spo0F defect in B. thuringiensis, which was suppressed by multicopy hknA or kinA, resulted in the overproduction of the CryIIIA insecticidal crystal protein...
  2. Miyamoto T, Sayed M, Sasahara R, Sukimoto K, Umezaki A, Honjoh K, et al. Cloning and overexpression of Bacillus cereus penicillin-binding protein 3 gene in Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:44-50 pubmed
    ..A protein was produced by the cells of E. coli carrying pET-pbp3. The produced protein migrated at about 75 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel and strongly reacted with biotinylated ampicillin. ..
  3. Boyle M, Kalliomaa A, Levdikov V, Blagova E, Fogg M, Brannigan J, et al. Crystal structure of PurE (BA0288) from Bacillus anthracis at 1.8 A resolution. Proteins. 2005;61:674-6 pubmed
  4. Cote C, Bozue J, Moody K, DiMezzo T, Chapman C, Welkos S. Analysis of a novel spore antigen in Bacillus anthracis that contributes to spore opsonization. Microbiology. 2008;154:619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..While the mutant spores retained characteristic resistance properties in vitro and virulence in vivo, the soaA : : Kan mutant strain was significantly less suited for survival in vivo when competed against the wild-type Ames strain. ..
  5. Zhang R, Wu R, Joachimiak G, Mazmanian S, Missiakas D, Gornicki P, et al. Structures of sortase B from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis reveal catalytic amino acid triad in the active site. Structure. 2004;12:1147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..A putative active site located on the edge of the beta-barrel is comprised of a Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad and presumably faces the bacterial cell surface. A putative binding site for the sorting signal is located nearby...
  6. Kim M, Choi W, Kang H, Lee J, Kang B, Kim K, et al. The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17606-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We present experimental evidence that AHL-lactonase is a metalloenzyme containing two zinc ions involved in catalysis, and we propose a catalytic mechanism for bacterial metallo-AHL-lactonases...
  7. Bergman N, Anderson E, Swenson E, Janes B, Fisher N, Niemeyer M, et al. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus anthracis during infection of host macrophages. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3434-44 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis survives within the host cell but also a number of promising leads for further research in anthrax...
  8. Watanabe K, Kitamura K, Iha H, Suzuki Y. Primary structure of the oligo-1,6-glucosidase of Bacillus cereus ATCC7064 deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene. Eur J Biochem. 1990;192:609-20 pubmed
    ..carlsbergensis alpha-glucosidase and Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. ..
  9. Sidler W, Niederer E, Suter F, Zuber H. The primary structure of Bacillus cereus neutral proteinase and comparison with thermolysin and Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1986;367:643-57 pubmed
  10. Johansen T, Holm T, Guddal P, Sletten K, Haugli F, Little C. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus. Gene. 1988;65:293-304 pubmed
    ..coli. The cloning and sequencing described here complete the first step toward using in vitro mutagenesis for investigations of the structure-function relationships of B. cereus phospholipase C. ..
  11. Lister S, Wetmore D, Roche R, Codding P. E144S active-site mutant of the Bacillus cereus thermolysin-like neutral protease at 2.8 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1996;52:543-50 pubmed
    ..Res. 21, 333-340]. We suggest that the residual activity of the E144S mutant arises from a water molecule, which is found within hydrogen-bonding distance of Ser144, acting as a general base in the catalytic function of the mutant. ..
  12. Boucher I, Kalliomaa A, Levdikov V, Blagova E, Fogg M, Brannigan J, et al. Structures of two superoxide dismutases from Bacillus anthracis reveal a novel active centre. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:621-4 pubmed
    ..cereus/B. anthracis/B. thuringiensis group of organisms. ..
  13. Meier C, Carter L, Winter G, Owens R, Stuart D, Esnouf R. Structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase from Bacillus anthracis (BA4489). Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:168-72 pubmed
    ..Chemical differences from other cyclo-ligase structures close to the active site that could be exploited to design specific inhibitors are also highlighted. ..
  14. Berggren G, Duraffourg N, Sahlin M, Sjöberg B. Semiquinone-induced maturation of Bacillus anthracis ribonucleotide reductase by a superoxide intermediate. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, EPR spectra on whole cells revealed that a significant fraction of NrdI resides in its semiquinone form in vivo, underscoring that NrdIsq is catalytically relevant. ..
