anthrax bacterium

Summary

Alias: bacillus anthracis, bacillus anthracis pxo1 virulence plasmid, "bacillus cereus var. anthracis" (cohn 1872) smith et al. 1946, "bacteridium anthracis" (cohn 1872) hauduroy et al. 1953, bacillus anthracis cohn 1872, bacillus cereus var. anthracis, bacteridium anthracis

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis to 24 antimicrobials using Sensititre automated microbroth dilution and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods
    Vicki A Luna
    Center for Biological Defense, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 3602 Spectrum Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:555-67. 2007
  2. ncbi Methionine regeneration and aminotransferases in Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis
    Bradley J Berger
    Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada
    J Bacteriol 185:2418-31. 2003
  3. ncbi Effects of L-alanine and inosine germinants on the elasticity of Bacillus anthracis spores
    Paola A Pinzon-Arango
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, USA
    Langmuir 26:6535-41. 2010
  4. ncbi Beta-lactamase genes of the penicillin-susceptible Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain
    Yahua Chen
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Houston Health Science Center Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:823-30. 2003
  5. ncbi LmbE proteins from Bacillus cereus are de-N-acetylases with broad substrate specificity and are highly similar to proteins in Bacillus anthracis
    Alexandra Deli
    Department of Biology, Enzyme Biotechnology Group, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    FEBS J 277:2740-53. 2010
  6. ncbi Peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases from Bacillus cereus, highly conserved proteins in Bacillus anthracis
    Emmanuel Psylinakis
    Department of Biology, Enzyme Biotechnology Group, University of Crete, P O Box 2208, Vasilika Vouton 714 09, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Biol Chem 280:30856-63. 2005
  7. ncbi Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species
    M Carrera
    Research and Technology Directorate, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, U S Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 105:68-77. 2008
  8. ncbi A tandem repeats database for bacterial genomes: application to the genotyping of Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis
    P Le Fleche
    Centre d Etudes du Bouchet, BP3, 91710 Vert le Petit, France
    BMC Microbiol 1:2. 2001
  9. ncbi A-type ATP binding consensus sequences are critical for the catalytic activity of the calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bacillus anthracis
    Z G Xia
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    J Biol Chem 265:6517-20. 1990
  10. ncbi The adenylate cyclase toxins of Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis promote Th2 cell development by shaping T cell antigen receptor signaling
    Silvia Rossi Paccani
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000325. 2009

Detail Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis to 24 antimicrobials using Sensititre automated microbroth dilution and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods
    Vicki A Luna
    Center for Biological Defense, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 3602 Spectrum Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:555-67. 2007
    To examine susceptibilities of Bacillus anthracis and related species to 24 antimicrobials using and concurrently comparing two methods.
  2. ncbi Methionine regeneration and aminotransferases in Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis
    Bradley J Berger
    Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada
    J Bacteriol 185:2418-31. 2003
    ..Examination of B. cereus and Bacillus anthracis genome data found that there were no subfamily IIIa homologues in these organisms. In both B. cereus and B...
  3. ncbi Effects of L-alanine and inosine germinants on the elasticity of Bacillus anthracis spores
    Paola A Pinzon-Arango
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609, USA
    Langmuir 26:6535-41. 2010
    The surface of dormant Bacillus anthracis spores consists of a multilayer of protein coats and a thick peptidoglycan layer that allow the cells to resist chemical and environmental insults...
  4. ncbi Beta-lactamase genes of the penicillin-susceptible Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain
    Yahua Chen
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Houston Health Science Center Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:823-30. 2003
    Susceptibility to penicillin and other beta-lactam-containing compounds is a common trait of Bacillus anthracis. Beta-lactam agents, particularly penicillin, have been used worldwide to treat anthrax in humans...
  5. ncbi LmbE proteins from Bacillus cereus are de-N-acetylases with broad substrate specificity and are highly similar to proteins in Bacillus anthracis
    Alexandra Deli
    Department of Biology, Enzyme Biotechnology Group, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    FEBS J 277:2740-53. 2010
    The genomes of Bacillus cereus and its closest relative Bacillus anthracis each contain two LmbE protein family homologs: BC1534 (BA1557) and BC3461 (BA3524)...
  6. ncbi Peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases from Bacillus cereus, highly conserved proteins in Bacillus anthracis
    Emmanuel Psylinakis
    Department of Biology, Enzyme Biotechnology Group, University of Crete, P O Box 2208, Vasilika Vouton 714 09, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Biol Chem 280:30856-63. 2005
    The genomes of Bacillus cereus and its closest relative Bacillus anthracis contain 10 polysaccharide deacetylase homologues. Six of these homologues have been proposed to be peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases...
  7. ncbi Wet and dry density of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species
    M Carrera
    Research and Technology Directorate, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, U S Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 105:68-77. 2008
    To determine the wet and dry density of spores of Bacillus anthracis and compare these values with the densities of other Bacillus species grown and sporulated under similar conditions.
  8. ncbi A tandem repeats database for bacterial genomes: application to the genotyping of Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis
    P Le Fleche
    Centre d Etudes du Bouchet, BP3, 91710 Vert le Petit, France
    BMC Microbiol 1:2. 2001
    ..The availability of whole-genome sequences has opened the way to the systematic evaluation of tandem repeats diversity and application to epidemiological studies...
