Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on nerve tissue proteins in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Locale: Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Topic: nerve tissue proteins
- Logan M, Steele M, Vetter M. Expression of synaptic vesicle two-related protein SVOP in the developing nervous system of Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:802-7 pubmed..Our observation that SVOP is expressed in the developing Xenopus nervous system suggests that it may be involved in neuron formation, maturation, or neuronal function. ..
- Rao G, Pedone C, Coffin C, Holland E, Fults D. c-Myc enhances sonic hedgehog-induced medulloblastoma formation from nestin-expressing neural progenitors in mice. Neoplasia. 2003;5:198-204 pubmed publisher..We conclude that nestin-expressing neural progenitors, present in the cerebellum at birth, can act as the cells-of-origin for medulloblastoma, and that c-Myc cooperates with Shh to enhance tumorigenicity. ..
- Surguchov A, Surgucheva I, Solessio E, Baehr W. Synoretin--A new protein belonging to the synuclein family. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;13:95-103 pubmed
- Baron R, Vellore N. LSD1/CoREST is an allosteric nanoscale clamp regulated by H3-histone-tail molecular recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12509-14 pubmed publisher..This study underscores the importance of receptor flexibility for future epigenetic drug discovery. ..
- Emechebe U, Kumar P P, Rozenberg J, Moore B, Firment A, Mirshahi T, et al. T-box3 is a ciliary protein and regulates stability of the Gli3 transcription factor to control digit number. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher..Thus, T-box3 controls digit number upstream of Shh-dependent (posterior mesenchyme) and Shh-independent, cilium-based (anterior mesenchyme) Hedgehog pathway function. ..
- Cuenca N, Pinilla I, Sauve Y, Lund R. Early changes in synaptic connectivity following progressive photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1057-72 pubmed..Besides providing information on the effects of photoreceptor dysfunction and loss on connection patterns in the retina, the work addresses the more general issue of how disorder of input neurons affects downstream circuitry. ..
- Wang R, Walker C, Brockie P, Francis M, Mellem J, Madsen D, et al. Evolutionary conserved role for TARPs in the gating of glutamate receptors and tuning of synaptic function. Neuron. 2008;59:997-1008 pubmed publisher..Thus, we show that TARPs are obligate auxiliary subunits for AMPARs with a primary, evolutionarily conserved functional role in the modification of current kinetics. ..
- Kaltenbach L, Romero E, Becklin R, Chettier R, Bell R, Phansalkar A, et al. Huntingtin interacting proteins are genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e82 pubmed..These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity. ..
- Baucum A, Rau K, Riddle E, Hanson G, Fleckenstein A. Methamphetamine increases dopamine transporter higher molecular weight complex formation via a dopamine- and hyperthermia-associated mechanism. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3436-43 pubmed..The implications of this phenomenon with regard to the neurotoxic potential of these stimulants are discussed. ..
- Swoboda K, Kissel J, Crawford T, Bromberg M, Acsadi G, D Anjou G, et al. Perspectives on clinical trials in spinal muscular atrophy. J Child Neurol. 2007;22:957-66 pubmed..Following is an overview of the challenges and opportunities, current and future therapeutic strategies, and progress to date in clinical trials in spinal muscular atrophy. ..
- Logan M, Steele M, Van Raay T, Vetter M. Identification of shared transcriptional targets for the proneural bHLH factors Xath5 and XNeuroD. Dev Biol. 2005;285:570-83 pubmed..Therefore, we have identified a set of genes that can be regulated by multiple ato-related bHLH factors and may function as critical effectors of proneural bHLH-mediated differentiation. ..
- Loewen J, Barker Haliski M, Dahle E, White H, Wilcox K. Neuronal Injury, Gliosis, and Glial Proliferation in Two Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016;75:366-78 pubmed publisher..In contrast, TMEV-injected mice had astrogliosis, microgliosis, neuron death, and astrocyte and microglial proliferation. Our results suggest that these 2 animal models might be appropriate for evaluation of distinct therapies for TLE. ..
- Blumenthal D, Salzman K, Digre K, Jensen R, Dunson W, Dalmau J. Early pathologic findings and long-term improvement in anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis. Neurology. 2006;67:146-9 pubmed..Although recovery was thought to be unlikely, treatment of the PNE with corticosteroids and resection of the associated lung cancer resulted in dramatic improvement for 21 months. ..
- Weiss R, Baker T, Cannon D, von Niederhausern A, Dunn D, Matsunami N, et al. A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000125 pubmed publisher..The identification of an age-dependent susceptibility haplotype reinforces the importance of preventing early exposure to tobacco through public health policies. ..