  15. Yutsudo T, Okumura K, Iwasaki M, Hara A, Kamitani S, Minamide W, et al. The gene encoding a new mitogenic factor in a Streptococcus pyogenes strain is distributed only in group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4000-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that mf is distributed specifically in group A streptococci and the presence of mf in clinical samples strongly suggests infection with group A streptococci. ..
  16. Slamti L, Lereclus D. A cell-cell signaling peptide activates the PlcR virulence regulon in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. EMBO J. 2002;21:4550-9 pubmed
    ..This activating mechanism was found to be strain specific, with this specificity determined by the first residue of the penta peptide...
  17. Zigha A, Rosenfeld E, Schmitt P, Duport C. Anaerobic cells of Bacillus cereus F4430/73 respond to low oxidoreduction potential by metabolic readjustments and activation of enterotoxin expression. Arch Microbiol. 2006;185:222-33 pubmed
    ..This control was complex, involving different levels of regulation. We discussed the regulation of enterotoxin expression and the involvement of the pleiotropic regulator PlcR. ..
  18. Rotoli S, BISWAS FISS E, Biswas S. Quantitative analysis of the mechanism of DNA binding by Bacillus DnaA protein. Biochimie. 2012;94:2764-75 pubmed publisher
    ..DnaA(BA) had a DNA-dependent ATPase activity. DNA sequences acted as positive effectors and modulated the rate (V(max)) of ATP hydrolysis without any significant change in ATP binding affinity. ..
  19. Aldred K, Breland E, McPherson S, Turnbough C, Kerns R, Osheroff N. Bacillus anthracis GrlAV96A topoisomerase IV, a quinolone resistance mutation that does not affect the water-metal ion bridge. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:7182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It also represents the first A subunit mutation reported to cause resistance to quinazolinediones. This cross-resistance suggests that the V96A change has a global effect on the structure of the drug-binding pocket of topoisomerase IV. ..
  20. Cieślik P, Knap J, Kolodziej M, Mirski T, Joniec J, Graniak G, et al. Real-Time PCR Identification of Unique Bacillus anthracis Sequences. Folia Biol (Praha). 2015;61:178-83 pubmed
    ..Our study clearly indicates that the BA5345 marker can be used with success as a chromosomal marker in routine identification of B. anthracis; moreover, detection of plasmid markers indicates virulence of the examined strains. ..
  21. Wang Y, Jenkins S, Gu C, Shree A, Martinez Moczygemba M, Herold J, et al. Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005678 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications. ..
  22. Granum P, Nissen H. Sphingomyelinase is part of the 'enterotoxin complex' produced by Bacillus cereus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;110:97-100 pubmed
  23. Donovan W, Tan Y, Slaney A. Cloning of the nprA gene for neutral protease A of Bacillus thuringiensis and effect of in vivo deletion of nprA on insecticidal crystal protein. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:2311-7 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis. These results indicate that crystal protein stability and yield may be improved by deletion of specific proteases from B. thuringiensis...
  24. Huang C, Chen C. High-level expression and characterization of two chitinases, ChiCH and ChiCW, of Bacillus cereus 28-9 in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the method of high-level expression of chitinases is helpful to studies and applications of chitinases...
  25. Satoh Y, Minamoto N, Tajima K, Munekata M. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Bacillus sp. INT005 is composed of PhaC and PhaR. J Biosci Bioeng. 2002;94:343-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the PHA synthase has no lag phase. We hence concluded that the PHA synthase of Bacillus sp. INT005 consists of PhaC and PhaR, and has characteristics different from class III PHA synthase. ..
  26. May M, Mehboob S, Mulhearn D, Wang Z, Yu H, Thatcher G, et al. Structural and functional analysis of two glutamate racemase isozymes from Bacillus anthracis and implications for inhibitor design. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:1219-37 pubmed publisher
  27. Kim S, Jung K, Yoon S, Kim Y, Chai Y. Late-Exponential Gene Expression in codY-Deficient Bacillus anthracis in a Host-Like Environment. Curr Microbiol. 2016;73:714-720 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we conclude from these results that CodY can both positively and negatively regulate its regulon via direct and/or indirect approaches, and that its mode of regulation may be concentration dependent. ..