  9. ncbi A-type ATP binding consensus sequences are critical for the catalytic activity of the calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bacillus anthracis
    Z G Xia
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    J Biol Chem 265:6517-20. 1990
    Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase revealed sequences with homology to consensus sequences for A- and B-type ATP binding domains found in many ATP binding proteins...
  10. ncbi The adenylate cyclase toxins of Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis promote Th2 cell development by shaping T cell antigen receptor signaling
    Silvia Rossi Paccani
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000325. 2009
    ..we have investigated the effects on human CD4(+) T cell differentiation of two adenylate cyclase toxins, Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) and Bordetella pertussis CyaA, which differ in structure, mode of cell entry, and ..
  11. ncbi Method of measuring Bacillus anthracis spores in the presence of copious amounts of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus
    Gossett A Campbell
    Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Drexel University, 31st and Market Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Anal Chem 79:1145-52. 2007
    A sensitive and reliable method for the detection of Bacillus anthracis (BA; Sterne strain 7702) spores in presence of large amounts of Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and Bacillus cereus (BC) is presented based on a novel PZT-anchored ..
  12. ncbi A microtiter fluorometric assay to detect the germination of Bacillus anthracis spores and the germination inhibitory effects of antibodies
    Susan L Welkos
    Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 56:253-65. 2004
    b>Bacillus anthracis spore germination is usually detected in vitro by alterations in spore refractility, heat resistance, and stainability...
  13. ncbi Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1
    Monika Ehling-Schulz
    Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Ökologie, Department für biowissenschaftliche Grundlagen, WZW, Technische Universitat Munchen, Freising, Germany
    BMC Microbiol 6:20. 2006
    ..Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), but its exact genetic organization and biochemical synthesis is unknown...
  14. ncbi Viability of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores as a model for predicting the fate of bacillus anthracis spores during composting of dead livestock
    Tim Reuter
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P O Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Canada
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1588-92. 2011
    ..but no information exists on its ability to contain diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis. Duplicate composters (east and west), each containing 16 dead cattle, were constructed (final capacity, 85,..
  15. ncbi Structure and lytic activity of a Bacillus anthracis prophage endolysin
    Lieh Yoon Low
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:35433-9. 2005
    We report a structural and functional analysis of the lambda prophage Ba02 endolysin (PlyL) encoded by the Bacillus anthracis genome...
  16. ncbi [Anthrax--the past, present and future]
    Nadezda Madle-Samardzija
    Klinika za infektivne bolesti, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad
    Med Pregl 55:114-9. 2002
    ..Anthrax has been known since ancient times. Besides some references in the Old Testament, there is evidence of plagues in ancient Egypt, as well as descriptions of the disease by the Roman poet Virgil...
  17. ncbi The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores
    S Welkos
    Divisions of Bacteriology and Pathology, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Microbiology 147:1677-85. 2001
    ..Sera from animals immunized with a toxin-producing, unencapsulated live vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis have been reported to have anti-spore activities associated with the antitoxin humoral response...
  18. ncbi Structural elucidation of the nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Comparison with the polysaccharides from Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 reveals both unique and common structural featu
    Christine Leoff
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:29812-21. 2008
    ..the secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a strain that is closely related to Bacillus anthracis, was determined...
  19. ncbi Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by liquid biocides in the presence of food residue
    J Hilgren
    Ecolab Schuman Center, 655 Lone Oak Drive, Building F, Eagan, MN 55121, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6370-7. 2007
    Biocide inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores in the presence of food residues after a 10-min treatment time was investigated...
  20. ncbi CEMOVIS on a pathogen: analysis of Bacillus anthracis spores
    Evelyne Couture-Tosi
    Institut Pasteur, Unite Toxines et Pathogénie Bacteriénnes URA 2172, CNRS, 25 28 rue de Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Biol Cell 102:609-19. 2010
    ..For Bacillus anthracis, the aetiological agent of anthrax, germination is normally linked to host uptake and represents an ..
  21. ncbi A combined immunomagnetic separation and lateral flow method for a sensitive on-site detection of Bacillus anthracis spores--assessment in water and dairy products
    M Fisher
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
    Lett Appl Microbiol 48:413-8. 2009
    Combination of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and lateral flow device (LFD) assays for the development of a sensitive, rapid, on-site methodology that enables concentration and detection of Bacillus anthracis spores in complex samples.
  22. ncbi Biochemical and structural characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (Ames)
    Rafael M Couñago
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    BMC Struct Biol 9:53. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and a potential bioterrorism threat. Here we report the biochemical and structural characterization of B...
  23. ncbi Modeling the potential distribution of Bacillus anthracis under multiple climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan
    Timothy Andrew Joyner
    Emerging Pathogens Institute and the Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e9596. 2010
    Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that persists throughout much of the world in livestock, wildlife, and secondarily infects humans...
  24. ncbi Efficacy of selected hand hygiene agents used to remove Bacillus atrophaeus (a surrogate of Bacillus anthracis) from contaminated hands
    David J Weber
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill CB 7030, 130 Mason Farm Rd, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    JAMA 289:1274-7. 2003
    The intentional use of Bacillus anthracis transmitted via the US mail in October-November 2001 resulted in 22 people developing inhalation or cutaneous anthrax...