- Gu F, Zhang H, Hyland P, Berndt S, Gapstur S, Wheeler W, et al. Inherited variation in circadian rhythm genes and risks of prostate cancer and three other cancer sites in combined cancer consortia. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:1794-1802 pubmed publisher..These findings support a potential role for circadian rhythm and melatonin pathways in prostate carcinogenesis. Further functional studies are needed to better understand the underlying biologic mechanisms. ..
- Cuenca N, Lopez S, Howes K, Kolb H. The localization of guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins in the mammalian retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39:1243-50 pubmed..The occurrence of GCAP2 in inner retinal neurons is indicative of second-messenger chemical transduction, possibly in metabotropic glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, and nitric oxide-activated neural circuits. ..
- London N, Li D. Robo4-dependent Slit signaling stabilizes the vasculature during pathologic angiogenesis and cytokine storm. Curr Opin Hematol. 2011;18:186-90 pubmed publisher..This effect is achieved by blunting the host vascular response to cytokines. Thus, vascular stabilizing programs should be investigated as potential therapeutics for infectious disease characterized by cytokine storm. ..
- Zhang M, Gruszczynski P, Walewska A, Bulaj G, Olivera B, Yoshikami D. Cooccupancy of the outer vestibule of voltage-gated sodium channels by micro-conotoxin KIIIA and saxitoxin or tetrodotoxin. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:88-97 pubmed publisher..The demonstration that two interacting ligands ("syntoxins") occupy adjacent sites raises the possibility of evolving a much more sophisticated neuropharmacology of VGSCs. ..
- Zone J, Taylor T, Hull C, Schmidt L, Meyer L. IgE basement membrane zone antibodies induce eosinophil infiltration and histological blisters in engrafted human skin on SCID mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1167-74 pubmed..Human skin grafts of control mice and normal mouse skin on the test mice and control mice did not develop any histological abnormalities. IgE antibodies to LABD97 recapitulate the histological inflammatory process seen in BP. ..
- London N, Zhu W, Bozza F, Smith M, Greif D, Sorensen L, et al. Targeting Robo4-dependent Slit signaling to survive the cytokine storm in sepsis and influenza. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:23ra19 pubmed publisher..Thus, enhancing the resilience of the host vascular system to the host's innate immune response may provide a therapeutic strategy for treating multiple infectious agents. ..
- Bodily K, Morrison C, Renden R, Broadie K. A novel member of the Ig superfamily, turtle, is a CNS-specific protein required for coordinated motor control. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3113-25 pubmed..These phenotypes demonstrate that tutl plays an essential role in establishing a nervous system capable of executing coordinated motor output in complex behaviors. ..
- Hack N, Wride M, Charters K, Kater S, Parks T. Developmental changes in the subcellular localization of calretinin. J Neurosci. 2000;20:RC67 pubmed..Because these are highly active neurons with a large number of Ca2+-permeable synaptic AMPA receptors, we hypothesize that localization of CR beneath the plasma membrane is an adaptation to spatially restrict the calcium influxes. ..
- Fergestad T, Davis W, Broadie K. The stoned proteins regulate synaptic vesicle recycling in the presynaptic terminal. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5847-60 pubmed..These results suggest that the stoned proteins are essential for the recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane and are required for the proper sorting of synaptotagmin during endocytosis. ..
- Gaufo G, Thomas K, Capecchi M. Hox3 genes coordinate mechanisms of genetic suppression and activation in the generation of branchial and somatic motoneurons. Development. 2003;130:5191-201 pubmed
- Fujimoto E, Stevenson T, Chien C, Bonkowsky J. Identification of a dopaminergic enhancer indicates complexity in vertebrate dopamine neuron phenotype specification. Dev Biol. 2011;352:393-404 pubmed publisher..We conclude that regulation of dopaminergic neuron phenotype in vertebrates is regulated by dispersed regulatory elements. ..
- Viskochil D, Cawthon R, O Connell P, Xu G, Stevens J, Culver M, et al. The gene encoding the oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein is embedded within the neurofibromatosis type 1 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:906-12 pubmed..Whether altered expression of OMGP might play a role in the clinical heterogeneity of NF1 is as yet unclear. ..
- Zhang Y, Bailey A, Matthies H, Renden R, Smith M, Speese S, et al. Drosophila fragile X-related gene regulates the MAP1B homolog Futsch to control synaptic structure and function. Cell. 2001;107:591-603 pubmed..dfxr futsch double mutants restore normal synaptic structure and function. We propose that dFXR acts as a translational repressor of Futsch to regulate microtubule-dependent synaptic growth and function. ..