  28. Yamada A, Tsukagoshi N, Udaka S, Sasaki T, Makino S, Nakamura S, et al. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for sphingomyelinase of Bacillus cereus. Eur J Biochem. 1988;175:213-20 pubmed
    ..The enzymatic activity toward sphingomyelin was enhanced 20-30-fold in the presence of MgCl2, and the adsorption of the enzyme onto erythrocyte membranes was accelerated in the presence of CaCl2...
  29. Etienne Toumelin I, Sirard J, Duflot E, Mock M, Fouet A. Characterization of the Bacillus anthracis S-layer: cloning and sequencing of the structural gene. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:614-20 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy observations showed that this S-layer is not observed on B. anthracis cells in which sap has been deleted...
  30. Tan Y, Donovan W. Deletion of aprA and nprA genes for alkaline protease A and neutral protease A from bacillus thuringiensis: effect on insecticidal crystal proteins. J Biotechnol. 2001;84:67-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that enhanced yield of certain crystal proteins can be obtained by deletion of the genes aprA and nprA which are the major extracellular proteases of B. thuringiensis...
  31. Nukui M, Mello L, Littlejohn J, Setlow B, Setlow P, Kim K, et al. Structure and molecular mechanism of Bacillus anthracis cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase: a crucial enzyme for spores and growing cells of Bacillus species. Biophys J. 2007;92:977-88 pubmed publisher
  32. Malvar T, Gawron Burke C, Baum J. Overexpression of Bacillus thuringiensis HknA, a histidine protein kinase homology, bypasses early Spo mutations that result in CryIIIA overproduction. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4742-9 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis sporulation. We also propose that the CryIIIA-overproducing phenotype of strain EG1351 is most likely due to a defect in the phosphorylation of Spo0A and confirm that CryIIIA production is not dependent on sporulation...
  33. Watanabe K, Hata Y, Kizaki H, Katsube Y, Suzuki Y. The refined crystal structure of Bacillus cereus oligo-1,6-glucosidase at 2.0 A resolution: structural characterization of proline-substitution sites for protein thermostabilization. J Mol Biol. 1997;269:142-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This well supports the previous finding that the replacement at the appropriate positions in beta-turns or alpha-helices is the most effective for protein thermostabilization by proline substitution...
  34. Sylvestre P, Couture Tosi E, Mock M. Polymorphism in the collagen-like region of the Bacillus anthracis BclA protein leads to variation in exosporium filament length. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:1555-63 pubmed
    ..We exchanged the bclA gene between strains with different CLRs and examined the spore surfaces by electron microscopy analysis. The length of the BclA CLR is responsible for the variation in filament length...
  35. Keefer A, Asare E, Pomerantsev A, Moayeri M, Martens C, Porcella S, et al. In vivo characterization of an Hfq protein encoded by the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only aid in elucidating the role of Hfq proteins in B. anthracis, but also contribute to our current understanding of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria. ..
  36. Gilmore M, Cruz Rodz A, Leimeister W chter M, Kreft J, Goebel W. A Bacillus cereus cytolytic determinant, cereolysin AB, which comprises the phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase genes: nucleotide sequence and genetic linkage. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:744-53 pubmed
    ..subtilis host. The 3' open reading frame encoded a sphingomyelinase. The two tandemly encoded activities, phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase, constitute a biologically functional cytolytic determinant of B. cereus termed cereolysin AB...
  37. Yamada S, Ohashi E, Agata N, Venkateswaran K. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of gyrB of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, and B. anthracis and their application to the detection of B. cereus in rice. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:1483-90 pubmed
    ..This method enabled us to detect an initial inoculum of 0.24 CFU of B. cereus cells per g of boiled rice food homogenate without extracting DNA. However, a simple two-step filtration step is required to remove PCR inhibitory substances...
  38. Carlier A, Uroz S, Smadja B, Fray R, Latour X, Dessaux Y, et al. The Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbors an attM-paralogous gene, aiiB, also encoding N-Acyl homoserine lactonase activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:4989-93 pubmed
    ..In Erwinia strain 6276, the lactonases reduced the endogenous acyl-HSL level and the bacterial virulence in planta...
  39. Nishiwaki H, Ito K, Otsuki K, Yamamoto H, Komai K, Matsuda K. Purification and functional characterization of insecticidal sphingomyelinase C produced by Bacillus cereus. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:601-6 pubmed
  40. Priest F, Barker M, Baillie L, Holmes E, Maiden M. Population structure and evolution of the Bacillus cereus group. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7959-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a revision of the nomenclature in which the lineage and clone are recognized through name and ST designations in accordance with the clonal structure of the population...