  25. ncbi Secondary cell wall polysaccharides of Bacillus anthracis are antigens that contain specific epitopes which cross-react with three pathogenic Bacillus cereus strains that caused severe disease, and other epitopes common to all the Bacillus cereus strains
    Christine Leoff
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Glycobiology 19:665-73. 2009
    The immunoreactivities of hydrogen fluoride (HF)-released cell wall polysaccharides (HF-PSs) from selected Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains were compared using antisera against live and killed B. anthracis spores...
  26. ncbi No evidence of a mild form of inhalational Bacillus anthracis infection during a bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax outbreak in Washington, D.C., in 2001
    Henry C Baggett
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:991-7. 2005
    The mail-related dispersal of Bacillus anthracis spores in the Washington, D.C., area during October 2001 resulted in 5 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax...
  27. ncbi Poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid and protective antigen conjugate vaccines induce functional antibodies against the protective antigen and capsule of Bacillus anthracis in guinea-pigs and rabbits
    Deog Yong Lee
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of High risk Pathogen Research, Korea National Institute of Health, Seoul, Korea
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 57:165-72. 2009
    Anthrax is a lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. The two major virulence factors of B. anthracis are exotoxin and the poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule...
  28. ncbi Contributions of histamine, prostanoids, and neurokinins to edema elicited by edema toxin from Bacillus anthracis
    Jeffrey Tessier
    University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Box 800419, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 75:1895-903. 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), composed of protective antigen and an adenylate cyclase edema factor (EF), elicits edema in host tissues, but the target cells and events leading from EF-mediated cyclic-AMP production to edema are ..
  29. ncbi Use of a promoter trap system in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis for the development of recombinant protective antigen-based vaccines
    O Gat
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel
    Infect Immun 71:801-13. 2003
    We have recently reported Bacillus anthracis attenuated live vaccine strains efficiently expressing recombinant protective antigen (rPA) and have shown a direct correlation between the level of rPA secreted by these cells and efficacy (S...
  30. ncbi Decontamination assessment of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surfaces using a hydrogen peroxide gas generator
    J V Rogers
    Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH, OH 43201, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 99:739-48. 2005
    To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas.
  31. ncbi Cloning and molecular characterization of three arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes from Bacillus anthracis: identification of unusual enzymatic properties and their contribution to sulfamethoxazole resistance
    Benjamin Pluvinage
    Laboratoire de Cytophysiologie et Toxicologie Cellulaire, EA 1553, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 75005 Paris, France
    Biochemistry 46:7069-78. 2007
    ..and characterization of three new NAT genes (termed banatA, banatB, and banatC) from the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. The sequences of the corresponding proteins are approximately 30% identical with those of characterized ..
  32. ncbi Identification of Bacillus anthracis spore component antigens conserved across diverse Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains
    Sanghamitra Mukhopadhyay
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:1174-91. 2009
    We sought to identify proteins in the Bacillus anthracis spore, conserved in other strains of the closely related Bacillus cereus group, that elicit an immune response in mammals. Two high throughput approaches were used...
  33. ncbi The two-component system Bacillus respiratory response A and B (BrrA-BrrB) is a virulence factor regulator in Bacillus anthracis
    Sara M Vetter
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Biochemistry 46:7343-52. 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis, a bioterrorism threat as well as an agricultural concern, has complex mechanisms for regulation of its major virulence factors...
  34. ncbi Characterization of ATP and calmodulin-binding properties of a truncated form of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase
    E Labruyere
    Unité des Antigènes Bactériens, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Biochemistry 29:4922-8. 1990
    The Bacillus anthracis cya gene encodes a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. A deletion cya gene product obtained by removing 261 codons at the 5' end was expressed in a protease-deficient lon- E...
  35. ncbi Structural studies of thymidine kinases from Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus provide insights into quaternary structure and conformational changes upon substrate binding
    Urszula Kosinska
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, Sweden
    FEBS J 274:727-37. 2007
    ..We describe the structures of two bacterial TKs, one from the pathogen Bacillus anthracis in complex with the substrate dT, and the second from the food-poison-associated Bacillus cereus in complex ..
  36. ncbi MICs of selected antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a range of clinical and environmental sources as determined by the Etest
    Peter C B Turnbull
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3626-34. 2004
    This paper presents Etest determinations of MICs of selected antimicrobial agents for 76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus, B...
  37. ncbi Saccharides cross-reactive with Bacillus anthracis spore glycoprotein as an anthrax vaccine component
    Joanna Kubler-Kielb
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8709-12. 2008
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in humans and in other mammals. The glycoprotein BclA (Bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis) is a major constituent of the exosporium, the outermost surface of B...
  38. ncbi Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis
    Johnny W Peterson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd Galveston, Texas 77555 0610
    Open Microbiol J 4:34-46. 2010
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ..
  39. ncbi Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions
    Sa Xu
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3336-41. 2008
    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores...
  40. ncbi In vitro resistance of Bacillus anthracis Sterne to doxycycline, macrolides and quinolones
    I Brook
    Radiation Medicine Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889 5603, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 18:559-62. 2001
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a potential biological warfare agent. Its ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents currently recommended for the treatment of anthrax infection is a major concern. B...