- Park K, Morrison C, Sorensen L, Jones C, Rao Y, Chien C, et al. Robo4 is a vascular-specific receptor that inhibits endothelial migration. Dev Biol. 2003;261:251-67 pubmed..These data demonstrate that Robo4 is a bona fide member of the Robo family and may provide a repulsive cue to migrating endothelial cells during vascular development. ..
- Hobson R, Liu Q, Watanabe S, Jorgensen E. Complexin maintains vesicles in the primed state in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2011;21:106-13 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that the main function of complexin is to maintain the docked state both by inhibiting fusion and by promoting priming. ..
- Chen C. Recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;514:101-7 pubmed..This interaction imparts a negative feedback loop at the receptor level and may play an important role in light adaptation and in recovery. ..
- Wu S, Wu Y, Capecchi M. Motoneurons and oligodendrocytes are sequentially generated from neural stem cells but do not appear to share common lineage-restricted progenitors in vivo. Development. 2006;133:581-90 pubmed..The data presented herein supports a sequential model in which motoneuron and oligodendrocyte precursors are sequentially generated in vivo from neuroepithelial stem cells, but do not share a common lineage-restricted progenitor. ..
- Li N, Florio S, Pettenati M, Rao P, Beavo J, Baehr W. Characterization of human and mouse rod cGMP phosphodiesterase delta subunit (PDE6D) and chromosomal localization of the human gene. Genomics. 1998;49:76-82 pubmed..The human PDE delta gene (locus designation PDE6D) was localized to the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q35-q36) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. By synteny, the mouse PDE delta gene is predicted to reside on chromosome 1. ..
- Skradski S, Clark A, Jiang H, White H, Fu Y, Ptacek L. A novel gene causing a mendelian audiogenic mouse epilepsy. Neuron. 2001;31:537-44 pubmed..Study of the MASS1 protein will lead to new insights into regulation of neuronal excitability and a new pathway through which dysfunction can lead to epilepsy. ..
- Singh N, Otto J, Dahle E, Pappas C, Leslie J, Vilaythong A, et al. Mouse models of human KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 mutations for benign familial neonatal convulsions show seizures and neuronal plasticity without synaptic reorganization. J Physiol. 2008;586:3405-23 pubmed publisher..The absence of seizure-induced pathology found in these epileptic mouse models parallels the benign neurodevelopmental cognitive profile exhibited by the majority of BFNC patients. ..
- Huang A, Yu D, Davis L, Sul J, Tsetsos F, Ramensky V, et al. Rare Copy Number Variants in NRXN1 and CNTN6 Increase Risk for Tourette Syndrome. Neuron. 2017;94:1101-1111.e7 pubmed publisher..3, 95% CI [2.6-156.2]; CNTN6 duplications, OR = 10.1, 95% CI [2.3-45.4]). Approximately 1% of TS cases carry one of these CNVs, indicating that rare structural variation contributes significantly to the genetic architecture of TS. ..
- Scoles D, Pflieger L, Thai K, Hansen S, Dansithong W, Pulst S. ETS1 regulates the expression of ATXN2. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:5048-65 pubmed publisher..Our study broadens the understanding on the transcriptional control of ATXN2 and reveals specific regulatory features of the ATXN2 promoter that can be exploited therapeutically. ..
- Fergestad T, Broadie K. Interaction of stoned and synaptotagmin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. J Neurosci. 2001;21:1218-27 pubmed..We conclude that Stoned proteins control synaptic transmission strength by mediating the retrieval of Synaptotagmin I from the plasma membrane. ..
- Harris T, Hartwieg E, Horvitz H, Jorgensen E. Mutations in synaptojanin disrupt synaptic vesicle recycling. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:589-600 pubmed..Luthi, W.T. Kim, K. Takei, L. Daniell, Y. Nemoto, S.B. Shears, R.A. Flavell, D.A. McCormick, and P. De Camilli. 1999. Cell. 99:179-188), and further demonstrate that synaptojanin facilitates multiple steps of synaptic vesicle recycling. ..
- Jahromi M, Putnam A, Druzgal C, Wright J, Spraker Perlman H, Kinsey M, et al. Molecular inversion probe analysis detects novel copy number alterations in Ewing sarcoma. Cancer Genet. 2012;205:391-404 pubmed publisher..CNAs detected by microarray correlate with outcome and may be useful for risk stratification in future clinical trials. ..
- Karlstrom R, Wilder L, Bastiani M. Lachesin: an immunoglobulin superfamily protein whose expression correlates with neurogenesis in grasshopper embryos. Development. 1993;118:509-22 pubmed..Lachesin is also similar to several other vertebrate immunoglobulin superfamily proteins (TAG-1, F11, L1 and NgCAM) known to function in neurite outgrowth and other cell surface recognition events. ..