  41. Chen Y, Tenover F, Koehler T. Beta-lactamase gene expression in a penicillin-resistant Bacillus anthracis strain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4873-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a penicillin-resistant clinical isolate, both genes are highly transcribed, but bla1 is the major contributor to high-level resistance to ampicillin. Differential expression of the bla genes is dependent upon strain background...
  42. Pe a G, Miranda Rios J, de la Riva G, Pardo L pez L, Sober n M, Bravo A. A Bacillus thuringiensis S-layer protein involved in toxicity against Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis, B. licheniformis, and B. thuringiensis are arranged in the same main group, suggesting similar origins. This is the first report that demonstrates that an S-layer protein is directly involved in toxicity to a coleopteran pest...
  43. Alseth I, Rognes T, Lindb ck T, Solberg I, Robertsen K, Kristiansen K, et al. A new protein superfamily includes two novel 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases from Bacillus cereus, AlkC and AlkD. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1602-9 pubmed publisher
    ..B. cereus AlkC and AlkD thus define novel families of alkylbase DNA glycosylases within a new protein superfamily...
  44. Nicely N, Parsonage D, Paige C, Newton G, Fahey R, Leonardi R, et al. Structure of the type III pantothenate kinase from Bacillus anthracis at 2.0 A resolution: implications for coenzyme A-dependent redox biology. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses also suggest that the type III PanK in the spore-forming B. anthracis plays an essential role in the novel thiol/disulfide redox biology of this category A biodefense pathogen...
  45. Velloso L, Bhaskaran S, Schuch R, Fischetti V, Stebbins C. A structural basis for the allosteric regulation of non-hydrolysing UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerases. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..This constitutes the first example to our knowledge, of an enzymatic allosteric activation by direct interaction between the substrate and the allosteric activator...
  46. Baum J. Tn5401, a new class II transposable element from Bacillus thuringiensis. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2835-45 pubmed
    ..The same element is contained within the 53-bp terminal inverted repeats, thus accounting for their unusual lengths and suggesting an additional role for TnpI in regulating Tn5401 transposition...
  47. Mesnage S, Tosi Couture E, Mock M, Gounon P, Fouet A. Molecular characterization of the Bacillus anthracis main S-layer component: evidence that it is the major cell-associated antigen. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:1147-55 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy studies and in vivo experiments with the constructed mutants showed that EA1 constitutes the main lattice of the B. anthracis S-layer, and is the major cell-associated antigen...
  48. Fabiane S, Sohi M, Wan T, Payne D, Bateson J, Mitchell T, et al. Crystal structure of the zinc-dependent beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus at 1.9 A resolution: binuclear active site with features of a mononuclear enzyme. Biochemistry. 1998;37:12404-11 pubmed publisher
  49. Reimmann C, Ginet N, Michel L, Keel C, Michaux P, Krishnapillai V, et al. Genetically programmed autoinducer destruction reduces virulence gene expression and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Microbiology. 2002;148:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, introduction of an AHL degradation gene into P. aeruginosa could block cell-cell communication and exoproduct formation, but failed to interfere with surface colonization...
  50. Barlass P, Houston C, Clements M, Moir A. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores in response to L-alanine and to inosine: the roles of gerL and gerQ operons. Microbiology. 2002;148:2089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Although near-identical homologues of gerI and gerL operons are evident in the Bacillus anthracis genome sequence, there is no evidence of a close homologue of gerQ...
  51. Ghelardi E, Celandroni F, Salvetti S, Beecher D, Gominet M, Lereclus D, et al. Requirement of flhA for swarming differentiation, flagellin export, and secretion of virulence-associated proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6424-33 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis may be coordinately regulated by flhA, which appears to play a crucial role in the export of flagellar as well as nonflagellar proteins...
  52. Kim H, Sherman D, Johnson F, Aronson A. Characterization of a major Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein and its role in spore inactivation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2413-7 pubmed
    ..Since Cot alpha is an abundant outer spore coat protein of the B. cereus group with a prominent role in spore resistance and sensitivity, it is a promising target for the inactivation of B. anthracis spores...