  41. ncbi Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for Bacillus anthracis spores spiked to food and feed matrices at biosafety level 3 conditions
    Peter R Wielinga
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Centre for Infectious Disease Control CIb, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology LZO, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, P O Box 1, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Int J Food Microbiol 150:122-7. 2011
    ..from milk, whey, soy, corn gluten meal, wheat powders and heat-treated corn grain that were spiked with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores was determined...
  42. ncbi Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax
    Mark T Albrecht
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, 12300 Washington Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5425-33. 2007
    ..absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection...
  43. ncbi Bacillus anthracis edema toxin activates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3beta
    Jason L Larabee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Infect Immun 76:4895-904. 2008
    b>Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) generates high levels of cyclic AMP and impacts a complex network of signaling pathways in targeted cells...
  44. ncbi The extracellular and cytoplasmic proteomes of the non-virulent Bacillus anthracis strain UM23C1-2
    Haike Antelmann
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitat Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Proteomics 5:3684-95. 2005
    The recently published genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames has facilitated the prediction of proteins associated with the virulence of this bacterium...
  45. ncbi Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis encoding proteins of the exosporium
    Sarah J Todd
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 185:3373-8. 2003
    The exosporium is the outermost layer of spores of Bacillus cereus and its close relatives Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. For these pathogens, it represents the surface layer that makes initial contact with the host...
  46. ncbi Expression of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis by Lactobacillus casei: towards the development of an oral vaccine against anthrax
    N D Zegers
    TNO Prevention and Health, Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Appl Microbiol 87:309-14. 1999
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the causative organism of the disease anthrax. The ability of the organism to form resistant spores and infect via the aerosol route has led to it being considered as a potential biological warfare agent...
  47. ncbi Evaluation of substituted triazol-1-yl-pyrimidines as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis acetohydroxyacid synthase
    Vinayakumar Gedi
    Department of Chemistry and Institute of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133 791, Republic of Korea
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1804:1369-75. 2010
    ..The genes of both catalytic and regulatory subunits of AHAS from Bacillus anthracis (Bantx), a causative agent of anthrax, were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to ..
  48. ncbi Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples
    Leonid M Irenge
    Defence Laboratories Department, Belgian Armed Forces, Brussels, Belgium
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 88:1179-92. 2010
    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples. These samples often harbor Bacillus cereus bacteria closely related to B...
  49. ncbi Killed but metabolically active Bacillus anthracis vaccines induce broad and protective immunity against anthrax
    JUSTIN SKOBLE
    Anza Therapeutics Incorporated, Concord, California 94520, USA
    Infect Immun 77:1649-63. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. We have developed a novel whole-bacterial-cell anthrax vaccine utilizing B. anthracis that is killed but metabolically active (KBMA)...
  50. ncbi Difference between the spore sizes of Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species
    M Carrera
    Research and Technology Directorate, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, US Army, MD, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 102:303-12. 2007
    To determine the size distribution of the spores of Bacillus anthracis, and compare its size with other Bacillus species grown and sporulated under similar conditions.
  51. ncbi [In vitro selection and affinity function of the aptamers to Bacillus anthracis spores by SELEX]
    Bei Zhen
    Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, The Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China
    Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai) 34:635-42. 2002
    To obtain oligonucleotide aptamers, specifically binding to Bacillus anthracis spores, and to find the relationship between the structures and the affinities, and to determine whether the aptamers can be used as a novel molecule for spore ..
  52. ncbi Bacillus cereus strains fall into two clusters (one closely and one more distantly related) to Bacillus anthracis according to amino acid substitutions in small acid-soluble proteins as determined by tandem mass spectrometry
    Elisangela R Castanha
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 21:190-201. 2007
    ..region of Bacillus spores and have been previously demonstrated as reliable biomarkers for differentiating Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. Using MS and MS-MS analysis of SASPs further phylogenetic correlations among B...
  53. ncbi Glycosyltransferase: a specific marker for the discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from the Bacillus cereus group
    Wonyong Kim
    Department of Microbiology, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Med Microbiol 57:279-86. 2008
    b>Bacillus anthracis, the aetiological agent of anthrax, has been taxonomically classified with the Bacillus cereus group, which comprises B...
  54. ncbi The Bacillus cereus containing sub-branch most closely related to Bacillus anthracis, have single amino acid substitutions in small acid-soluble proteins, while remaining sub-branches are more variable
    Courtney Callahan
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 6311 Garners Ferry Road, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 22:207-11. 2008
    ..of Bacillus cereus isolates associated with fatal pneumonias: strains are closely related to Bacillus anthracis and harbor B. anthracis virulence genes...
  55. ncbi Hydrophobic properties and extraction of Bacillus anthracis spores from liquid foods
    Oriana N Leishman
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Food Microbiol 27:661-6. 2010
    The objectives of this study were to characterize the hydrophobic properties of three strains of Bacillus anthracis using the microbial adherence to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay and determine the recovery of spores by hexadecane extraction ..
  56. ncbi In vivo demonstration and quantification of intracellular Bacillus anthracis in lung epithelial cells
    Brooke H Russell
    Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Infect Immun 76:3975-83. 2008
    Inhalational anthrax is initiated by the entry of Bacillus anthracis spores into the lung. A critical early event in the establishment of an infection is the dissemination of spores from the lung...
  57. ncbi Anthrax toxin
    R Bhatnagar
    Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    Crit Rev Microbiol 27:167-200. 2001
    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products...