- Vargas G, Lucero M. A method for maintaining odor-responsive adult rat olfactory receptor neurons in short-term culture. Chem Senses. 1999;24:211-6 pubmed..The cultured neurons exhibit typical voltage-gated currents and are responsive to application of odorants. ..
- Gong W, Golic K. Loss of Hsp70 in Drosophila is pleiotropic, with effects on thermotolerance, recovery from heat shock and neurodegeneration. Genetics. 2006;172:275-86 pubmed..Lack of Hsp70 also confers enhanced sensitivity to a temperature-sensitive lethal mutation and to the neurodegenerative effects produced by expression of a human polyglutamine disease protein. ..
- Gahring L, Persiyanov K, Rogers S. Neuronal and astrocyte expression of nicotinic receptor subunit beta4 in the adult mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:322-33 pubmed
- Broadie K. Forward and reverse genetic approaches to synaptogenesis. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:128-38 pubmed..Of particular interest are recent advances using mouse reverse genetics and Drosophila forward genetics. ..
- Swoboda K, Prior T, Scott C, McNaught T, Wride M, Reyna S, et al. Natural history of denervation in SMA: relation to age, SMN2 copy number, and function. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:704-12 pubmed..These data highlight the potential value of such measures in increasing our understanding of pathophysiological factors involved in denervation in SMA. ..
- Featherstone D, Davis W, Dubreuil R, Broadie K. Drosophila alpha- and beta-spectrin mutations disrupt presynaptic neurotransmitter release. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4215-24 pubmed
- Singh N, Pappas C, Dahle E, Claes L, Pruess T, De Jonghe P, et al. A role of SCN9A in human epilepsies, as a cause of febrile seizures and as a potential modifier of Dravet syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000649 pubmed publisher..This study provides evidence for a role of SCN9A in human epilepsies, both as a cause of FS and as a partner with SCN1A mutations. ..
- Light A, Hughen R, Zhang J, Rainier J, Liu Z, Lee J. Dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating skeletal muscle respond to physiological combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate mediated by ASIC, P2X, and TRPV1. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1184-201 pubmed publisher..We further conclude that the adequate stimuli for muscle metaboreceptors and nociceptors are combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate. ..
- Yang Z, Chen Y, Lillo C, Chien J, Yu Z, Michaelides M, et al. Mutant prominin 1 found in patients with macular degeneration disrupts photoreceptor disk morphogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2908-16 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our results identify what we believe to be a novel complex involved in photoreceptor disk morphogenesis and indicate a possible role for PROM1 and PCDH21 in macular degeneration. ..
- Zhang M, McArthur J, Azam L, Bulaj G, Olivera B, French R, et al. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions between tetrodotoxin and mu-conotoxin in blocking voltage-gated sodium channels. Channels (Austin). 2009;3:32-8 pubmed..The results lead us to postulate that in the bi-liganded NaV complex, TTX is bound between the peptide and the selectivity filter. These observations refine our view of Site 1 and open new possibilities in NaV pharmacology. ..
- Fergestad T, Wu M, Schulze K, Lloyd T, Bellen H, Broadie K. Targeted mutations in the syntaxin H3 domain specifically disrupt SNARE complex function in synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9142-50 pubmed..These data suggest that the same residues required for syntaxin-mediated calcium channel inhibition are required for the generation of fusion-competent vesicles in a neuronal-specific mechanism acting at synapses. ..
- Wang G, Scott S. An early broad competence of motoneurons to express ER81 is later sculpted by the periphery. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9789-98 pubmed
- Matilla A, Gorbea C, Einum D, Townsend J, Michalik A, Van Broeckhoven C, et al. Association of ataxin-7 with the proteasome subunit S4 of the 19S regulatory complex. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2821-31 pubmed..These results suggest a role for S4 and ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal proteolysis in the molecular pathogenesis of SCA7. ..
- Gaddam D, Stevens N, Hollien J. Comparison of mRNA localization and regulation during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Drosophila cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:14-20 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that while translation is generally attenuated during ER stress, continued translation of certain messages can protect them from degradation by RIDD. ..
- Schober M, Block B, Requena D, Hale M, Lane R. Developmental traumatic brain injury decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor expression late after injury. Metab Brain Dis. 2012;27:167-73 pubmed publisher..Such findings, however, suggest that meticulous attention to the experimental paradigm, and possible inclusion of a Naïve group, is warranted in studies of BDNF expression in the developing brain after TBI. ..