  53. Blagova E, Levdikov V, Milioti N, Fogg M, Kalliomaa A, Brannigan J, et al. Crystal structure of dihydrodipicolinate synthase (BA3935) from Bacillus anthracis at 1.94 A resolution. Proteins. 2006;62:297-301 pubmed publisher
  54. Skaar E, Gaspar A, Schneewind O. Bacillus anthracis IsdG, a heme-degrading monooxygenase. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1071-80 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis utilization of hemin as a sole iron source, and it is also necessary for bacterial protection against heme-mediated toxicity. These data suggest that IsdG functions as a heme-degrading monooxygenase in B. anthracis...
  55. Sorokin A, Candelon B, Guilloux K, Galleron N, Wackerow Kouzova N, Ehrlich S, et al. Multiple-locus sequence typing analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis reveals separate clustering and a distinct population structure of psychrotrophic strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..B. weihenstephanensis (cluster W) strains appear to comprise an effectively sexual population, whereas Bacillus thuringiensis (cluster T) and B. cereus (cluster C) have clonal population structures...
  56. Makowska Grzyska M, Kim Y, Wu R, Wilton R, Gollapalli D, Wang X, et al. Bacillus anthracis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in action: the first bacterial series of structures of phosphate ion-, substrate-, and product-bound complexes. Biochemistry. 2012;51:6148-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures contribute to the characterization of the active site and design of inhibitors that specifically target B. anthracis and other microbial IMPDH enzymes...
  57. Balomenou S, Fouet A, Tzanodaskalaki M, Couture Tosi E, Bouriotis V, Boneca I. Distinct functions of polysaccharide deacetylases in cell shape, neutral polysaccharide synthesis and virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:867-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide novel and fundamental insights into the function of polysaccharide deacetylases in a major bioterrorism agent...
  58. Kim H, Kim S, Na B, Chung J, Hwang E, Hwang K. Structural insights into the dimer-tetramer transition of FabI from Bacillus anthracis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tetramerization of baFabI is required for cofactor binding and catalytic activity. ..
  59. Dalhammar G, Steiner H. Characterization of inhibitor A, a protease from Bacillus thuringiensis which degrades attacins and cecropins, two classes of antibacterial proteins in insects. Eur J Biochem. 1984;139:247-52 pubmed
    ..The specificity of the enzyme is explained in terms of the open structure of the cecropins and a pronounced inability of inhibitor A to attack globular proteins...
  60. Suzuki Y, Yoda T, Ruhul A, Sugiura W. Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene coding for azoreductase from Bacillus sp. OY1-2 isolated from soil. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9059-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report describing the sequencing and characterization of a gene encoding the azo dye-reducing enzyme, azoreductase, from aerobic bacteria and its expression in E. coli...
  61. Agarwal S, Agarwal S, Bhatnagar R. Identification and characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin module from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Gel retardation assays demonstrated that PemI binds to its upstream DNA sequence. This study reports the first evidence of an active chromosome encoded toxin-antitoxin locus in B. anthracis...
  62. Fang Z, Roberts A, Weidman K, Sharma S, Claiborne A, Hamilton C, et al. Cross-functionalities of Bacillus deacetylases involved in bacillithiol biosynthesis and bacillithiol-S-conjugate detoxification pathways. Biochem J. 2013;454:239-47 pubmed publisher
  63. Carfi A, Pares S, Du e E, Galleni M, Duez C, Fr re J, et al. The 3-D structure of a zinc metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus reveals a new type of protein fold. EMBO J. 1995;14:4914-21 pubmed
    ..The structure shows that most of these residues are in the active site. Among these, aspartic acid 90 and histidine 210 participate in a proposed catalytic mechanism for beta-lactam hydrolysis...
  64. Grant R, Filman D, Finkel S, Kolter R, Hogle J. The crystal structure of Dps, a ferritin homolog that binds and protects DNA. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:294-303 pubmed
    ..The structure suggests a novel DNA-binding motif and a mechanism for DNA protection based on the sequestration of Fe ions...
  65. Ilari A, Stefanini S, Chiancone E, Tsernoglou D. The dodecameric ferritin from Listeria innocua contains a novel intersubunit iron-binding site. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The L. innocua ferritin site, however, is the first described so far that has ligands belonging to two different subunits and is not contained within a four-helix bundle...