  58. ncbi Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis
    Florigio Lista
    Army Medical Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4 00184 Rome Italy
    BMC Microbiol 6:33. 2006
    The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult...
  59. ncbi New inhibitors of colony spreading in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis
    Xin Hao
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 21:5583-8. 2011
    ..the discovery of inhibitors of colony spreading in these strains as well as the aflagellate pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. Aflagellate B...
  60. ncbi Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages
    Tatum S Simonson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 5640, USA
    BMC Microbiol 9:71. 2009
    ..Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates...
  61. ncbi Thermal resistance of spores from virulent strains of Bacillus anthracis and potential surrogates
    Thomas J Montville
    Department of Food Science, Cook College, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 8520, USA
    J Food Prot 68:2362-6. 2005
    The objective of this study was to determine the thermal resistance of spores of Bacillus anthracis and potential surrogates. The heat resistance of spores suspended in buffer (pH 7.0 or 4...
  62. ncbi Involvement of residues 147VYYEIGK153 in binding of lethal factor to protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis
    P Gupta
    Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 280:158-63. 2001
    ..1 cells and their binding ability to PA63 was drastically reduced. We propose that these four amino acids play a crucial role in the process of binding of LF to PA63...
  63. ncbi Mechanisms of NK cell-macrophage Bacillus anthracis crosstalk: a balance between stimulation by spores and differential disruption by toxins
    Maria Klezovich-Bénard
    Laboratoire Pathogénie et Toxi Infections Bactériennes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002481. 2012
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis spores can efficiently drive IFN-? production by NK cells...
  64. ncbi Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples
    Cheryl Fairfield Estill
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4297-306. 2009
    ..We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2))...
  65. ncbi Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasteurization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk
    P M Tomasula
    Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
    J Dairy Sci 94:4277-91. 2011
    High-temperature, short-time pasteurization of milk is ineffective against spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis (BA), but is lethal to its vegetative cells...
  66. ncbi Distribution, diversity, and potential mobility of extrachromosomal elements related to the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence plasmids
    Xiaomin Hu
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Microbiology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2 12, B 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:3016-28. 2009
    ..of pXO1-like and/or pXO2-like plasmids was also observed, but none of these isolates were found to carry the Bacillus anthracis toxin or capsule virulence genes...
  67. ncbi An unusual mechanism of isopeptide bond formation attaches the collagenlike glycoprotein BclA to the exosporium of Bacillus anthracis
    Li Tan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    MBio 2:e00084-11. 2011
    The outermost exosporium layer of spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is comprised of a basal layer and an external hairlike nap...
  68. ncbi Bacillus anthracis edema toxin suppresses human macrophage phagocytosis and cytoskeletal remodeling via the protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP pathways
    Linsey A Yeager
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0610, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2530-43. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. It produces edema toxin (EdTx), a powerful adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in host cells...
  69. ncbi Enzymatic characterization of Catalase from Bacillus anthracis and prediction of critical residues using information theoretic measure of Relative Entropy
    Amit Rahi
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 411:88-95. 2011
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis harbors five isoforms of Catalase, but none of them has been studied so far...
  70. ncbi Localization and assembly of proteins comprising the outer structures of the Bacillus anthracis spore
    Rebecca Giorno
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Microbiology 155:1133-45. 2009
    ..One of these structures, the coat, is present in all spores. In Bacillus anthracis, however, the spore is surrounded by an additional, poorly understood, morphologically complex structure ..
  71. ncbi CD and MCD spectroscopic studies of the two Dps miniferritin proteins from Bacillus anthracis: role of O2 and H2O2 substrates in reactivity of the diiron catalytic centers
    Jennifer K Schwartz
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, United States
    Biochemistry 49:10516-25. 2010
    ..variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) to study Fe(II) binding to the catalytic sites of the two Bacillus anthracis miniferritins: one in which two Fe(II) react with O(2) exclusively (Dps1) and a second in which both O(2) or ..
  72. ncbi Identification of Bacillus anthracis by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and artificial neural networks
    Peter Lasch
    P25, Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7229-42. 2009
    ..chemometrics for rapid and reliable identification of vegetative cells of the causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus cultures were prepared under standardized conditions and inactivated according to a recently ..
  73. ncbi Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by Bacillus anthracis requires the pXO1-encoded BslA protein
    Celia M Ebrahimi
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:7165-73. 2009
    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Human infection occurs after the ingestion, inhalation, or cutaneous inoculation of B. anthracis spores...
  74. ncbi Contributions of four cortex lytic enzymes to germination of Bacillus anthracis spores
    Jared D Heffron
    Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:763-70. 2010
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis has four GSLEs: CwlJ1, CwlJ2, SleB, and SleL...
  75. ncbi Crystal structure and catalytic properties of Bacillus anthracis CoADR-RHD: implications for flavin-linked sulfur trafficking
    Jamie R Wallen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University Schoolof Medicine, Center for Structural Biology, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Biochemistry 48:9650-67. 2009
    ..We have now determined the crystal structure at 2.10 A resolution for the Bacillus anthracis coenzyme A-disulfide reductase isoform (BaCoADR-RHD) containing a C-terminal RHD domain; this is the first ..
  76. ncbi Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin attenuates lipoteichoic acid-induced maturation and activation of dendritic cells through a unique mechanism
    Jihyun Yang
    Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, BK21 Program, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Mol Immunol 46:3261-8. 2009
    Lethal toxin (LT), produced by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, was identified as a major etiologic agent causing anthrax due to its strong immunotoxicity...