- Park E, Ogden L, Talbot A, Evans S, Cai C, Black B, et al. Required, tissue-specific roles for Fgf8 in outflow tract formation and remodeling. Development. 2006;133:2419-33 pubmed..These findings provide a novel insight into how the formation and remodeling of primary and anterior heart field-derived structures rely on Fgf8 signals from discrete temporospatial domains. ..
- Barker Haliski M, Oldenburger K, Keefe K. Disruption of subcellular Arc/Arg 3.1 mRNA expression in striatal efferent neurons following partial monoamine loss induced by methamphetamine. J Neurochem. 2012;123:845-55 pubmed publisher..Such changes potentially underlie striatally based learning deficits associated with METH-induced neurotoxicity. ..
- Mullen R, Buck C, Smith A. NeuN, a neuronal specific nuclear protein in vertebrates. Development. 1992;116:201-11 pubmed..This mAb and the protein recognized by it serve as an excellent marker for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems in both the embryo and adult, and the protein may be important in the determination of neuronal phenotype. ..
- Zhang Y, Broadie K. Cloning, mapping and tissue-specific expression of Drosophila clathrin-associated protein AP50 gene. Gene. 1999;233:171-9 pubmed..The two other Drosophila members of the medium-chain family of clathrin-associated protein complexes, AP47 and mu3, have also been identified and mapped to 85D20-D27 and 6E1-E4, respectively. ..
- Palfreyman M, Jorgensen E. Unc13 Aligns SNAREs and Superprimes Synaptic Vesicles. Neuron. 2017;95:473-475 pubmed publisher..In a second manuscript, Michelassi et al. (2017) identify a previously unknown autoinhibited state for Unc13 mediated by the tandem C1 and C2 domains. ..
- Hutson L, Jurynec M, Yeo S, Okamoto H, Chien C. Two divergent slit1 genes in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:358-69 pubmed..Their expression patterns, particularly that of slit1a, suggest that Slit proteins may have roles in tissue morphogenesis in addition to their established roles in axon guidance and cell migration. ..
- Daberkow D, Riedy M, Kesner R, Keefe K. Arc mRNA induction in striatal efferent neurons associated with response learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:228-41 pubmed
- Huynh D, Maalouf M, Silva A, Schweizer F, Pulst S. Dissociated fear and spatial learning in mice with deficiency of ataxin-2. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6235 pubmed publisher..This animal model may be useful for the study of anxiety disorders and should encourage studies of anxiety in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). ..
- Li B, Vachali P, Frederick J, Bernstein P. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2541-9 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues for exploring its roles in human macular physiology and disease. ..
- Zukor K, Kent D, Odelberg S. Meningeal cells and glia establish a permissive environment for axon regeneration after spinal cord injury in newts. Neural Dev. 2011;6:1 pubmed publisher..Given that these cell types interact to form inhibitory barriers in mammals, identifying the mechanisms underlying their permissive behaviors in the newt will provide new insights for improving spinal cord regeneration in mammals. ..
- Rawlins M, Owen W, Roberts W. Performance characteristics of four automated natriuretic peptide assays. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005;123:439-45 pubmed..9%, 92.9%, 92.4%, and 84.3% for the Access 2, ADVIA Centaur, AxSYM, and E170, respectively. All automated natriuretic peptide methods showed acceptable analytic performance. ..
- Curtin K, Samowitz W, Wolff R, Herrick J, Caan B, Slattery M. Somatic alterations, metabolizing genes and smoking in rectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:158-64 pubmed publisher..ETS may increase risk of KRAS2 mutations; association with TP53 mutations and ETS may be influenced by NAT2. ..
- Campbell D, Stringham S, Timm A, Xiao T, Law M, Baier H, et al. Slit1a inhibits retinal ganglion cell arborization and synaptogenesis via Robo2-dependent and -independent pathways. Neuron. 2007;55:231-45 pubmed..Unlike previous PNS studies showing that Slits promote branching, our results show that Slits inhibit arborization and synaptogenesis in the CNS. ..
- Huang W, Xing W, Ryskamp D, Punzo C, Krizaj D. Localization and phenotype-specific expression of ryanodine calcium release channels in C57BL6 and DBA/2J mouse strains. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:700-9 pubmed publisher..While RyR1 signals can be regulated in a strain-specific manner, our data also suggest that RyR1 transcription is induced by early glial activation and/or elevation in intraocular pressure. ..
- Hardy M, Ross L, Chien C. Focal gene misexpression in zebrafish embryos induced by local heat shock using a modified soldering iron. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3071-6 pubmed..We have validated this method in three stable transgenic lines and at three developmental timepoints. Local heat shock is a fast, easy, and inexpensive method for gene misexpression. ..