  66. Papinutto E, Dundon W, Pitulis N, Battistutta R, Montecucco C, Zanotti G. Structure of two iron-binding proteins from Bacillus anthracis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15093-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They are sphere-like proteins with an internal cavity. We also show that they act as ferritins and are thus involved in iron uptake and regulation, a fundamental function during bacterial growth...
  67. Kim A, Baker A, Dunaway Mariano D, Metcalf W, Wanner B, Martin B. The 2-aminoethylphosphonate-specific transaminase of the 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation pathway. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4134-40 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of three selected residues (Asp168, Lys194, and Arg340) in AEPT catalysis...
  68. Williams R, Rees M, Jacobs M, Pr gai Z, Thwaite J, Baillie L, et al. Production of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen is dependent on the extracellular chaperone, PrsA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18056-62 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis PrsA proteins (PrsAA, PrsAB, and PrsAC) that are able to complement the activity of B. subtilis PrsA with respect to cell viability and rPA secretion, as well as that of AmyQ, a protein previously shown to be PrsA-dependent...
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    ..We also found that the plcR genes of three B. anthracis strains belonging to different phylogenetic groups contained the same nonsense mutation, suggesting that this mutation is a distinctive trait of this species...
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    ..NHP were exposed to Bacillus anthracis Ames spores on Day 28 (target dose 200 LD50 equivalents)...
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    ..Although the protein was co-crystallized in the presence of Mg2+, the protein lacks the conserved residues that coordinate Mg2+. ..
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    ..A structural comparison with RfbC homologs showed that the key active-site residues are conserved across kingdoms. ..
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    ..The partial homologies between the amino acid sequences of SMPLC and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) are discussed. ..
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    ..The structure of the apoenzyme at this resolution appears to differ from that of the Cd(II)-enzyme only in the orientation of two of the histidine residues and the cysteine residue that surround the metal ion. ..
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    ..The aminooxy compound canaline was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor of B. subtilis YbgE and also inhibited growth of B. subtilis and B. cereus in culture...
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    ..These findings will assist in the development of narrow-spectrum antimicrobial agents for treatment of anthrax...
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    ..An efficient purification scheme using cation-exchange chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography is presented. This gives approx. 30-40 mg of more than 95% pure Bst HU per litre of E. coli culture. ..
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    ..stearothermophilus HU. The current model for the interaction of the protein with DNA is only discussed in terms of its relevance with regard to thermostability...
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    ..However, all five B-type SASP did contain a large (27 to 35-residue), rather well-conserved amino acid sequence repeat, and four of the five proteins had well-conserved regions of 14 to 17 amino acids which appeared three times. ..
  83. Pauptit R, Karlsson R, Picot D, Jenkins J, Niklaus Reimer A, Jansonius J. Crystal structure of neutral protease from Bacillus cereus refined at 3.0 A resolution and comparison with the homologous but more thermostable enzyme thermolysin. J Mol Biol. 1988;199:525-37 pubmed
    ..Other factors that may affect thermostability include the two glycine to alanine exchanges and perturbations in the environment of the double calcium site. ..
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    ..cereus 569/H (M. Hussain, C. Anthony, M. J. Madonna, and J. O. Lampen, J. Bacteriol. 164: 223-229, 1985) to document amino acid differences contributing to the specific properties of these enzymes. ..
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    ..Shiba, A., Seo, S., Yamamoto, J., Matsuyama, J. and Miwatani, T. (1991) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 79, 205-210)...
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  89. Fouet A, Namy O, Lambert G. Characterization of the operon encoding the alternative sigma(B) factor from Bacillus anthracis and its role in virulence. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5036-45 pubmed
    ..The toxinogenic sigB mutant strain was also less virulent than the parental strain in the mouse model. B. anthracis sigma(B) may therefore be a minor virulence factor...
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    ..Since germination in suboptimal concentrations of L-alanine shows a delay, additional germination transporters may be required for optimal response at low germinant concentrations...
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    ..subtilis indicates that the Spo0A-dependent regulation of inhA expression depends on AbrB, which is known to regulate expression of transition state and sporulation genes in B. subtilis...
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    ..coli was functional in its ability to complement a recA defect. When recA-negative E. coli cells were irradiated with UV, the Bacillus RecA reduced the UV susceptibility of the recA mutant, regardless of the presence of intron...