  77. ncbi A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for Bacillus anthracis
    Linda M Weigel
    National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS G 08, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2793-800. 2010
    An effective public health response to a deliberate release of Bacillus anthracis will require a rapid distribution of antimicrobial agents for postexposure prophylaxis and treatment...
  78. ncbi Gamma-phage lysin PlyG sequence-based synthetic peptides coupled with Qdot-nanocrystals are useful for developing detection methods for Bacillus anthracis by using its surrogates, B. anthracis-Sterne and B. cereus-4342
    Shilpakala Sainathrao
    Section of Cell Biology, Laboratory of Cellular Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 9:67. 2009
    ..a 10-amino acid motif (190LKMTADFILQ199) abrogates its binding activity specific to the cell wall of Bacillus anthracis. Whether short synthetic peptides representing the10-amino acid PlyG putative binding motif flanked by ..
  79. ncbi Rapid sporulation of Bacillus anthracis in a high iron, glucose-free medium
    Mitali Purohit
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
    J Microbiol Methods 82:282-7. 2010
    Spores are the infectious form of Bacillus anthracis (BA), causing cutaneous, inhalation and gastrointestinal anthrax...
  80. ncbi An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor controls beta-lactamase gene expression in Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus cereus group species
    Cana L Ross
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:6683-93. 2009
    The susceptibility of most Bacillus anthracis strains to beta-lactam antibiotics is intriguing considering that the closely related species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis typically produce beta-lactamases and the B...
  81. ncbi Decontamination options for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated drinking water determined from spore surrogate studies
    Ellen Raber
    Global Security, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6631-8. 2010
    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination alternatives for use in a contaminated drinking water supply...
  82. ncbi Bacillus anthracis sin locus and regulation of secreted proteases
    Kathryn J Pflughoeft
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas, Houston Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin St, MSB 1 508, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:631-9. 2011
    b>Bacillus anthracis shares many regulatory loci with the nonpathogenic Bacillus species Bacillus subtilis. One such locus is sinIR, which in B. subtilis controls sporulation, biofilm formation, motility, and competency. As B...
  83. ncbi Mechanisms of DNA binding and regulation of Bacillus anthracis DNA primase
    Subhasis B Biswas
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, New Jersey 08084, USA
    Biochemistry 48:7373-82. 2009
    ..In this article, we report unique mechanistic characteristics of recombinant DNA primase from Bacillus anthracis. The mechanism of action of B...
  84. ncbi Distinct interactions of 2'- and 3'-O-(N-methyl)anthraniloyl-isomers of ATP and GTP with the adenylyl cyclase toxin of Bacillus anthracis, edema factor
    Srividya Suryanarayana
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 78:224-30. 2009
    Anthrax disease is caused by the spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis produces a calmodulin-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC) toxin, edema factor (EF). Through excessive cAMP accumulation EF disrupts host defence...
  85. ncbi Novel and unique diagnostic biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis infection
    Sagit Sela-Abramovich
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Life Science Research Israel Ltd, 2 Ness Ziona 74100, Israel
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:6157-67. 2009
    A search for bacterium-specific biomarkers in peripheral blood following infection with Bacillus anthracis was carried out with rabbits, using a battery of specific antibodies generated by DNA vaccination against 10 preselected highly ..
  86. ncbi The tubulin-like RepX protein encoded by the pXO1 plasmid forms polymers in vivo in Bacillus anthracis
    Parvez Akhtar
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, East 1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:2493-500. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis contains two megaplasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, that are critical for its pathogenesis. Stable inheritance of pXO1 in B. anthracis is dependent upon the tubulin/FtsZ-like RepX protein encoded by this plasmid...
  87. ncbi Anthrax lethal factor inhibition
    W L Shoop
    Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7958-63. 2005
    The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is a secreted zinc-dependent metalloprotease toxin known as lethal factor (LF) that is lethal to the host through disruption of signaling pathways, cell destruction, and circulatory shock...
  88. ncbi Plasmid-encoded regulator of extracellular proteases in Bacillus anthracis
    Arthur I Aronson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:3133-8. 2005
    b>Bacillus anthracis Sterne cured of the pXO1 plasmid had enhanced secreted protease activity during the postexponential phase but no change in hemolytic or lecithinase activities...
  89. ncbi Crystal structure of a complex between anthrax toxin and its host cell receptor
    Eugenio Santelli
    Program on Cell Adhesion, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 430:905-8. 2004
    ..The structure provides new leads for the discovery of anthrax anti-toxins, and should aid the design of cancer therapeutics...
  90. ncbi The structural basis for substrate and inhibitor selectivity of the anthrax lethal factor
    Benjamin E Turk
    Division of Signal Transduction, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:60-6. 2004
    ..The crystal structures of LF bound to an optimized peptide substrate and to peptide-based inhibitors provide a rationale for the observed selectivity and may be exploited in the design of future generations of LF inhibitors...
  91. ncbi Mapping dominant-negative mutations of anthrax protective antigen by scanning mutagenesis
    Michael Mourez
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13803-8. 2003
    ..They also add to the repertoire of mutations available for structure-function studies and for designing new antitoxic agents for treatment of anthrax...
  92. ncbi Poly(gamma-D-glutamic acid) protein conjugates induce IgG antibodies in mice to the capsule of Bacillus anthracis: a potential addition to the anthrax vaccine
    Rachel Schneerson
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8945-50. 2003
    ..antigen (PA) and the poly(gamma-d-glutamic acid) capsule (gamma dPGA) are essential for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. A critical level of vaccine-induced IgG anti-PA confers immunity to anthrax, but there is no information ..
  93. ncbi Structure-based inhibitor discovery against adenylyl cyclase toxins from pathogenic bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough
    Sandriyana Soelaiman
    Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:25990-7. 2003
    ..It may serve as a lead to design antitoxins to address the role of adenylyl cyclase toxins in bacterial pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough...
  94. ncbi Antimicrobial therapy for bacillus anthracis-induced polymicrobial infection in (60)Co gamma-irradiated mice
    Thomas B Elliott
    Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Interactions and Countermeasures Research Team, Radiation Medicine Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20889 5603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3463-71. 2002
    Challenge with both nonlethal ionizing radiation and toxigenic Bacillus anthracis spores increases the rate of mortality from a mixed bacterial infection. If biological weapons, such as B...
  95. ncbi Identification of amino acid residues of anthrax protective antigen involved in binding with lethal factor
    Vibha Chauhan
    Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Infect Immun 70:4477-84. 2002
    ..It was concluded that residues 202, 203, 205, and 207 of PA are essential for the binding of LF to PA...
  96. ncbi Hydrophobic residues Phe552, Phe554, Ile562, Leu566, and Ile574 are required for oligomerization of anthrax protective antigen
    N Ahuja
    Centre for Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:542-9. 2001
    ..Consequently, these mutants became nontoxic in combination with lethal factor and edema factor. Therapeutic importance of these mutants and their potential as vaccine candidates is discussed...
  97. ncbi vrrB, a hypervariable open reading frame in Bacillus anthracis
    J M Schupp
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff 86011 5640, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:3989-97. 2000
    b>Bacillus anthracis appears to be the most molecularly homogeneous bacterial species known. Extensive surveys of worldwide isolates have revealed vanishingly small amounts of genomic variation...
  98. ncbi Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes
    R T Okinaka
    Life Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
    J Bacteriol 181:6509-15. 1999
    The Bacillus anthracis Sterne plasmid pXO1 was sequenced by random, "shotgun" cloning. A circular sequence of 181,654 bp was generated...
  99. ncbi The native virulence plasmid combination affects the segregational stability of a theta-replicating shuttle vector in Bacillus anthracis var. New Hampshire
    J E Bowen
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 87:270-8. 1999
    ..pX01+/pX02+), partially cured (pX01+/pX02- and pX01-/pX02+) and fully cured (pX01-/pX02-) derivatives of Bacillus anthracis var. New Hampshire...
  100. ncbi Proteasome activity is required for anthrax lethal toxin to kill macrophages
    G Tang
    Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 67:3055-60. 1999
    ..Moreover, this proteasome-dependent process is an early step in LeTx intoxication, but it is downstream of the cleavage by LF of MEK1 or other putative substrates...
  101. ncbi Replication mechanism and sequence analysis of the replicon of pAW63, a conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis
    A Wilcks
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Bacteriol 181:3193-200. 1999
    ..Hybridization experiments using the cloned replicon as a probe showed that pAW63 has similarity to large plasmids from other B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strains and to a strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. alesti...

Research Grants112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Development of Therapeutic Inhibitors to Anthrax Toxins
    JOHNNY PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Anthrax is a highly infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, and aerosolization of the dried bacterial spores is a major biological warfare and bioterrorism threat...
  2. Pacific-Southwest Ctr for Biodefense & Emerg Infect Dis*
    Alan Barbour; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..PROJECT 1: ANTHRAX: TARGETING THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS CAPSULE FOR IMMUNOPROTECTION (Kozel, T. R...
  3. Anthrax vaccination by targeting spore germination
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Germination occurs as an upstream event during the life cycle of Bacillus anthracis. Germinating spores may be considered the weakest link during its life cycle because stopping their function would prevent further development of the ..
  4. VIRULENCE GENE EXPRESSION BY BACILLUS ANTHRACIS
    THERESA KOEHLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacterium and member of the Bacillus cereus group species, is distinguished by its ability to cause lethal anthrax disease in mammals, including humans...
  5. VIRULENCE GENE EXPRESSION BY BACILLUS ANTHRACIS
    Theresa M Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This proposal focuses on Bacillus anthracis virulence gene control, with emphasis on the expression and function of the major virulence gene regulator AtxA. B...
  6. NOVEL IMMUNIZATION STRATEGIES AGAINST ANTHRAX
    LUCY FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Anthrax is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Disease in humans results from contact with infected animals, contaminated animal products or after exposure to accidentally or intentionally released spores of B...
  7. PRIMATE MODEL AND PATHOGENESIS OF ANTHRAX SEPSIS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The threat of bioterrorism has become a reality since the attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in the fall of 2001. The virulence of B.anthracis depends on a tripartite exotoxin and an anti-phagocytic bacterial capsule...
  8. Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax
    Maurizio Pellecchia; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. This rod shaped bacterium infects humans through the respiratory system, skin, or digestive tract...
  9. A tri-antigen nasal anthrax vaccine against toxins and vegetative bacilli
    Zhengrong Cui; Fiscal Year: 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis spores are an appealing biological weapon, which can be distributed through many different means to cause bioterrorism, such as the intentional contamination of the U.S. mail after the September 11 terrorist attacks...
  10. Immunoprotective monoclonals to B. anthracis spores
    ALISON O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Bacillus anthracis spores were recently used as agents of bioterrorism...
  11. Potentiating an anthrax DNA vaccine with electroporation
    Brian Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Anthrax, an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, became a pressing concern because of its potential biowarfare use, most likely via aerosolized anthrax spore dissemination, resulting in deadly inhalation anthrax...
  12. Anthrax DNA vaccine for non-invasive immunization on skin
    Zhengrong Cui; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Although a natural infection by Bacillus anthracis is rare, anthrax spores can be effectively distributed as biological weapons in many different means, such as the surface contamination of the U.S...
  13. Broad-spectrum Antifolates for Treatment of Drug Resistant Bacillus anthracis
    WILLIAM BARROW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Inhalation anthrax is a life-threatening disease that would result from the release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment...
  14. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor
    NORTON PEET; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Aerosolized spores of Bacillus anthracis represent one of the most serious bio-terrorist threats to the security of the United States...
  15. Immunological Secretomes of the Early Anthrax Infection
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the novel vaccines targeting the released proteins/peptides (secretome) during the early infection of Bacillus anthracis. In the past years, we had established the proteomic techniques to identify novel anthrax antigens...
  16. Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Inhibition Study
    Elizabeth A Amin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) enzyme directly enables the Bacillus anthracis bacterium to evade host immunological mechanisms, leading to circulatory shock and death...
  17. Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Inhibition Study
    ELIZABETH AMIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) enzyme directly enables the Bacillus anthracis bacterium to evade host immunological mechanisms, leading to circulatory shock and death...
  18. Inhibition of Anthrax Lethal Factor by alpha-defensins
    Wuyuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Anthrax toxin consists of three proteins secreted by Bacillus anthracis - protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)...
  19. Immunological Secretomes of the Early Anthrax Infection
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the novel vaccines targeting the released proteins/peptides (secretome) during the early infection of Bacillus anthracis. In the past years, we had established the proteomic techniques to identify novel anthrax antigens...
  20. BioThrax Schedule Optimization for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax
    Robert Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..and is currently indicated for use in the pre-exposure setting for individuals at high risk of exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores. Five million doses of the vaccine have been purchased for the Strategic National Stockpile...
  21. A Mechanistically Novel Antibiotic for Anthrax
    Edward Turos; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, exists naturally in various forms and is now considered a bioterrorism ..
  22. Characterization of inflammasome activation in anthrax lethal toxin-mediated cyto
    JURGEN BROJATSCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..a critical part of innate immunity, is activated by numerous pathogens relevant to biodefense, including Bacillus anthracis. Strikingly, LT-mediated cell killing is controlled by inflammasome activation...
  23. Application of IVIAT to Bacillus anthracis
    Edward Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the cause of cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal anthrax. B. anthracis has also recently been used as an agent of bioterrorism...
  24. Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Metalloproteinase
    Alan Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..LF) is a metalloproteinase introduced into the cells of mammalian hosts during infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. LF disrupts intracellular signaling pathways mediated by the MAPKKs, resulting in cell toxicity, sepsis, ..
  25. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..identified to pose the greatest potential threat (Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (..
  26. Alternative approaches for NALT-based immunity to respiratory pathogens
    Prosper N Boyaka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The nasopharyngeal tract is a major portal entry of debilitating and potentially lethal pathogens including Bacillus anthracis and influenza virus...
  27. Coordination Chemistry of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds
    Kenneth Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The most successful human pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis, devise elaborate, multifaceted strategies to ensure their iron supply...
  28. Coordination Chemistry of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds
    Kenneth N Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The most successful human pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis, devise elaborate, multifaceted strategies to ensure their iron supply...
  29. Intervention against anthrax edema factor (EF)
    Wei Jen Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Anthrax is caused by the growth of the gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus anthracis and by toxins secreted by anthrax bacteria...
  30. PGA antigenemia for early diagnosis of anthrax
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Detection of microbial antigens in body fluids is a proven technology in diagnosis of infectious disease. Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by an anti-phagocytic capsule that is composed of poly-y-D-glutamic acid (PGA), raising the ..
  31. D-Amino acid and tellurite resistance in NIAID Category A bacterial pathogens
    RODNEY WELCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..select agent exempt strains of the three NIAID class A agents, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis and Bacillus anthracis. In order to simultaneously detoxify and use D-serine as a carbon and nitrogen source in the urinary tract, ..
  32. Detection of Category A Pathogens by Gold Nanoparticles
    Steven Wolinsky; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Recent deliberate exposure of civilian population of the United States populace to Bacillus anthracis spores uncovered an unmet need for tests to rapidly diagnose disease caused by this bacterium...
  33. STRATEGIES FOR INACTIVATING BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORES
    Arthur Aronson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Bacillus anthracis is an animal and human pathogen with potential as a biological warfare agent. It is a spore-forming Bacillus with pathogenicity due to plasmid genes encoding three toxin components and a polyglutamic acid capsule...